FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Douglas Hofstadter
Douglas R. Hofstadter

Born: February 15, 1945 (1945-02-15) (age 62)
New York, New York
Occupation: Professor of cognitive science
Nationality: United States
Writing period: 1979-Present
Subjects: Cognitive science, mathematics, translation

Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945 in New York, New York) is an American academic. He is best known for his book Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid (abbreviated as GEB) which was published in 1979, and won the 1980 Pulitzer Prize for general non-fiction. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 484 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (668 × 828 pixel, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... This article is about work. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid: A metaphorical fugue on minds and machines in the spirit of Lewis Carroll (commonly GEB) is a Pulitzer Prize (1980)-winning book by Douglas Hofstadter, published in 1979 by Basic Books. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...

Contents

Biography

The son of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Robert Hofstadter, he graduated in Mathematics at Stanford University in 1965 and received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Oregon in 1975. He is a College Professor of Cognitive Science and Computer Science; Adjunct Professor of History and Philosophy of Science, Philosophy, Comparative Literature, and Psychology at Indiana University, where he directs the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition. [1] The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ... Robert Hofstadter (February 5, 1915 - November 17, 1990) was the winner of the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. ... Indiana University is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ...


Hofstadter is multilingual. In addition to English, his mother tongue, he also speaks Italian and French fluently. He spent several months in Sweden in the mid-1960s, where he learned some Swedish, and has also studied Spanish, German, Dutch, Mandarin, and Polish[2]. He also speaks a "smattering" of Russian[3], and has published a verse translation of Pushkin's Eugene Onegin. In Le Ton beau de Marot (written in memory of his late wife Carol) he jokingly describes himself as "pilingual" (conversant in 3.14159... languages) and an "oligoglot" (speaker of few languages).-1... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Book cover Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language (ISBN 0-465-08645-4), published by Basic Books in 1997, is a book by Douglas Hofstadter in which he explores the meaning, strengths, failings, and beauty of translation. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ...


His interests include music, themes of the mind, creativity, consciousness, self-reference, translation, and mathematical games. Hofstadter is also a vegetarian.[4] For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Look up Creativity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... A self-reference occurs when an object refers to itself. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mathematical games shares topics with recreational mathematics and discusses the mathematics of games. ...


Work

At Indiana University he co-authored with Melanie Mitchell and others, a cognitive model of "high-level perception", Copycat, and several other models of analogy making and cognition. The Copycat project has since grown into Metacat and Magnificat and has been worked on by Hofstadter and several assistants. An overview of Metacat can be found here. Other new models based on the Copycat 'FARGitecture' include Musicat and SeqSee, which model cognition and analogy in musical and number sequence domains respectively. Melanie Mitchell is a scientist who has worked at the Santa Fe Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. ... The term cognitive model can have basically two meanings. ... Copycat is a model of analogy making and human cognition based on the concept of the parallel terraced scan, developed by Douglas Hofstadter, Melanie Mitchell, and others at the at Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University at Bloomington. ... Analogy is both the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When Martin Gardner retired from writing his Mathematical Games column for Scientific American magazine, Hofstadter succeeded him with a column entitled Metamagical Themas (an anagram of "Mathematical Games"). Hofstadter also invented the concept of Reviews of This Book, a book containing nothing but cross-referenced reviews of itself (the idea was introduced in Metamagical Themas): Martin Gardner (b. ... Mathematical games include many topics which are a part of recreational mathematics, but can also cover topics such as the mathematics of games, and playing games with mathematics. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Metamagical Themas is an eclectic collection of articles written for Scientific American during the early 1980s by Douglas Hofstadter, and published together as a book in 1985 by Basic Books (ISBN 0465045669) . The subject matter of the articles is loosely woven about themes in philosophy, creativity, artificial intelligence and important...

[It] is just a fantasy of mine. I would love to see a book consisting of nothing but a collection of reviews of it that appeared (after its publication, of course) in major newspapers and magazines. It sounds paradoxical, but it could be arranged with a lot of planning and hard work. First, a group of major journals would all have to agree to run reviews of the book by the various contributors to the book. Then all the reviewers would begin writing. But they would have to mail off their various drafts to all the other reviewers very regularly so that all the reviews could evolve together, and thus eventually reach a stable state of a kind known in physics as a "Hartree-Fock self-consistent solution". Then the book could be published, after which its reviews would come out in their respective journals, as per arrangement. In computational physics and computational chemistry, the Hartree-Fock (HF) or self-consistent field (SCF) calculation scheme is a self-consistent iterative variational procedure to calculate the Slater determinant (or the molecular orbitals which it is made of) for which the expectation value of the electronic molecular Hamiltonian is minimum. ...

Douglas Hofstadter, Metamagical Themas

Hofstadter has said that he feels "uncomfortable with the nerd culture that centers on computers."[4] He admits that "a large fraction [of his audience] seems to be those who are fascinated by technology,"[4] but when it was suggested that his work "has inspired many students to begin careers in computing and artificial intelligence" he replied that he has "no interest in computers."[5] In that interview he pointed to a seminar, AI: Hope and Hype, where he took a "skeptical look at a number of highly-touted AI projects and overall approaches". For example, upon the defeat of Kasparov by Deep Blue, he commented that "It was a watershed event, but it doesn't have to do with computers becoming intelligent." [1] Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, and former World Chess Champion. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1988 Dutch director Piet Hoenderdos created a docudrama about Hofstadter and his ideas entitled "Victim of the Brain" [2].


