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Encyclopedia > Doolittle Raid
Doolittle Raid
Part of World War II, Pacific War

A B-25 taking off from Hornet for the raid
Date 18 April 1942
Location Tokyo, Japan
Result First attack on Japanese Home Islands
Tactically Indecisive
Combatants
Flag of the United States United States Flag of Japan Japan
Commanders
James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo
Strength
16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense
Casualties
3 dead,
8 POWs (4 died in captivity);
5 interned in USSR
all 16 B-25s
About 50 dead, 400 injured
Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle (second from right) and his crew pose in front of a B-25 on the deck of the USS Hornet
Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle (second from right) and his crew pose in front of a B-25 on the deck of the USS Hornet
Lt. Col. Doolittle wires a Japanese medal to a bomb, for "return" to its originators.
Lt. Col. Doolittle wires a Japanese medal to a bomb, for "return" to its originators.
Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle (center) with members of his flight crew and Chinese officials in China after the attack.
Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle (center) with members of his flight crew and Chinese officials in China after the attack.

The Doolittle Raid, 18 April 1942 was the first air raid by the United States to strike the Japanese home islands during World War II. The mission was notable since it was the only time in U.S. military history that United States Army Air Forces bombers were launched from a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier on a combat mission. The Doolittle Raid demonstrated that the Japanese home islands were vulnerable to Allied air attack, and it provided an expedient means for U.S. retaliation for Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1420 × 1080 pixel, file size: 199 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Take off from the deck of the USS HORNET of an Army B-25 on its way to take part in first... Lt. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Brig. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Lt. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Combatants Empire of Japan United States Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Sadamichi Kajioka Shigematsu Sakaibara Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personnel, Others[2] Casualties 700-900 dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft... The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ... The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3300x2550, 4456 KB)Lt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3300x2550, 4456 KB)Lt. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (520x765, 70 KB)LtCol James H. Doolittle, USAAF Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 1942 Wires a Japanese medal to a bomb, for return to its originators in the first U.S. air raid on the Japanese Home Islands, April 1942. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (520x765, 70 KB)LtCol James H. Doolittle, USAAF Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 1942 Wires a Japanese medal to a bomb, for return to its originators in the first U.S. air raid on the Japanese Home Islands, April 1942. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x620, 112 KB)Photo #: NH 97502 Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 1942; Doolittle and flight crew in China after the raid. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x620, 112 KB)Photo #: NH 97502 Doolittle Raid on Japan, April 1942; Doolittle and flight crew in China after the raid. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


The raid was planned and led by Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle, already a famous civilian aviator and aeronautical engineer before the war. The raid, however, had its roots in the mind of Navy Captain Francis Low, who early in the war predicted that, under the right conditions, twin-engined Army bombers could be successfully launched from an aircraft carrier. In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... General James Harold Jimmy Doolittle, Sc. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ...


Requirements for the aircraft were for a cruising range of 2,400 miles (3,900 km) with a 2,000 pound (900 kg) bomb load. The B-26 Marauder and B-23 Dragon were considered, but the former had questionable takeoff characteristics from a carrier deck, and the latter's wingspan was nearly 50% greater than the B-25's, reducing the number that could be taken aboard a carrier and posing risks to the ship's island. Subsequent tests with three North American B-25B Mitchells at Norfolk indicated it could be launched from a carrier, hit military targets in Japan, and fly on to land in China. Negotiations with the Soviet Union to land in Siberia, shortening the flight by 600 miles (970 km), were fruitless.[1] Martin B-26 Marauder See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962. ... The B-23 Dragon was a twin-engined aeroplane developed by Douglas Aircraft Company as a successor to (and a refinement of) the B-18 Bolo. ... North American Aviation was a major US aircraft manufacturer. ... Lt. ... , NS Norfolk logo Naval Station Norfolk, in Norfolk, Virginia, is a base of the United States Navy, supporting naval forces operating in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Indian Ocean. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...

Contents

Training

After the raid was approved, 24 operational B-25B medium bombers were detached from the 17th Bomb Group (Medium), based at Lexington County Army Air Base, Columbia, South Carolina, and sent to the Mid-Continent Airlines modification center in Minneapolis, Minnesota, for installation of additional fuel tanks. The aircraft were modified by: Columbia Metropolitan Airport (IATA: CAE, ICAO: KCAE) is the main airport for Columbia, South Carolina, located in the suburb of West Columbia. ... Nickname: Location in Richland County in the state of South Carolina Coordinates: , Country United States State South Carolina Counties Richland County, South Carolina Government  - Mayor Bob Coble, (D) Area  - City  133. ... Mid-Continent logo Mid-Continent Airlines operated in the central United States through the 1930s and 1940s. ... “Minneapolis” redirects here. ...

