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Encyclopedia > Door
Look up Door in
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Doors
The front door of a house is often decorated to appear inviting.

A door is a panel or barrier, usually hinged, sliding, or electronic, that is used to cover an opening in a wall or partition going into a building or space. A door can be opened to give access and closed more or less securely. The term door is also applied to the opening itself, more properly known as the doorway. Door may refer to : Look up door in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Download high resolution version (316x655, 36 KB)Photo by Quadell File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (316x655, 36 KB)Photo by Quadell File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ...


Doors are nearly universal in buildings of all kinds, allowing passage between the inside and outside, and between internal rooms. When open, they admit ventilation and light. Return inlet (left)Supply outlet (right). ...


The purpose of a door closure is primarily to give occupants of a space privacy and security by regulating access. For this purpose doors are equipped with a variety of fittings ranging from simple latches to locks. Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... Locksmithing began as the science and art of making and defeating locks. ...


The door is used to control the physical atmosphere within a space by enclosing it, excluding air drafts, so that interiors may be more effectively heated or cooled. Doors are significant in preventing the spread of fire. Infiltration is the unintentional or accidential introduction of outside air into a building, typically through cracks in the building envelope and through use of doors for passage. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ...


Doors also have an aesthetic role in creating an impression of what lies beyond. They are also used to screen areas of a building for aesthetic purposes, keeping formal and utility areas separate. They act as a barrier to noise. Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ...


Doors are often symbolically endowed with ritual purposes, and the guarding or receiving of the keys to a door, or being granted access to a door can have special significance. [1] Similarly, doors and doorways frequently appear in metaphorical or allegorical situations, literature and the arts, often as a portent of change. This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


When framed in wood for snug fitting of a door, the doorway consists of two vertical jambs on either side, a lintel or head jamb at the top, and perhaps a threshold at the bottom. When a door has more than one movable panel, one of the panels may be called a leaf.


See door furniture for a discussion of attachments to doors such as doorhandles and doorknobs. Doors are also found in cupboards and other furniture, cages, and vehicles. Door furniture refers to any of the items that are attached to a door or a drawer to enhance its functionality or appearance. ... Categories: Stub | Door furniture ... This article is about the handle. ... Decorative crockery and bibelots in vitré armoire or vitrina A cupboard (IPA: ) is a type of cabinet, often made of wood, used indoors to store household objects such as food and crockery, and protect them from dust and dirt. ... A cage is an enclosure made of mesh, bars or wires, used to confine, contain or protect something or someone. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ...

Contents

Types of doors

A decorated door from the Tibetan Namdroling monastery, southern India.
A decorated door from the Tibetan Namdroling monastery, southern India.

A door may slide along tracks, pivot on hinges or fold.  ©  This image is copyrighted. ...  ©  This image is copyrighted. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... The monks of Namdroling Monastery in 2006. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ...


The door may also slide between two wall panels (pocket door). Pocket doors and the compartments into which they slide at a Zen Buddhist temple in Japan A pocket door is a door that slides along its length and disappears, when open, into a compartment in the adjacent wall. ...


In the case of rotation, the axis is usually vertical, but e.g. for garage doors often horizontal, above the door opening. Sometimes the axis of rotation is, with a special construction, not in the plane of the door, on the other side than that in which the door opens, to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in a train, for the door to the toilet, opening inward. A garage door is a large door on a garage or carport that can either be opened manually or by a garage door opener. ...


Many kinds of doors have specific names, depending on their purpose. The most common variety of door consists of a single rigid panel that fills the doorway, hinged along one side so that it can fold away from the doorway in one direction but not in the other. Many variations on this basic design are possible, such as "double" doors that have two adjacent independent panels hinged on each side of the doorway. A hinge is a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. ...


A trapdoor is a door that is oriented horizontally in a floor or ceiling, often accessed via a ladder. A hardwood floor (parquetry) is a popular feature in many houses. ... This intricate ceiling is part of the Capitol Theatre in Melbourne, Australia, designed by architect Walter Burley Griffin. ... For other uses, see Ladder (disambiguation). ...


A stable door is divided in half horizontally. The top half can be opened to allow the horse to be fed, while the bottom half can be closed to keep the animal inside. Stable doors are also known as dutch doors. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A Dutch door is a door divided horizontally in such a fashion that the bottom half may remain shut while the top half opens. ...


A swing door has special hinges that allow it to open either outwards or inwards, and is usually sprung to keep it closed. Saloon doors are a pair of lightweight swing doors often found in public bars. Saloon doors, also known as cafe doors, often use double action hinges, which will return the door to the center, regardless of which direction it is opened, due to the double action springs in the doors. Saloon doors that only extend from knee-level to chest-level are known as batwing doors.


A blind door is a door with no visible trim or operable components. It is designed to blend with the adjacent wall in all finishes, and visually to be a part of the wall, a disguised door.


