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Encyclopedia > Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin

Dorothy Hodgkin with a ball-stick representation of insulin, courtesy of Pugwash Conferences on Science & World Affairs.
Born May 12, 1910
Flag of Egypt - Cairo, Egypt
Died July 29, 1994 (aged 84)
Residence Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Field Medical scientist
Alma mater Chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford
University of Cambridge
Academic advisor   John Desmond Bernal
Known for British founder of protein crystallography
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1964), She was a recipient of the Order of Merit, a Fellow of the Royal Society and was Chancellor of Bristol University from 1970 to 1988.

Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin, OM , FRS (12 May 191029 July 1994) was a British founder of protein crystallography. Image File history File links Old_Dorothy_Hodgkin_from_Pugwash_site. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This be the Danster with a few new trickoms ahahahahahahahahahahahahah Hace fun life life // January 1 - NAFTA goes into effect. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Full name Somerville College Motto Donec rursus impleat orbem Named after Mary Somerville Previous Names Somerville Hall Established 1879 Sister College Girton College Principal Dame Fiona Caldicott JCR President Simon Bruegger MCR President Allen Middlebro Location Woodstock Road, Oxford Undergraduates 396 Graduates 88 Homepage Boat Club Somerville College is one... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... John Desmond Bernal (May 10, 1901—September 15, 1971) was an Irish-born scientist (from Nenagh, County Tipperary), known for pioneering X-ray crystallography. ... X-ray crystallography or single-crystal X-ray diffraction is an analytical technique which uses the diffraction pattern produced by bombarding a single crystal with X-rays to solve the crystal structure. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... The University of Bristol was founded in 1876 as the University College, Bristol. ... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This be the Danster with a few new trickoms ahahahahahahahahahahahahah Hace fun life life // January 1 - NAFTA goes into effect. ... X-ray crystallography or single-crystal X-ray diffraction is an analytical technique which uses the diffraction pattern produced by bombarding a single crystal with X-rays to solve the crystal structure. ...


She pioneered the technique of X-ray crystallography, a method used to determine the three dimensional structures of biomolecules. Among her most influential discoveries are the determination of the structure of penicillin, insulin, and vitamin B12 for which she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1969, after 35 years of work, Hodgkin was able to decipher the structure of insulin. She is regarded as one of the foremost scientists in the field of X-Ray crystallography studies of natural molecules. Besides her extraordinary scientific abilities, she was unassuming, very communicative, and passionate about social inequalities and peace. X-ray crystallography, also known as single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is the oldest and most common crystallographic method for determining the structure of molecules. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ...

Contents

Timeline of her discoveries

Hodgkin determined the three-dimensional structures of the following biomolecules:

The list is not exhaustive, it rather highlights major milestones. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Ferritin is a globular protein found mainly in the liver, which can store about 4500 iron (Fe3+)ions in a hollow protein shell made of 24 subunits. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Early years

She was born Dorothy Mary Crowfoot in May 12, 1910 in Cairo, Egypt, to John Crowfoot, excavator and scholar of classics, and Grace Mary Crowfoot née Hood. For the first four years of her life she lived as an English expatriate in Asia Minor, returning to England only a few months each year. She spent the period of World War I in the UK under the care of relatives and friends, but separated from her parents. After the war, her mother decided to stay home in England and educate her children, a period that Hodgkin later described as the happiest in her life. Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


In 1921, she entered the Sir John Leman Grammar School in Beccles, Suffolk. She traveled abroad frequently to visit her parents in Cairo and Khartoum. Both her father and her mother had a strong influence with their Puritan ethic of selflessness and service to humanity which reverberated in her later achievements. Sir John Leman (died 1632) was a tradesman from Beccles, England who became Lord Mayor of London. ... Map sources for Beccles at grid reference TM4290 Beccles is a market town in Suffolk within The Broads National Park. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Nickname: Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates: Government  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban Over 1 Million For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ...


Education and research

She developed a passion for chemistry from a young age, and her mother fostered her interest in science in general. Her excellent early education prepared her well for university. Aged 18, she started studying chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford, then one of the Oxford University colleges for women only. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Full name Somerville College Motto Donec rursus impleat orbem Named after Mary Somerville Previous Names Somerville Hall Established 1879 Sister College Girton College Principal Dame Fiona Caldicott JCR President Simon Bruegger MCR President Allen Middlebro Location Woodstock Road, Oxford Undergraduates 396 Graduates 88 Homepage Boat Club Somerville College is one... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


She also studied at Cambridge University under the tutelage of John Desmond Bernal, where she became aware of the potential of X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of proteins. The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... John Desmond Bernal (May 10, 1901—September 15, 1971) was an Irish-born scientist (from Nenagh, County Tipperary), known for pioneering X-ray crystallography. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


In 1934, she moved back to Oxford and two years later, in 1936, she became a research fellow at Somerville College, Oxford, a post which she held until 1977. In 1960 she was appointed Wolfson Research Professor at the Royal Society. The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...