  • Removal of the lower gun turret
  • Installation of de-icers and anti-icers
  • Steel blast plates mounted on the fuselage around the upper turret
  • Removal of the liaison radio set
  • Installation of three additional fuel tanks and support mounts in the bomb bay, crawl way and lower turret area to increase fuel capacity from 646 to 1,141 U.S. gallons (2445 to 4319 litres)
  • Mock gun barrels installed in the tail cone, and
  • Replacement of their Norden bombsight with a makeshift aiming sight.

Two bombers also had cameras mounted to record the results of bombing.[1] The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... The Norden bombsight A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden Bombsight. ...


Volunteer crews for an unspecified "extremely hazardous" mission were also solicited from the 17th BG. The 24 crews selected picked up the modified bombers in Minneapolis and flew them to Eglin Field, Florida, beginning 1 March 1942. There the crews received intensive training for three weeks in carrier deck takeoffs, low-level and night flying, low altitude bombing, and over water navigation. General Doolittle stated in his after action report that an operational level of training was reached despite several days when flying was not possible because of rain and fog. One aircraft was heavily damaged in a takeoff accident and another taken off the mission because of a nose wheel shimmy that could not be repaired in time.[1] Eglin Air Force Base is the home of the United States Air Force 96th Air Base Wing of the Air Force Materiel Command, and is also headquarters for more than 45 associate units. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 25 March, the 22 remaining B-25s took off from Eglin for McClellan Field, California. They arrived on 27 March for final modifications at the Sacramento Air Depot. A total of 16 B-25s were subsequently flown to Alameda, California, on 31 March. Fifteen raiders would be the mission force and a 16th aircraft, by last minute agreement with the Navy, would be squeezed onto the deck to be flown off shortly after departure from San Francisco to provide feedback to the Army pilots about takeoff characteristics. (The 16th bomber was made part of the mission force instead.) is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... McClellan Air Force Base was a United States Air Force base located 10 miles (16 Kilometers) northeast of Sacramento, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in the state of California and Alameda County County Alameda Government  - Mayor Beverly Johnson (D) Area  - City 59. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ...


Flying the Raid

On 1 April, the 16 modified bombers, their five-man crews and Army maintenance personnel were loaded onto the USS Hornet at Alameda. Each aircraft carried four specially-constructed 500-pound (225 kg) bombs (three high-explosive and one incendiary) and reduced armament, consisting of two .50-calibre (12.7 mm) machine guns in an upper turret and a .30-caliber (7.6 mm) machine gun in the nose. The two wooden gun barrels mounted in the tail cones were intended to discourage Japanese air attacks from that direction, cited afterward by Doolittle as being particularly effective.[1] The aircraft were clustered closely and tied down on the Hornet's flight deck in the order of their expected launch. is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz... It has been suggested that K6 HMG be merged into this article or section. ... The M249 Squad Automatic Weapon, one of the most popular modern 5. ...


The Hornet and Task Force 18 left the port of Alameda at 10:00 on 2 April in a thick fog and a few days later rendezvoused with Task Force 16, the carrier USS Enterprise and its escort of cruisers and destroyers in the mid-Pacific Ocean north of Hawaii. The Enterprise's fighters and scout planes would provide protection for the entire task force in the event of a Japanese air attack, since the Hornet's fighters were stowed below decks to allow the B-25s to use the flight deck. The combined force, two carriers, three heavy cruisers, one light cruiser, eight destroyers, and two fleet oilers, then proceeded in radio silence towards their intended launch point in enemy-controlled waters east of Japan. is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


On the morning of 18 April, at a distance of about 650 miles (1,050 km) from Japan, the task force was sighted by a Japanese picket boat which radioed an attack warning to Japan. Although the boat was quickly destroyed by gunfire from the cruiser USS Nashville, Doolittle and Hornet skipper Captain Marc Mitscher decided to launch the B-25s immediately—ten hours early and 170 miles (275 km) farther from Japan than planned. After respotting to allow for engine start and run-ups, Doolittle's aircraft had 467 feet (142 metres) of takeoff distance. Despite the fact that none of the B-25 pilots, including Doolittle, had ever taken off from a carrier before, all 16 aircraft launched safely between 08:20 and 09:19. is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The second USS Nashville (CL–43) was laid down 24 January 1935 by New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey; launched 2 October 1937; sponsored by Misses Ann and Mildred Stahlman; and commissioned 6 June 1938, Capt. ... Admiral Marc A. Mitscher Marc Andrew Pete Mitscher, (26 January 1887 - 3 February 1947) was an admiral in the United States Navy, notable as commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force in the latter half of World War II in the Pacific. ...