An up-and-over door is often used in garages. Instead of hinges it has a mechanism, often counterbalanced or sprung, that allows it to be lifted so that it rests horizontally above the opening. Also known as an overhead door. A standard definition of mechanical equilibrium is: A system is in mechanical equilibrium when the sum of the forces, and torque, on each particle of the system is zero. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A barn door is a door on a barn. It is often/always found on barns, and because of a barn's immense size (often) doors are subsequently big for utility. A barn in southern Ontario, Canada A barn in Wisconsin A barn in Poland Barn redirects here, for other uses, see Barn (disambiguation). ...


A French door, also called a French window, is a door that has multiple windows ("lights") set into it, the full length of the door. Traditional French doors are assembled from individual small pieces of glass and mullions. These doors are also known as true divided lite[sic] French doors. French doors made of double-pane glass (on exterior doors for insulation reasons) may have a decorative grille embedded between the panes, or may also be true divided lite French doors. The decorative grille may also be superimposed on top of single pane of glass in the door. This article is about the material. ... Mullion, Cornwall is also the name of a village in Cornwall off the Lizard. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word meaning thus, so, as such, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized—[sic]—to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been reproduced...


A louver door has fixed or movable wooden fins (often called slats or louvers) which permit open ventilation whilst preserving privacy and preventing the passage of light to the interior. Being relatively weak structures, they are most commonly used for wardrobes and drying rooms, where security is of less importance than good ventilation, although a very similar structure is commonly used to form window shutters. Slats are small aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. ... A louver (or louvre in British English, from French louvert; the open one) is a frame with horizontal and vertical slats, which are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain and sun shine. ... Look up Wardrobe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A window shutter panel is a solid, firm, erect, stable, strong, window covering usually consisting of side stiles, top and bottom rails, and louvers. ...


A flush door is a completely smooth door, having plywood or MDF fixed over a light timber frame, the hollow parts of which are often filled with a cardboard core material. Flush doors are most commonly employed in the interior of a dwelling, although slightly more substantial versions are occasionally used as exterior doors, especially within hotels and other buildings containing many independent dwellings. Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... Medium-density fiberboard output in 2005 Medium-density fiberboard (MDF or MDFB) is an engineered wood product formed by breaking down softwood into wood fibers, often in a defibrator, combining it with wax and resin, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. ...


A moulded door has the same structure as that of flush door. The only difference is that the surface material is a moulded skin made of HDF / MDF. It is commonly used as interior doors.


A ledge and brace door is a door made from multiple vertical planks fixed together by two horizontal planks (the ledges) and kept square by a diagonal plank (the brace).

Mechanism of the sliding door of an elevator
Mechanism of the sliding door of an elevator

A garden door is any door that opens to a garden or backyard. It is often used specifically for double French doors in place of a sliding glass door. In such a configuration, it has the advantage of a very large opening for moving large objects in and out. Download high resolution version (888x2096, 347 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (888x2096, 347 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ...


A pet door (also known as a doggy door or cat flap) is an opening in a door to allow pets to enter and exit without the main door being opened. It may be simply covered by a rubber flap or it may be an actual door hinged on the top that the pet can push through. Pet doors may be mounted in a sliding glass door as a new (permanent or temporary) panel. Pet doors may be unidirectional, only allowing pets to exit. Pet doors may be electronic, only allowing pets with a special electronic tag to enter. This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... A cat flap in action. ...


A wicket door is a normal sized door built into a much larger one, such as the gate of a city or castle.


A bifold door is door unit that has 2 to 4 sections, folding in pairs. The doors can open from either side for one pair, or fold off both sides for two pairs. Wood is the most common material, and doors may also be metal or glass. Bifolds are most commonly made for closets, but may also be used as units between rooms. Fold may refer to: Look up Folding in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wall closet in a residential house in the U.S. It is common for a mirror to be placed on the inside of a closet door. ...


A bypass door is a door unit that has 2 or more sections. The doors can slide from each direction on an overhead track, sliding past each other. They are most commonly used in closets, in order to access one side of the closet at a time. The doors in a bypass unit will overlap slightly, in order not to have a gap between them.


A pocket door is a door that slides on rails, rather than swinging on hinges, and, when opened, slides into an open cavity within a wall. Pocket doors and the compartments into which they slide at a Zen Buddhist temple in Japan A pocket door is a door that slides along its length and disappears, when open, into a compartment in the adjacent wall. ...


A sliding glass door, sometimes called an Arcadia door, is a door made of glass that slides open and sometimes has a screen. Sliding glass doors are common in many houses, particularly as an entrance to the backyard. Such doors are also popular for use for the entrances to commercial structures. In architecture, an Arcadia door is a rectangular, sliding glass door that is mounted next to a similar glass partition and slides in its own plane to align with the partition when opened. ... This article is about the material. ... House at Cúcuta, Colombia A house is a building typically lived in by one or more people. ...


A false door is a wall decoration that looks like a door. In ancient Egyptian architecture, this was a common element in a tomb, the false door representing a gate to the afterlife. They can also be found in the funerary architecture of the desert tribes (e.g., Libyan Ghirza). For at least ten thousand years, the Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations in the world. ...