Published works

Books

The books published by Hofstadter are (the ISBNs refer to paperback editions, where available):

Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid: A metaphorical fugue on minds and machines in the spirit of Lewis Carroll (commonly GEB) is a Pulitzer Prize (1980)-winning book by Douglas Hofstadter, published in 1979 by Basic Books. ... The Minds I: Fantasies and reflections on self and soul (ISBN 0-553-34584-2) is a 1981 book composed and arranged by Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett. ... Metamagical Themas is an eclectic collection of articles written for Scientific American during the early 1980s by Douglas Hofstadter, and published together as a book in 1985 by Basic Books (ISBN 0465045669) . The subject matter of the articles is loosely woven about themes in philosophy, creativity, artificial intelligence and important... Book cover Le Ton beau de Marot: In Praise of the Music of Language (ISBN 0-465-08645-4), published by Basic Books in 1997, is a book by Douglas Hofstadter in which he explores the meaning, strengths, failings, and beauty of translation. ... Eugene Onegin (Russian: Евгений Онегин, BGN/PCGN: Yevgeniy Onegin) is a novel in verse written by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... л I Am a Strange Loop is a 2007 book by Douglas Hofstadter, in which he examines in depth the concept of a strange loop, originally developed in his 1979 book Gödel, Escher, Bach. ...

Papers

Hofstadter wrote, among many others, the following papers:

  • "Energy levels and wave functions of Bloch electrons in rational and irrational magnetic fields", Phys. Rev. B 14 (1976) 2239.
    • Written while he was at the University of Oregon, this paper was enormously influential in directing further research. Hofstadter predicted that the allowed energy level values of an electron in this crystal lattice, as a function of a magnetic field applied to the system, formed a fractal set. That is, the distribution of energy levels for large scale changes in the applied magnetic field repeat patterns seen in the small scale structure. This fractal structure is generally known as "Hofstadter's butterfly", and has recently been confirmed in transport measurements in two-dimensional electron systems with a superimposed nano-fabricated lattice.
  • "A non-deterministic approach to analogy, involving the Ising model of ferromagnetism", in E. Caianiello (ed.), The Physics of Cognitive Processes. Teaneck, NJ: World Scientific, 1987.
  • "Speechstuff and thoughtstuff: Musings on the resonances created by words and phrases via the subliminal perception of their buried parts", in Sture Allen (ed.), Of Thoughts and Words: The Relation between Language and Mind. Proceedings of the Nobel Symposium 92, London/New Jersey: World Scientific Publ., 1995, 217-267.
  • "On seeing A's and seeing As.", Stanford Humanities Review 4,2 (1995) pp. 109-121.
  • "Analogy as the Core of Cognition", in Dedre Gentner, Keith Holyoak, and Boicho Kokinov (eds.) The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press/Bradford Book, 2001, pp. 499-538.
  • Hofstadter also wrote over 50 papers that were published through the Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition; see [3].

The BLOCH ELECTRON is not a new type of particle other than what we know, or better, visualize about electrons. ... The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, the space surrounding moving electric charges, changing electric fields and magnetic dipoles contains a magnetic field. ... The boundary of the Mandelbrot set is a famous example of a fractal. ... Hofstadters Butterfly refers to a fractal discovered by Douglas Hofstadter in his paper Energy levels and wavefunctions of Bloch electrons in rational and irrational magnetic fields. ... Dedre Gentner is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. ... Keith J. Holyoak is a leading researcher in cognitive psychology and cognitive science, working on human thinking and reasoning. ... Boicho Kokinov received his PhD at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia. ...

Involvement in other books

Hofstadter wrote forewords for or edited the following books:

  • The Mind's I (co-edited with Daniel Dennett) (ISBN 0-465-03091-2 and ISBN 0-553-01412-9)
  • Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges. (Preface)
  • Gödel's Proof (2002 revised edition) by Ernest Nagel and James R. Newman, edited by Hofstadter (ISBN 0-8147-5816-9). Hofstadter claimed the book (originally published in 1958) was highly influential to his thinking during his early years.
  • Who invented the computer? The legal battle that changed computing history. (2003) by Alice Rowe Burks.
  • Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker by Christof Teuscher (Editor)
  • Jason Salavon: Brainstem Still Life (ISBN 981-05-1662-2) 2004 (Introduction)
  • Masters of Deception: Escher, Dali & the Artists of Optical Illusion 2004 by Al Seckel. Hofstadter wrote the foreword.
  • King of Infinite Space: Donald Coxeter, the Man Who Saved Geometry by Siobhan Roberts, Walker and Company, 2006. Hofstadter wrote the foreword.