They then flew single-file towards Japan at wavetop level to avoid detection. The aircraft began arriving over Japan about noon (Tokyo time; six hours after launch) and bombed ten military and industrial targets in Tokyo, two in Yokohama, and one each in Yokosuka, Nagoya, Kobe and Osaka. Although some B-25s encountered light anti-aircraft fire and a few enemy fighters over Japan, no bomber was shot down or severely damaged. Fifteen of the 16 aircraft then proceeded southwest along the southern coast of Japan and across the East China Sea towards eastern China, where recovery bases supposedly awaited them. One B-25, extremely low on fuel, headed instead for the closer land mass of Russia. For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ... Kobe ) is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture and a prominent port city in Japan with a population of about 1. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ...


The raiders faced several unforeseen challenges during their flight to China: night was approaching, the aircraft were running low on fuel, and the weather was rapidly deteriorating. As a result of these problems, the crews realized they would probably not be able to reach their intended bases in China, leaving them the option of either bailing out over eastern China or crash landing along the Chinese coast. Fifteen aircraft reached the China coast after 13 hours of flight and crash landed or bailed out; the crew who flew to Russia landed 40 miles (65 km) beyond Vladivostok, where their B-25 was confiscated and the crew interned until they managed to escape through Iran in 1943. It was the longest combat mission ever flown by the B-25 Mitchell medium bomber, averaging approximately 2,250 miles (3,600 km). Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... Lt. ...


Doolittle and his crew, after safely parachuting into China, received assistance from John Birch, an American missionary in China. As did the others who participated in the mission, Doolittle had to bail out but fortunately landed in a heap of dung (saving a previously injured ankle from breaking) in a rice paddy in China near Chaozhou. Doolittle thought that the raid had been a terrible failure, and that he would be court-martialed upon his return. Doolittle subsequently recommended Birch for intelligence work with General Chennault's Flying Tigers. John Morrison Birch (May 8, 1918 – August 25, 1945) was an American Military Intelligence Officer and a Baptist Missionary in World War II who was shot by armed supporters of the Communist Party of China. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...


Aftermath

Following the Doolittle Raid, most of the B-25 crews that came down in China eventually made it to safety with the help of Chinese civilians. The Chinese people that helped them, however, paid dearly for sheltering the Americans. The Japanese military began the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign to intimidate the Chinese from helping downed American airmen. The Japanese killed an estimated 250,000 civilians while searching for Doolittle’s men [2]. The crews of two aircraft (ten men in total) were unaccounted for; Hallmark's crew (sixth off) and Farrow's crew (last off). On 15 August 1942, the United States learned from the Swiss Consulate General in Shanghai that eight of the missing crew members were prisoners of the Japanese at Police Headquarters in that city (two crewmen had died in the crash landing of their aircraft). On 19 October 1942, the Japanese announced that they had tried the eight men and sentenced them to death, but that several of them had received commutation of their sentences to life imprisonment. No names or details were included in the broadcast. Japanese propaganda ridiculed the raid, calling it the "Do-nothing Raid", and boasted that several B-25s had been shot down. In fact, none had been lost to enemy action. The Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign refers to a campaign by the Japanese Imperial Army and allied Manchukuo forces in the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi in 1942. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the uses of Consul as Chief Magistrate of a (city) state, see Consul. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the war, the complete story of the two missing crews was uncovered in a war crimes trial held in Shanghai. The trial opened in February 1946 to try four Japanese officers for mistreatment of the eight captured crewmen. Two of the missing crewmen, Sgt. William J. Dieter and Cpl. Donald E. Fitzmaurice, had died when their B-25 crashed off the coast of China. The other eight, Lieutenants Dean E. Hallmark, Robert J. Meder, Chase J. Nielsen, William G. Farrow, Robert L. Hite, and George Barr; and Corporals Harold A. Spatz and Jacob DeShazer were captured. In addition to being tortured and starved, these men contracted dysentery and beriberi as a result of the poor conditions under which they were confined. On 28 August 1942, pilot Hallmark, pilot Farrow, and gunner Spatz were given a mock trial by the Japanese, although the airmen were never told the charges against them. On 14 October 1942, these three crewmen were advised that they were to be executed the next day. At 16:30 on 15 October 1942, the three were taken by truck to Public Cemetery Number 1 outside of Shanghai and shot. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Robert J. Meder (b. ... Jacob DeShazer (November 15, 1912– ) was born in Salem, Oregon. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is the term for tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool), cramping, and frequent, small-volume severe diarrhea associated with blood in the feces. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The other five captured airmen remained in military confinement on a starvation diet, their health rapidly deteriorating. In April 1943, they were moved to Nanking where, on 1 December 1943, Meder died. The remaining four men (Nielsen, Hite, Barr and DeShazer) eventually began receiving slightly better treatment from their captors and were even given a copy of the Bible and a few other books. They survived until they were freed by American troops in August 1945. The four Japanese officers who were tried for war crimes against the eight Doolittle Raiders were all found guilty. Three of them were sentenced to hard labor for five years and the fourth to a nine-year sentence. Survivor DeShazer eventually became a missionary and returned to Japan in 1948, where he served in that capacity for over 30 years. Nanjing (南京, Pinyin: Nánjīng, Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...