A revolving door typically consists of three or four doors (wings/leaves) that hang on a center shaft and rotate one way about a vertical axis. Between the point of access and the point of exit the user walks through an airlock. The door may be motorized, or manually people use pushbars. People can walk out and into the building at the same time. Revolving doors are a good air seal from the outside. Also minimize A/C and Heating Costs climate control from the building. This type of door is also often seen as a mark of prestige and glamour for a building and it not unusual for neighbouring buildings to install their own revolving doors when a rival building gets one. For the revolving door syndrome, see Recidivism. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC is an initialism that stands for heating, ventilation and air_conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ... For other uses, see Prestige (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glamour (disambiguation). ...


A Butterfly Door is so-called because of its two "wings". It consists of a double-wide panel with its rotation axle in the centre, effectively creating two separate openings when the door is opened. Butterfly doors are made to rotate open in one direction (usually counterclockwise), and rotate closed in the opposite direction. The door is not equipped with handles, so it is a "push" door. This is for safety, because if it could open in both directions, someone approaching the door might be caught off guard by someone else opening the other side, thus impacting the first person. Such doors are popular in public transit stations, as it has a large capacity, and when the door is opened, traffic passing in both directions keeps the door open. They are particularily popular in underground subway stations, because they are heavy, and when air currents are created by the movement of trains, the force will be applied to both wings of the door, thus equalizing the force on either side, keeping the door shut.


Automatic doors are powered open and closed, a door fitted with a spring to close it is not an automatic door. There are three methods by which an automatic door is activated.


Inward opening doors are doors that can only be opened or forced open from outside a building. Such doors pose a substantial fire risk to occupants of occupied buildings when they are locked. As such doors can only be forced open from the outside, those within buildings are prevented from escape, unless people outside the building can force the doors open and off their hinges as there is no way to lever a door open from inside.


1 - A sensor detects traffic is approaching. Sensors for automatic doors are generally: Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ...

  • A pressure sensor - a floor mat which reacts to the pressure of someone standing on it.
  • An infrared curtain or beam which shines invisible light onto sensors; if someone or something blocks the beam the door can open.
  • A motion sensor which uses low-power microwave radar.
  • An electronic sensor (e.g. based on infrared or radio waves) can be triggered by something that someone carries, or is installed inside a vehicle. These are popular for garage doors.

2 - A switch is operated manually, perhaps after security checks. This can be a push button switch or a swipe card. Digital air pressure sensor A pressure sensor measures the pressure, typically of gases or fluids. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Motion detection includes methods by which motion has be identified. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Electrical switches. ...


3 - The user pushes, or pulls the door, once the door detects the movement it completes the open and close cycle. These are also known as power-assisted doors.

Leaf Diagrams of the selfbolting door concept

In addition to activate sensors automatic doors are generally fitted with safety sensors. These are usually an infrared curtain or beam, but can be a pressure mat fitted on the swing side of the door. The purpose of the safety sensor is to prevent the door opening or slow its speed if an object is detected in its path whilst opening and to prevent the door closing or reactivate it if an object is detected in its path whilst closing.


Heron of Alexandria created the earliest known automatic door in the 1st century AD. Later in the 13th century, al-Jazari created more elaborate automatic gates.[2] Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ... Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Blast-proof doors, nuclear-blast proof doors, etc.


A tambour door is made of narrow horizontal slats and rolls up and down along vertical tracks and is typically found in entertainment centres and cabinets.


A selfbolting door is a door that has special hinges that allows a door leaf to slide into the place of the bolt after complete closing.


Door components

A diagram illustrating the components of a panel door
A diagram illustrating the components of a panel door

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (725x936, 80 KB) Summary A diagram illustrating the components of a panel door. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (725x936, 80 KB) Summary A diagram illustrating the components of a panel door. ...

Doorway

  • Lintel - A horizontal beam above a door that supports the wall above it. (Also known as a header)
  • Jambs - The vertical posts that form the sides of a door frame, where the hinges are mounted, and with which the bolt interacts.
  • Sill - A horizontal beam below the door that supports the frame
  • Doorstop - a thin slat built inside the frame to prevent a door from swinging through when closed, which might break the hinges.
  • Architrave - The decorative molding that outlines a door frame. (called an Archivolt if the door is arched). Called door casing or brickmold in North America.

Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... A diagram of a door, with the jambs labeled. ... Sill may refer to: Sill (geology), a tabular mass of igneous rock that has been intruded laterally between layers of older rock Architecture, a sill is the bottom edge of a window or door Construction, the bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached... Door stop may refer to: Door stops are objects or devices used to hold a door open or closed. ... The architrave is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. ... Cavetto molding and resulting shadow pattern Ovolo molding and resulting shadow pattern Cyma molding and resulting shadow pattern Ogee molding and resulting shadow pattern Molding (USA) or moulding (AUS, CAN, UK) is a strip of material with various cross sections used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. ... An archivolt is a group of mouldings (or other elements) surrounding an arched opening, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a rectangular opening. ...