Insulin structure

Insulin was one of her most extraordinary research projects. It began in 1934 when she was offered a small sample of crystalline insulin by Robert Robinson. The hormone captured her imagination because of the intricate and wide-ranging effect it has in the body. However, at this stage X-ray crystallography had not been developed far enough to cope with the complexity of the insulin molecule. She and others spent many years improving the technique. Larger and more complex molecules were being tackled (see timeline above) until in 1969 - 35 years later - the structure of insulin was finally resolved. But her quest was not finished then. She cooperated with other laboratories active in insulin research, gave advice, and travelled the world giving talks about insulin and its importance for diabetes. She considered solving the structure of insulin her greatest scientific achievement. Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Sir Robert Robinson, (13 September 1886 – 8 February 1975), won the 1947 Nobel Prize in Chemistry [1] for his research on plant dyestuffs (anthocyanins) and alkaloids. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Private life

Hodgkin's scientific mentor J.D. Bernal greatly influenced her life both scientifically and politically. He was a distinguished scientist of great repute in the scientific world, a member of the Communist party, and a faithful supporter of successive Soviet regimes until their invasion of Hungary. She always referred to him as "Sage" and loved and admired him unreservedly; intermittently, they were lovers. The conventional marriages of both Bernal and Hodgkin were far from smooth. John Desmond Bernal (May 10, 1901—September 15, 1971) was an Irish-born scientist (from Nenagh, County Tipperary), known for pioneering X-ray crystallography. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official...


In 1937, Dorothy married Thomas Hodgkin who was also a one-time member of the Communist party, as well as a charming, intelligent, energetic and impulsive suitor. She also loved him and always consulted him concerning important problems and decisions. Dorothy bore quietly the many difficulties of these situations. He later had a varied career as a schoolteacher, worker's educationist, historian and economist. He became an advisor in 1961 to Kwame Nkrumah, President of Ghana, where he remained for extended periods, often visited by her. The couple had three children. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Social activities

Honours

Order of Merit medal of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, displayed in the Royal Society, London.
Order of Merit medal of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, displayed in the Royal Society, London.

Apart from the Nobel Prize, she was a recipient of the Order of Merit, a Fellow of the Royal Society, The Lenin Peace Prize, and was Chancellor of Bristol University from 1970 to 1988. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x934, 96 KB) Summary Order of Merit medal of Dorothy Hodgkin, displayed in the Royal Society, London, 20 April 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (828x934, 96 KB) Summary Order of Merit medal of Dorothy Hodgkin, displayed in the Royal Society, London, 20 April 2004. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... A Chancellor is the head of a university. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ...


References

  • Ferry, Georgina. 1998. Dorothy Hodgkin A Life. Granta Books, London.
  • Dodson, Guy. 2002. Dorothy Mary Hodgkin, OM. Biographical Memoir, The Royal Society, London.
  • Dodson, Guy, Jenny P. Glusker, and David Sayre (eds.). 1981. Structural Studies on Molecules of Biological Interest: A Volume in Honour of Professor Dorothy Hodgkin. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

Obituary notices

  • Dodson, Guy (Structure 2: 891-893, 1994)
  • Glusker, Jenny P. (Protein Science 3: 2465-2469, 1994)
  • Glusker, Jenny P., and Margaret J. Adams (Physics Today 48: 80-81, 1995)
  • Johnson, Louise N. (FRS), and David Phillips (Nature Structural Biology 1: 573-576, 1994)
  • Perutz, Max F. (Quarterly Review of Biophysics 27: 333-337, 1994)
  • Nature 371: 20, 1994.
  • Royal Society of Edinburgh obituary

External links

Awards
Preceded by
Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
1964
Succeeded by
Robert Burns Woodward
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Beaufort
Chancellor of the University of Bristol
1970-1988
Succeeded by
Sir Jeremy Morse

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (926 words)
Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin, OM, FRS (May 12, 1910–July 29, 1994) was a British scientist, born Dorothy Mary Crowfoot in Cairo.
Dorothy was born in 1910 in Cairo, Egypt, to John Hodgkin, excavator and scholar of classics, and Grace Mary Hood.
Insulin was one of Dorothy Hodgkin's extraordinary quests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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