Orders in hand, Navy Capt. Marc A. Mitscher, skipper of the USS Hornet chats with Lt. Col. James Doolittle.
Orders in hand, Navy Capt. Marc A. Mitscher, skipper of the USS Hornet chats with Lt. Col. James Doolittle.

One other Doolittle Raid crewman was lost on the mission. Corporal Leland D. Faktor was killed during his bailout attempt over China, the only man on his crew to be lost. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixel Image in higher resolution (2785 × 2018 pixel, file size: 976 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; margin:0. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixel Image in higher resolution (2785 × 2018 pixel, file size: 976 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) cellspacing=8 cellpadding=0 style=width:100%; clear:both; margin:0. ...


Immediately following the raid, Doolittle told his crew that he believed the loss of all 16 aircraft, coupled with the relatively minor damage the aircraft had inflicted on their targets, had rendered the attack a failure, and that he expected a court martial upon his return to the United States. Instead, the raid bolstered American morale to such an extent that Doolittle was awarded the Medal of Honor by President Roosevelt, and was promoted two grades to Brigadier General, skipping the rank of colonel. He went on to command the 12th Air Force in North Africa, the 15th Air Force in the Mediterranean, and the 8th Air Force in England during the next three years. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


In addition to Doolittle's award of the Medal of Honor, Corporal Dave Thatcher (an engineer-gunner) and Lieutenant Thomas White (flight surgeon/gunner) each received the Silver Star for their brave efforts in helping several wounded crew members evade Japanese troops in China. All the remaining Raiders (including Thatcher and White) were awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and those who were killed, wounded or injured as a result of the raid also received the Purple Heart. In addition, every Doolittle Raider received a decoration from the Chinese government. The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross. ... For other meanings see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ...


The Doolittle Raiders have held an annual reunion almost every year since the late 1940s. The high point of each reunion is a solemn, private ceremony in which the surviving Raiders perform a roll call, then toast their fellow Raiders who passed away during the previous year. Specially-engraved silver goblets, one for each of the 80 Raiders, are used for this toast. The goblets of those who have died are inverted. When only two Raiders remain alive, they will drink a final toast using the vintage 1896 bottle of Hennessy cognac which has accompanied the goblets to each Raider reunion since 1960. Only 14 Raiders are still alive, and only eight were able to attend the 64th anniversary reunion held in Dayton, Ohio, in April 2006. Seven were able to attend the 65th anniversary in April 2007 in San Antonio, Texas. The oldest Raider is now 95, and the youngest is 85. The bottle of cognac and the goblets had been maintained by the United States Air Force Academy on display in Arnold Hall, the cadet social center. On 19 April 2006, the memorablia were transferred to the National Museum of the United States Air Force[1]. Bottle of Hennessy XO Cognac Hennessy is one of the oldest and most famous manufacturers of cognac, a type of French distilled wine, or brandy. ... Cognac is a commune in the French département of Charente, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA or Air Force),[1] located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers for the United States Air Force. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... View of the National Museum of the United States Air Force Main entrance to the museum The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located at Wright-Patterson Air...