Related hardware

  • Hinge- A component that attaches one edge of a door to the frame, while allowing the other edge to swing from it. It usually consists of a pair of plates, each with a set of open cylindrical rings (the knuckles) attached to them. The knuckles of the two plates are offset from each other and mesh together. A hinge pin is then placed through the two sets of knuckles and usually fixed, to combine the plates and make the hinge a single unit. One door usually has about three hinges, but it can vary.
  • Door closer - A hydraulic device installed at the top of the door and employed to slow the door's closure behind someone.
  • Handles:
    • Doorknob - A knob or lever on an axle that is rotated to release the bolt.
    • Door handle - A fixed handle, usually accompanied with a latch to release the bolt, on some doors (such as car doors) the latch is incorporated into a hinged handle that releases when pulled on. A handleset is composed of the exterior handle (including escutcheon), an independent deadbolt, and the interior package (knob or lever)
    • Crash bar - A spring-loaded bar that is mounted horizontally on the side of the door that opens outward. When pushed upon, the bolt is released. This device is mandatory in most fire exits. Many of these doors are one-way, and cannot be opened from the outside. To use this device on a two-way door, another type of handle must be mounted on the opposite side. (Also known as a "panic bar" or "cross-bar", see below for an older use of this term which has a different function.)
  • Fasteners:
    • Crossbar, sometimes called a bolt (see below for modern use of this term) - A historically common, simple fastener consisting simply of a plank or beam mounted to one side of a door by a set of cleats. The board can be slid past the frame to block the door. Alternatively, the bar can be a separate piece that is placed into open cleats or hooks, extending across the frame on both sides. The effect of this device is essentially the opposite of the crash bar (see above), in that its operation is to permit the door to be opened inward rather than outward. On a set of double doors, the same principle works, but needn't extend past the frame. The bar simply extends into another set of cleats on the other door such as to interfere with the door opening.
    • Latch - A device that allows one to fasten a door, but doesn't necessarily require an external handle
    • Lock - A device that prevents access by those without a key or combination.
      A typical peephole in a door, allowing the person to see who is outside the door without opening it.
      A typical peephole in a door, allowing the person to see who is outside the door without opening it.
    • Bolt - A (nearly always) metal shaft usually internal to the door, attached by cleats or a specific form of bracket, that slides into the jamb to fasten a door.
      • Latchbolt - A bolt that has an angled surface which acts as a ramp to push the bolt in while the door is being closed. By the use of a latchbolt, a door can be closed without having to operate the handle.
      • Deadbolt - Deadbolts usually extend deeper into the frame and are not automatically retractable the way latchbolts are. They are typically manipulated with a lock on the outside and either a lock or a latch on the inside. Deadbolts are generally used for security purposes on external doors in case somebody tries to kick the door in or use a tool such as a crowbar or a hammer and screwdriver etc.
    • Strike - A plate with a hole in the middle made to receive a bolt. If the strike is for a latchbolt, it typically also includes a small ramped area to help the bolt move inward while the door is being closed. (Also known as a "strikeplate")

A hinge is a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. ... Manual door closer A door closer is a mechanical device that closes a door, in general after someone opens it, or after it was automatically opened. ... This article is about the handle. ... Categories: Stub | Door furniture ... A crash bar is a mechanism for unlatching a door, consisting of a metal bar fixed horizontally to the front of the door and hinged. ... A fire escape is a fire exit that is external to a building. ... A close up on a door mounted crossbar Crossbar can refer to these things: A primitive fastener consisting of a post barring a door The horizontal member of many sports goals including those for hockey, soccer, and American football A structural member that crosses any two other elements A crossbar... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 3179 KB) Summary Photo of keyhole in door of Dunkin Donuts in Framingham, MA by Brian KATT. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 3179 KB) Summary Photo of keyhole in door of Dunkin Donuts in Framingham, MA by Brian KATT. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of... Look up bolt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the band see Deadbolt (band). ... Crowbar may refer to: a tool, see Crowbar (tool) an electrical circuit, see Crowbar (circuit) the name of a musical group, see Crowbar (US band), a heavy metal band who also recorded an album entitled Crowbar Crowbar (Canadian band) Koevoet (which is Afrikaans for crowbar), a South-African run counterinsurgency... For other uses, see Hammer (disambiguation). ... A basic screwdriver made by Craftsman (slotted tip shown) A rechargeable battery-powered electric screwdriver from Black & Decker The screwdriver is a device specifically designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen and remove, screws. ...

Door construction

Parts of a panel and or glazed door
joint between midrail, lockrail and a gunstock stile
A frame and filled door
A hollow door with one face removed
A hollow door with one face removed

Panel doors (doors built with frame and panel, construction, also called stile and rail doors): This article needs to be wikified. ...