The Minds I: Fantasies and reflections on self and soul (ISBN 0-553-34584-2) is a 1981 book composed and arranged by Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Ernest Nagel (November 16, 1901, Prague, Austro-Hungarian Empire -- September 22, 1985, New York City) was among the most important philosophers of science of his time. ... James Roy Newman was a mathematician and mathematical historian. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Christof Teuscher obtained a M.Sc. ... Jason Salavon (born 1970) is an American contemporary artist. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Miscellaneous

  • The film Victim of the Brain was based on The Mind's I (see above).
  • He published an audio CD with piano music composed by himself and performed by Jane Jackson, Brian Jones, Dafna Barenboim, Gitanjali Mathur and himself.

Virus of the Brain is a film based on the ideas of Douglas Hofstadter and co-directed by Daniel Dennett. ... The Minds I: Fantasies and reflections on self and soul (ISBN 0-553-34584-2) is a 1981 book composed and arranged by Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Dennett. ... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ...

Students

Some of Hofstadter's former students have also become famous:

David John Chalmers (born April 20, 1966) is a philosopher in the area of philosophy of mind. ... Melanie Mitchell is a scientist who has worked at the Santa Fe Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. ... Copycat is a model of analogy making and human cognition based on the concept of the parallel terraced scan, developed by Douglas Hofstadter, Melanie Mitchell, and others at the at Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University at Bloomington. ...

Hofstadter's Law

Main article: Hofstadter's law

In Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hofstadter states the oft-cited Hofstadter's Law, a self-referencing adage, which reads as follows: Hofstadters Law is a self-referencing time-related adage, coined by Douglas Hofstadter and named by himself. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

It always takes longer than you expect, even when you take into account Hofstadter's Law.

Trivia

  • In 2010: Odyssey Two, Arthur C. Clarke's first sequel to 2001: A Space Odyssey, HAL 9000 is caught in a "Hofstadter-Moebius loop". This is most likely a reference to Hofstadter.
  • Hofstadter is related by marriage to the evolutionary theorist Stephen Jay Gould: Hofstadter's paternal aunt was married to Gould's maternal uncle.
  • Hofstadter's Fluid Concepts & Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought was the first book sold by Amazon.com. [6]
  • In Mark Z. Danielewski's novel House of Leaves Karen Green interviews Hofstadter regarding his opinions about The Navidson Record. The "compiler" of the book, Johnny, claims to have contacted Hofstadter "who made it very clear he'd never heard of Will Navidson, Karen Green or the house...".
  • In the 2007-04-01 New York Times Magazine, Hofstadter says of his Wikipedia entry: "I have no interest in computers. The entry is filled with inaccuracies, and it kind of depresses me."[5]

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... 2010: Odyssey Two, is a science fiction novel by Arthur C. Clarke (January 1982) and also a motion picture (1984) by Peter Hyams entitled simply 2010, or sometimes 2010: The Year We Make Contact. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same name. ... HAL 9000 (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) is a fictional character in Arthur C. Clarkes Space Odyssey saga. ... August Ferdinand Möbius. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Amazon. ... Mark Danielewski Mark Z. Danielewski is an American author, born in March 5, 1966. ... House of Leaves is the debut novel by the American author writer Mark Z. Danielewski, published by Pantheon Books (ISBN 0-375-70376-4). ... House of Leaves House of Leaves (trade paperback ISBN 0375703764) was the debut novel by writer Mark Z. Danielewski. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... In the platonia dilemma introduced in Douglas Hofstadters book Metamagical Themas, an eccentric trillionaire gathers 20 people together, and tells them that if one and only one of them sends him a telegram (reverse charges) by noon the next day, that person will receive a billion dollars. ... Copycat is a model of analogy making and human cognition based on the concept of the parallel terraced scan, developed by Douglas Hofstadter, Melanie Mitchell, and others at the at Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University at Bloomington. ... Copper, Silver, Gold, perhaps his most famous book Egbert B. Gebstadter is a fictional author who appears in the indexes (and sometimes in the text) of books by Douglas R. Hofstadter. ... BLooP and FLooP are simple programming languages designed by Douglas Hofstadter to illustrate a point in his book Gödel, Escher, Bach. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.cogs.indiana.edu/people/homepages/hofstadter.html
  2. ^ Hofstadter, Douglas R. Le Ton Beau de Marot. New York: Basic Books, 1997, pp. 16-17.
  3. ^ Hofstadter, Douglas R. Le Ton Beau de Marot. New York: Basic Books, 1997, p. 627
  4. ^ a b c Wired interview
  5. ^ a b New York Times Magazine, 2007-04-01
  6. ^ Amazon.com's company timeline

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Douglas Hofstadter
Persondata
NAME Hofstadter, Douglas Richard
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hofstadter, Douglas
SHORT DESCRIPTION American academic and author
DATE OF BIRTH February 15, 1945 (1945-02-15) (age 62)
PLACE OF BIRTH New York City, New York
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Douglas Hofstadter (157 words)
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is probably best known for his 1980 Pulitzer Prize-winning book Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid.
Hofstadter received his Ph.D in Physics from the University of Oregon in 1975.
Douglas is bilingual (English and French), having spent his youth in Geneva.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m