Effect

Compared to the devastating B-29 Superfortress attacks against Japan later in the war, the Doolittle raid did little material damage. Nevertheless, when the news of the raid was released, American morale soared from the depths to which it had plunged following the Pearl Harbor attack and Japan's subsequent territorial gains. It was important for Americans to know that a military response had been undertaken. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ...


The raid also had a strategic impact, in that it caused the Japanese to recall some fighter units back to the home islands for defense. They did not understand how American aircraft could attack from such a distance and assumed that America had developed a new, extremely long-range aircraft, when in reality, American forces knew it would essentially be a one-way trip. These reassignments subsequently weakened Japan's air capabilities against the Allies at the Battle of Midway and later Pacific Theater campaigns. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... A map of the Pacific Theater. ...


Legacy

The United States Navy named one of its aircraft carriers after the fictional location, USS Shangri-La, as an obvious reference to the Doolittle Raid. The name referred to the recently lost USS Hornet. President Roosevelt had answered a reporter's question by saying that the raid had come from "Shangri-La"[2], which was the name of the place of perpetual youth in the Himalayas in the popular book and movie of the time, Lost Horizon. The USS Shangri-La (CV-38) (also CVA-38, CVS-38) was an Ticonderoga-class aircraft carrier. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz... Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the novel, Lost Horizon, written by British writer James Hilton in 1933. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ...


Books and movies

The Doolittle Raid was the subject of two 1944 feature films. Thirty Seconds over Tokyo was based on a book of the same title by Doolittle Raider pilot Captain Ted W. Lawson, who lost a leg and suffered other serious injuries as a result of his crash landing off the coast of China. Spencer Tracy played Doolittle and Van Johnson portrayed Lawson. The Purple Heart, starring Dana Andrews, was a largely fictional depiction of the trial of the captured Doolittle Raiders. The Ruptured Duck, which was the bomber depicted in the movie Nose-art of the Ruptured Duck Thirty Seconds over Tokyo is a 1944 film based on a 1943 book by Ted W. Lawson. ... Ted W. Lawson, 0-399540, Major, United States Army Air Forces, born March 7, 1917, died January 19, 1992. ... Spencer Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor who appeared in 74 films from 1930 to 1967. ... Van Johnson (born Charles Van Johnson on August 25, 1916, in Newport, Rhode Island) is an American film and television actor and dancer. ... The Purple Heart is a 1944 US film. ... Dana Andrews (January 1, 1909 - December 17, 1992) was an American film actor. ...


The 2001 film Pearl Harbor presented a heavily fictionalized version of the raid, with the attack portrayed as having destroyed an entire industrial area against withering antiaircraft gunfire and with many other major technical inaccuracies. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A highly fictionalized film in 1943, Destination Tokyo starring Cary Grant, tangentially involved the raid, concentrating on the fictional submarine USS Copperfin. The submarine's mission is to enter Tokyo Bay undetected and place a landing party ashore to obtain weather information vital to the upcoming Doolittle raid. The film suggests the raid did not launch until up-to-the-minute data was received. However, all the after-action reports indicated the raid launched without time for weather briefings because of the encounter with the picket ships.[1] Destination Tokyo is a war film released in 1943. ... This article is about the British actor. ... USS Copperfin is the fictitious submarine on which the 1943 movie Destination Tokyo was set. ... Tokyo Bay from space Tokyo Bay ) is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. ...


Many books were written about the Doolittle Raid after the war. Doolittle's Tokyo Raiders, by C.V. Glines, tells the complete story of the raid, including the unique experiences of each B-25 crew. Guests of the Kremlin, written by copilot Bob Emmens, describes his crew's adventures as internees in Russia after their landing in that country following the raid. Four Came Home, also by C.V. Glines, tells the story of Nielsen, Hite, Barr, and DeShazer, the Raiders who were held in POW camps for over three years. The First Heroes, by Craig Nelson, goes into great detail of the events leading up to the raid and the aftermath for all the pilots and their families. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


A related VHS video with some excellent old clips of Doolittle and the flight preparations, and the B-25s launching, is DeShazer, the story of missionary Sergeant Jake DeShazer of B-25 #16 (the last to launch from the Hornet). The video is based on "The Amazing Story of Sergeant Jacob De Shazer: The Doolittle Raider Who Turned Missionary by C. Hoyt Watson. At the end of both the video and the book, DeShazer after the end of the war meets Mitsuo Fuchida, the commander and lead pilot of the Pearl Harbor raid. Jacob DeShazer (November 15, 1912– ) was born in Salem, Oregon. ... Fuchida in training for attack on Pearl Harbor Mitsuo Fuchida (December 3, 1902 - May 30, 1976) was a Lieutenant-Commander (少佐) in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and a pilot before and during World War II. He headed the formation that led the first wave of attacks on Pearl Harbor...