  • Stiles - Vertical boards that run the full height of a door and compose its right and left edges. The hinges are mounted to the fixed side (known as the "hanging stile"), and the handle, lock, bolt, and/or latch are mounted on the swinging side (known as the "latch stile").
  • Rails - Horizontal boards at the top, bottom, and optionally in the middle of a door that join the two stiles and split the door into two or more rows of panels. The "top rail" and "bottom rail" are named for their positions. The bottom rail is also known as "kick rail". A middle rail at the height of the bolt is known as the "lock rail", other middle rails are commonly known as "cross rails".
  • Mullions - Smaller optional vertical boards that run between two rails, and split the door into two or more columns of panels, the term is used sometimes for verticals in doors, but more often (UK and Australia) it refers to verticals in windows.
  • Muntin - Optional vertical members that divide the door into smaller panels.
  • Panels - Large, wider boards used to fill the space between the stiles, rails, and mullions. The panels typically fit into grooves in the other pieces, and help to keep the door rigid. Panels may be flat, or in raised panel designs.
  • Lights,(UK); Lites,(US) - Pieces of glass used in place of a panel, essentially giving the door a window.

Plank and batten doors, (an older design consisting primarily of vertical slats): Other meanings Turnstile, a one way gate. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Mullion, Cornwall is also the name of a village in Cornwall off the Lizard. ... A panel is a thing that blocks one area from another. ...

  • Planks - Vertical boards that extend the full height of the door, and are placed side by side filling the door's width.
  • Battens - Smaller slats that extend horizontally across the door which the planks are affixed to. The battens hold the planks together. Sometimes a long diagonal slat or two are also implemented to prevent the door from skewing. On some doors, especially antique ones, the battens are replaced with iron bars that are often built into the hinges as extensions of the door-side plates.

Ledged and braced doors Consists of vertical tongue and grooved boards held together with battens and diagonal braces. Look up Plank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up batten in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Frame and filled door Consists of a solid timber frame, filled on one face, face with Tongue and Grooved boards. Quite often used externally with the boards on the weather face.


Flush doors (many modern doors, including most interior doors):

  • Stiles and rails - As above, but usually smaller. They form the outside edges of the door.
  • Core material: Material within the door used simply to fill space, provide rigidity and reduce druminess.
    • Hollow-core - Often consists of a lattice or honeycomb made of corrugated cardboard, or thin wooden slats. Can also be built with staggered wooden blocks. Hollow-core flush doors are commonly used as interior doors.
      • Lock block - A solid block of wood mounted within a hollow-core flush door near the bolt to provide a solid and stable location for mounting the door's hardware.
    • Stave-core - Consists of wooden slats stacked upon one another in a manner similar to a plank & batten door (though the slats are usually thinner) or the wooden-block hollow-core (except that the space is entirely filled).
    • Solid-core - Can consist of low-density particle board or foam used to completely fill the space within the door. Solid-core flush doors (especially foam-core ones) are commonly used as exterior doors because they provide more insulation and strength.
  • Skin - The front and back faces of the door are then covered with wood veneer, thin plywood, sheet metal, fiberglass, or vinyl. The wooden materials are usually layered with the grain alternating direction between layers to prevent warping. Fiberglass and metal-faced doors are sometimes given a layer of cellulose so that they may be stained to look like real wood.

Moulded doors Other meanings Turnstile, a one way gate. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Upright square tiling. ... Triangular tiling. ... Cardboard (called corrugated paper in the industry) is a heavy wood-based type of paper, notable for its stiffness and durability. ... Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... Sea foam on the beach Foam on a cappuccino Fire-retardant, foamed plastic being used as a temporary dam for firestop mortar in a cable penetration in a pulp and paper mill on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... In woodworking, veneer refers to thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 millimetres (1/8 inch), that are usually glued and pressed onto core panels (typically, wood, particle board or medium density fiberboard) to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and side panels for cabinets, parquet floors and... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... Sheets of stainless steel cover the Chrysler Building Thin sheets of gold leaf Sheet metal is simply metal formed into thin and flat pieces. ... Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass (also called fibreglass and glass fibre) is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. ... Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ...

  • Stiles and rails - As above, but usually smaller. They form the outside edges of the door.
  • Core material: Material within the door used simply to fill space, provide rigidity and reduce druminess.
    • Hollow-core - Often consists of a lattice or honeycomb made of corrugated cardboard, or thin wooden slats. Can also be built with staggered wooden blocks. Hollow-core flush doors are commonly used as interior doors.
      • Lock block - A solid block of wood mounted within a hollow-core flush door near the bolt to provide a solid and stable location for mounting the door's hardware.
    • Stave-core - Consists of wooden slats stacked upon one another in a manner similar to a plank & batten door (though the slats are usually thinner) or the wooden-block hollow-core (except that the space is entirely filled).
    • Solid-core - Can consist of low-density particle board or foam used to completely fill the space within the door. Solid-core flush doors (especially foam-core ones) are commonly used as exterior doors because they provide more insulation and strength.
  • Skin - The front and back faces of the door are covered with HDF / MDF skins.
Door swing directions diagram.
Door swing directions diagram.

Door swings Other meanings Turnstile, a one way gate. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Upright square tiling. ... Triangular tiling. ... Cardboard (called corrugated paper in the industry) is a heavy wood-based type of paper, notable for its stiffness and durability. ... Particle board is a material manufactured from wood particles (e. ... Sea foam on the beach Foam on a cappuccino Fire-retardant, foamed plastic being used as a temporary dam for firestop mortar in a cable penetration in a pulp and paper mill on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... Image File history File linksMetadata Door_Swing_Diagram. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Door_Swing_Diagram. ...


