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Encyclopedia > Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Lynde Dix

Born April 4, 1802(1802-04-04)
Hampden, Maine, U.S.
Died July 17, 1887 (aged 85)
Trenton, New Jersey, U.S.
Occupation Social reformer
Parents Joseph Dix
Mary Bigelow

Dorothea Lynde Dix (April 4, 1802July 17, 1887) was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1141x1536, 125 KB) SOURCE: http://lcweb2. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... --69. ... Hampden is a town located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... --69. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...

Contents

Early life

She was born in Hampden, Maine, and grew up in Worcester, Massachusetts and then in her wealthy grandmother's home in Boston. She was the first child of three born to Joseph Dix and Mary Bigelow. Her father was an itinerant Methodist preacher. [1] She struggled to find a career in traditional female occupations: schoolteacher, governess, writer. None of these pursuits satisfied her ambition, and in her mid-thirties she suffered a debilitating breakdown. In hopes of a cure, in 1836 she traveled to England, where she had the good fortune to meet the Rathbone family, who invited her to spend a year as their guest at Greenbank, their ancestral mansion in Liverpool. The Rathbones were Quakers and prominent social reformers, and at Greenbank, Dix met men and women who believed that government should play a direct, active role in social welfare. She was also exposed to the British lunacy reform movement, whose methods involved detailed investigations of madhouses and asylums, the results of which were published in reports to the House of Commons. Hampden is a town located in Penobscot County, Maine. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Worcester County Settled 1673 Incorporated 1684 Government  - Type Council-manager also known as Plan E  - City Manager Michael V. OBrien  - Mayor Konstantina B. Lukes  - City Council Dennis L. Irish Michael C. Perotto Joseph M. Petty Gary Rosen Kathleen... “Boston” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...


Antebellum career

After she returned to America, in 1840-41, Dix conducted a statewide investigation of how her home state of Massachusetts cared for the insane poor. She published the results in a fiery pamphlet, a Memorial, to the state legislature. "I proceed, Gentlemen, briefly to call your attention to the present state of Insane Persons confined within this Commonwealth, in cages, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience." The outcome of her lobbying was a bill to expand the state's mental hospital. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Henceforth, Dix traveled from New Hampshire to Louisiana, documenting the condition of pauper lunatics, publishing memorials to state legislatures, and devoting enormous personal energy to working with committees to draft the appropriations bills needed to build asylums. In 1848, Dorothea Dix visited North Carolina and called for reform in the care of mentally ill patients. In 1849, when the North Carolina State Medical Society was formed, the construction of an institution in the capital, Raleigh, for the care of mentally ill patients was authorized. The hospital, named in honor of Dorothea Dix, opened in 1856.[2] She was instrumental in the founding of the first public mental hospital in Pennsylvania, the Harrisburg State Hospital, and later in establishing its library and reading room in 1853.[3] Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Harrisburg State Hospital in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Dauphin County, on North Cameron and Maclay Streets, was Pennsylvania’s first public facility to house the mentally ill and disabled. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The culmination of her work was legislation to set aside 10,000,000 acres (40,000 km²) of Federal land, with proceeds from its sale distributed to the states to build and maintain asylums. Dix's land bill passed both houses of Congress, but in 1854 President Franklin Pierce vetoed it, arguing that the federal government should not involve itself in social welfare. Stung by the defeat of her land bill, in 1854 and 1855 Dix traveled to England and Europe, where she reconnected with the Rathbones and conducted investigations of Scotland's madhouses that precipitated the Scottish Lunacy Commission. Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Final years

During the Civil War, Dix was appointed Superintendent of Army Nurses. Unfortunately, the qualities that made her a successful crusader—independence, single-minded zeal—did not lend themselves to managing a large organization of nurses. She was gradually relieved of real responsibility and would consider this chapter in her career a failure. However, her even-handed caring for Union and Confederate wounded alike, which may not have endeared her to radical Republicans, assured her memory in the South. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


Her nurses provided what was often the only care available in the field to Confederate wounded. "The surgeon in charge of our camp ... looked after all their wounds, which were often in a most shocking state, particularly among the rebels. Every evening and morning they were dressed." - Georgeanna Woolsey, a Dix nurse. "Many of these were Rebels. I could not pass them by neglected. Though enemies, they were nevertheless helpless, suffering human beings." - Julia Susan Wheelock, a Dix nurse. Over 5000 Confederate wounded were left behind, when Robert E. Lee retreated from Gettysburg, who were then treated by Dix's nurses, like Cornelia Hancock who wrote about what she saw. "There are no words in the English language to express the suffering I witnessed today ..."[4] Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... // This article is about the Confederate general. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Cornelia Hancock (1839 - 1926) was born in New Jersey. ...


See also

The Kirkbride Plan refers to a system of mental asylum design advocated by Philadelphia psychiatrist Thomas Story Kirkbride in the mid-1800s. ...

Further reading

  • Gollaher, David: Voice for the Mad: The Life of Dorothea Dix, (The Free Press, 1995)

References

  1. ^ [http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/dorotheadix.html webster College: Dorothea Dix[
  2. ^ Nineteenth-Century North Carolina.
  3. ^ Historic Asylums article on Harrisburg State Hospital. The Dorothea Dix Museum and Library founded in 1853 is located at the Harrisburg State Hospital.
  4. ^ Hancock, Cornelia (1937) South After Gettysburg: Letters of Cornelia Hancock from the Army of the Potomac, 1863-1865, University of Pennsylvania Press, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized Oct 27, 2006.
  • Bumb, Jenn. "Dorothea Dix." Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society.
  • Brown, Edward M. (1998). The Ambiguous Legacy of Dorothea Lynde Dix. American Psychiatric Association Newsletter, 30(2): 11-12.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dorothea Dix - definition of Dorothea Dix in Encyclopedia (891 words)
Dix was neither a physician nor a psychiatrist, beginning her career as a reformer before the first U.S woman graduated from medical school.
Dix followed this up by persuading Cyrus Butler, a self-made Providence millionaire and "by all reports a skinflint of the first water" to contribute $30,000 to the construction of a new hospital for the insane.
Although Dix had an occasional failure when she ambitiously overreached herself, she was always astute in dealing with the male power brokers across the country.
The Extra Mile - Points of Light Volunteer Pathway (1518 words)
Dorothea Lynde Dix was the oldest of three children born to an itinerant Methodist preacher, Joseph Dix, and his wife, Mary Bigelow Dix.
Although Joseph Dix came from a wealthy Boston family, he was rejected by his parents for his inability to succeed at anything and for marrying a penniless woman of a far lower social class.
Dix took detailed notes, which she used as the basis for her "Memorials." These were carefully written, lengthy reports that she convinced her influential friends to present to legislators.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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