Doolittle Raiders exhibit

NMUSAF Doolittle Raid exhibit
NMUSAF Doolittle Raid exhibit

The most complete display of Doolittle Raid memorabilia can be seen at the National Museum of the United States Air Force (on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) in Dayton, Ohio. The centerpiece is a like-new B-25, which is painted and marked as Doolittle's aircraft (although it is actually a B-25D). The bomber, which North American Aviation presented to the Raiders in 1958, rests on a reproduction of the USS Hornet's flight deck. The scene is made even more realistic through the use of several authentically-dressed mannequins surrounding the aircraft; these include representations of Doolittle, USS Hornet skipper Captain Marc Mitscher, and groups of Army and Navy personnel loading the aircraft's bombs and ammunition. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... View of the National Museum of the United States Air Force Main entrance to the museum The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located at Wright-Patterson Air... View of the National Museum of the United States Air Force Main entrance to the museum The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located at Wright-Patterson Air... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Riverside, Fairborn, Beavercreek, and Dayton, Ohio. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... B-25 Mitchell, England, 2001 B_25 Mitchell was a twin_engined, medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation in the United States and used during World War II. By the time production of the plane ended, roughly 10,000 had been built, including PBJ_1 Navy Patrol Bomber and an F-10... North American Aviation was a major US aircraft manufacturer. ... Admiral Marc A. Mitscher Marc Andrew Pete Mitscher, (26 January 1887 - 3 February 1947) was an admiral in the United States Navy, notable as commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force in the latter half of World War II in the Pacific. ...

Raiders' goblets
Raiders' goblets

Other highlights of the exhibit are the silver goblets used by the Raiders at each of their annual reunions; pieces of flight clothing and personal equipment; a parachute used by one of the Raiders in his bailout over China; and group photographs of all 16 crews. Many other interesting items are also included in this unique collection. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 798 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2832 × 2128 pixel, file size: 921 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 798 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2832 × 2128 pixel, file size: 921 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


A fragment of the wreckage of one of the aircraft as well as the medals awarded to Doolittle are on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


References

  • Glines, Carroll V. The Doolittle Raid: America's Daring First Strike Against Japan. New York: Orion Books, 1988. ISBN 0-88740-347-6.
  • Glover, Charles E. "Jimmy Doolittle’s One Moment in Time." The Palm Beach Post, 18 April 1992.
  • Hasley, Edward. War Stories: Heroism in the Pacific. War Stories: Heroism in the Pacific Access date: 18 February 1996.
  • Hayostek, Cindy. Exploits of a Doolittle Raider.Exploits of a Doolittle Raider Access date: 21 July 1998.
  • Oxford, Edward. "Against All Odds: B-25 Bombers Strike Japan in 1942." American History Illustrated, March-April 1992.
  • Watson, Charles Hoyt. DeShazer: The Doolittle Raider Who Turned Missionary. Winona Lake, Indiana: The Light and Life Press, 1950.
  • We Were Guests of the Kremlin. ISBN 0-923891-81-1

is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The Palm Beach Post is a major daily newspaper in Florida, serving mainly Palm Beach, Martin, and St. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

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Doolittle Raid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2930 words)
The raid, however, had its roots in the mind of Navy Captain Francis Low, who early in the war predicted that, under the right conditions, twin-engined Army bombers could be successfully launched from an aircraft carrier.
Immediately following the raid, Jimmy Doolittle told his crew that he believed the loss of all 16 aircraft, coupled with the relatively minor damage the planes had inflicted on their targets, had rendered the attack a failure, and that he expected a court martial upon his return to the United States.
Instead, the raid bolstered American morale to such an extent that Doolittle was awarded the Medal of Honor by President Roosevelt and promoted two grades to Brigadier General, skipping the rank of colonel.
Doolittle Raid - definition of Doolittle Raid in Encyclopedia (902 words)
The Doolittle Raid was a bomber raid launched on the Japanese mainland on April 18, 1942.
The raid — largely a propaganda and morale-building exercise — was planned and led by then Lieutenant Colonel James Harold Doolittle.
The raid was made possible by a technical observation of Captain Francis Low that twin-engined bombers could be launched from an aircraft carrier.
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