Door swings, or handing, are always determined from the secure side of the door (ie. the side you use the key on, outside to inside, or public to private). Handing is the method of determining how a door swings. ...

  • Left hand (LH): If the hinges are on the left and the door opens in, it's a left hand door. You push the door with your left hand.
  • Right hand (RH): If the hinges are on the right and the door opens in, it's a right hand door. You push the door with your right hand.
  • Left hand reverse (LHR): If the hinges are on the left and the door pulls away from you, it's a left hand reverse door. You pull the door with your left hand.
  • Right hand reverse (RHR): If the hinges are on the right and the door pulls away from you, it's a right hand reverse door. You pull the door with your right hand.

Note: In Australia, this is different. The fridge rule applies (you can't stand in a fridge, the door always opens towards you) - If the hinges are on the left then its a left hand (or left hung) door. If the hinges are on the right then its a right hand (or right hung) door. See the Australian Standards for Installation of Timber Doorsets, AS 1909-1984 pg 6.


History

An old door, Kashan, Iran
An old door, Kashan, Iran

The earliest records are those represented in the paintings of the Egyptian tombs, in which they are shown as single or double doors, each in a single piece of wood. In Egypt, where the climate is intensely dry, there would be no fear of their warping, but in other countries it would be necessary to frame them, which according to Vitruvius (iv. 6.) was done with stiles (sea/si) and rails (see: Frame and panel): the spaces enclosed being filled with panels (tympana) let into grooves made in the stiles and rails. The stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenoned or hinged, is known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile. The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, and middle or intermediate rails. The most ancient doors were in timber, those made for King Solomon's temple being in olive wood (I Kings vi. 31-35), which were carved and overlaid with gold. The doors dwelt upon in Homer would appear to have been cased in silver or brass. Besides Olive wood, elm, cedar, oak and cypress were used. Image File history File links Old_door. ... Image File history File links Old_door. ... Tabatabaei House, early 1800s, Kashan. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Diagram of a Mortise and Tenon Joint Simple and strong, the mortise and tenon joint (also called the mortice and tenon) has been used for millennia by woodworkers around the world to join two pieces of wood, most often at an angle close to 90°. Although there are many variations... A hinge is a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ...

Stone door, Hampi, India
Stone door, Hampi, India

All ancient doors were hung by pivots at the top and bottom of the hanging stile which worked in sockets in the lintel and sill, the latter being always in some hard stone such as basalt or granite. Those found at Nippur by Dr. Hilprecht, dating from 2000 B.C. were in dolerite. The tenons of the gates at Balawat were sheathed with bronze (now in the British Museum). These doors or gates were hung in two leaves, each about 8 ft.4 in. wide and 27 ft. high; they were encased with bronze bands or strips, 10 in. high, covered with repouss decoration of figures, etc. The wood doors would seem to have been about 3 in. thick, but the hanging stile was over 14 inches diameter. Other sheathings of various sizes in bronze have been found, which proves this to have been the universal method adopted to protect the wood pivots. In the Hauran in Syria, where timber is scarce the doors were made in stone, and one measuring 5 ft. 4 in. by 2 ft. 7 in. is in the British Museum; the band on the meeting stile shows that it was one of the leaves of a double door. At Kuffeir near Bostra in Syria, Burckhardt found stone doors, 9 to 10 ft. high, being the entrance doors of the town. In Etruria many stone doors are referred to by Dennis. Image File history File links Stone_door. ... Image File history File links Stone_door. ... Hampi (Kannada: ಹಂಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in northern Karnataka state, India. ... Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... Sill may refer to: Sill (geology), a tabular mass of igneous rock that has been intruded laterally between layers of older rock Architecture, a sill is the bottom edge of a window or door Construction, the bottom horizontal member of a wall or building to which vertical members are attached... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... (Redirected from 2000 B.C.) ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diabase. ... A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by walls, or an opening in a fence. ... Balawat is a village in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq, 25 km (15 miles) southeast from the city of Mosul. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Hauran, also Hawran or Houran, (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ) is the southwestern region of modern-day Syria. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ...

Roman folding doors at Pompeii (1st century AD).
Roman folding doors at Pompeii (1st century AD).

The ancient Greek and Roman doors were either single doors, double doors, sliding doors or folding doors, in the last case the leaves were hinged and folded back. In Eumachia, is a painting of a door with three leaves. In the tomb of Theron at Agrigentum there is a single four-panel door carved in stone. In the Blundell collection is a bas-relief of a temple with double doors, each leaf with five panels. Among existing examples, the bronze doors in the church of SS. Cosmas and Damiano, in Rome, are important examples of Roman metal work of the best period; they are in two leaves, each with two panels, and are framed in bronze. Those of the Pantheon are similar in design, with narrow horizontal panels in addition, at the top, bottom and middle. Two other bronze doors of the Roman period are in the Lateran Basilica. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The front door of a house is often decorated to appear inviting. ... Roman folding door at Pompeii, Italy. ... Eumachia was the public priestess of Venus (mythology) in Pompeii during the middle of the 1st Century A.D. as well as the matron of the Concordia Augustus. ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Agrigentum (modern Agrigento). ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... View of the Neapolitan Crib of the Basilica from the Palatine Hill. ... Facade of the Pantheon For other uses, see Pantheon (disambiguation). ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ...


The doors of the church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century) are covered with plates of bronze, cut out in patterns: those of Hagia Sophia at Constantinople, of the 8th and 9th century, are wrought in bronze, and the west doors of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle (9th century), of similar manufacture, were probably brought from Constantinople, as also some of those in St. Marks, Venice. View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... For other uses, see Hagia Sophia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco a Venezia), the cathedral of Venice, is the most famous of the citys churches and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ...

Ornate door. Roman wall painting in the Villa Boscoreale, Italy (1st century AD).
Ornate door. Roman wall painting in the Villa Boscoreale, Italy (1st century AD).

Of the 11th and 12th centuries there are numerous examples of bronze doors, the earliest being one at Hildesheim, Germany (1015). Of others in South Italy and Sicily, the following are the finest: in Sant Andrea, Amalfi (1060); Salerno (1099); Canosa (1111); Troia, two doors (1119 and 1124); Ravello (1179), by Barisano of Trani, who also made doors for Trani cathedral; and in Monreale and Pisa cathedrals, by Bonano of Pisa. In all these cases the hanging stile had pivots at the top and bottom. The exact period when the hinge was substituted is not quite known, but the change apparently brought about another method of strengthening and decorating doors, viz, with wrought-iron bands of infinite varieties of design. As a rule three bands from which the ornamental work springs constitute the hinges, which have rings outside the hanging stiles fitting on to vertical tenons run into the masonry or wooden frame. There is an early example of the 12th century in Lincoln; in France the metal work of the doors of Notre Dame at Paris is perhaps the most beautiful in execution, but examples are endless throughout France and England. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 3225 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 3225 pixel, file size: 2. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Transparent glass bowl of fruit. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...   is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... May — The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Canosa should not be confused with Canossa in northern Italy. ... Events The Synod of Rathbreasail marked the transition of the Irish church from a monastic to a diocesan one Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Paschal II Baldwin VII becomes Count of Flanders Births Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester (died 1171) Andrei Bogolyubsky, prince of Vladimir... Troia (Greek: , transliterated as Aika or Aikai or Ece; Latin: Aecae or Æcæ; also formerly Troja) is a town and commune in the province of Foggia, Puglia (southern Italy). ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... Ravellos church in the main square. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... Trani is a seaport of Apulia, southern Italy, on the Adriatic Sea, in the province of Bari, and 40 km by railway west northwest of that town. ... The apse of the cathedral of Monreale Monreale is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ...


Returning to Italy, the most celebrated doors are those of the Battistero di San Giovanni (Florence), which together with the door frames are all in bronze, the borders of the latter being perhaps the most remarkable: the modeling of the figures, birds and foliage of the south doorway, by Andrea Pisano (1330), and of the east doorway by Ghiberti (1425-1452), are of great beauty; in the north door (1402-1424) Ghiberti adopted the same scheme of design for the paneling and figure subjects in them as Andrea Pisano, but in the east door the rectangular panels are all filled, with bas-reliefs, in which Scripture subjects are illustrated with innumerable figures, these being probably the gates of Paradise of which Michelangelo speaks. The Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St John) is believed to be the oldest building in Florence. ... Andrea Pisano (c. ... Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 - December 1, 1455) was an important Renaissance artist, specializing in sculpture and metalworking. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...

An old door, Isfahan, Iran
An old door, Isfahan, Iran

The doors of the mosques in Cairo were of two kinds; those which, externally, were cased with sheets of bronze or iron, cut out in decorative patterns, and incised or inlaid, with bosses in relief; and those in wood, which were framed with interlaced designs of the square and diamond, this latter description of work being Coptic in its origin. The doors of the palace at Palermo, which were made by Saracenic workmen for the Normans, are fine examples and in good preservation. A somewhat similar decorative class of door to these latter is found in Verona, where the edges of the stiles and rails are beveled and notched. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1229 KB) Summary The old door of a house in Esfahan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 1229 KB) Summary The old door of a house in Esfahan. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Religions Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Coptic Catholicism, Protestantism Scriptures Bible Languages Mari, Coptic, Arabic, English, French, German A Copt (Coptic: , literally: Egyptian Christian) is a native Egyptian Christian. ... Location of the city of Palermo (red dot) within Italy. ... Norman conquests in red. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


In the Renaissance period the Italian doors are quite simple, their architects trusting more to the doorways for effect; but in France and Germany the contrary is the case, the doors being elaborately carved, especially in the Louis XIV and Louis XV periods, and sometimes with architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry. While in Italy the tendency was to give scale by increasing the number of panels, in France the contrary seems to have been the rule; and one of the great doors at Fontainebleau, which is in two leaves, is entirely carried out as if consisting of one great panel only.-1... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Île-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Fontainebleau (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon Mayor Frédéric Valletoux (2005-2008) Statistics Altitude 42–150 (avg. ...


The earliest Renaissance doors in France are those of the cathedral of St. Sauveur at Aix (1503). In the lower panels there are figures 3 ft. high in Gothic niches, and in the upper panels a double range of niches with figures about 2 ft. high with canopies over them, all carved in cedar. The south door of Beauvais Cathedral is in some respects the finest in France; the upper panels are carved in high relief with figure subjects and canopies over them. The doors of the church at Gisors (1575) are carved with figures in niches subdivided by classic pilasters superimposed. In St. Maclou at Rouen are three magnificently carved doors; those by Jean Goujon have figures in niches on each side, and others in a group of great beauty in the center. The other doors, probably about forty to fifty years later, are enriched with bas-reliefs, landscapes, figures and elaborate interlaced borders. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Aix Cathedral Triptych of the Burning Bush, by Nicolas Froment Aix Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Sauveur dAix) in Aix-en-Provence in southern France is the seat of the Archbishop of Aix. ... AIX or Aix may be: Aix, a genus of two species of dabbling ducks, the Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) and the Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) AIX operating system Athens Internet Exchange, (AIX) a European IXP a place name: Aix-la-Chapelle, or Aachen, a city in Germany in France: Aix... Beauvais Cathedral The Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais is an incomplete cathedral, located in Beauvais, in northern France. ... Gisors is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


In England in the 17th century the door panels were raised with bolection or projecting moldings, sometimes richly carved, round them; in the 18th century the moldings worked on the stiles and rails were carved with the egg and tongue ornament.

  • The oldest door in England can be found in Westminster Abbey and dates from 1050. [1]

The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...

See also

Door safety relates to prevention of door-related accidents. ... Door security relates to prevention of door-related burglaries. ... Roman bust of Janus, Vatican. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... An access badge is the identification used to gain entry to the office or other places that have automated access controlled entry points. ... Access control is the ability to permit or deny the use of something by someone. ... For other uses, see Alarm (disambiguation). ... Alarm management is the application of human factors (or ergonomics as the field is referred to outside the U.S.) along with instrumentation engineering and systems thinking to manage the design of an alarm system to increase its usability. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... At Walt Disney World biometric measurements are taken from the fingers of guests to ensure that the persons ticket is used by the same person from day to day Biometrics (ancient Greek: bios =life, metron =measure) refers to two very different fields of study and application. ... Burglar (or intrusion), fire and safety alarms are found in electronic form today. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... This article refers to a surveillance system. ... Common Access Card issued to Contractor personnel The Common Access Card (CAC) is a United States Department of Defense (DoD) smartcard issued as standard identification for active duty military personnel, reserve personnel, civilian employees, and eligible contractor personnel. ... This article describes how security can be achieved through design and engineering. ... Look up credential in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Door security relates to prevention of door-related burglaries. ... An electronic lock is a locking device which uses some form of electronics to authenticate those accessing it, sometimes using two-factor authentication. ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... IP Video Surveillance can be defined as the transmission of video utilizing open internet protocols and standards for the purpose of recording and monitoring. ... A single key A key is a device which is used to open a lock by turning. ... Locksmithing began as the science and art of making and defeating locks. ... Lock picking is the art of unlocking a lock without its intended key. ... Logical Security consists of software safeguards for an organization’s systems, including user ID and password access, authentication, access rights and authority levels. ... A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. ... An optical turnstile is a physical security device designed to restrict or control access to a building or secure area. ... Photo identification is generally used to define any form of identification that includes a photograph of the holder. ... A Physical Security Professional (PSP) is a certification process for individuals involved in the physical security of organizations. ... Proximity card is a generic name for contactless integrated circuit devices used for security access or payment systems. ... Image:Scheermes-prikkeldraad. ... A typical home safe. ... Safe-cracking is the process of opening a safe, generally without the combination. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... Security engineering is the field of engineering dealing with the security and integrity of real-world systems. ... In the field of physical security, security lighting is often used as a preventative and corrective measure against intrusions or other criminal activity on a physical piece of property. ... A security policy is a plan of action for tackling security issues, or a set of regulations for maintaining a certain level of security. ... Smart card used for health insurance in France. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... A swipe card is a (typically) credit card size badge incorporating a magnetic stripe, an RFID tag, a transponder device and/or a microchip mostly used for business premises access control or electronic payment. ... The Wiegand effect is named after its discoverer, John R. Wiegand. ...

References

  1. ^ See, for example the doorkeeping duties of the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod.
  2. ^ Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 181, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292781490.

The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, generally shortened to just Black Rod, is an official in the parliaments of a number of Commonwealth countries. ... The University of Texas Press is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin. ...

External links

Patents

  • US U.S. Patent 2,724,258  -- Fire exit lock
  • Historic Doors - Glossary

This article incorporates text from the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. A fire escape is a fire exit that is external to a building. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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