FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Donkey Kong (video game)
Donkey Kong

Title screen (arcade version)
Developer(s) Nintendo R&D1
Publisher(s) Nintendo
Designer(s) Shigeru Miyamoto
Series Donkey Kong, Mario
Engine Radar Scope
Platform(s) Arcade, Apple II, Atari 2600, Atari 7800, Atari 8-bit, ColecoVision, Commodore 64, DOS, Game Boy Advance, Famicom Disk System, Intellivision, MSX, NES, TI-99/4A, VIC-20, Virtual Console, ZX Spectrum
Release date Arcade version
1981
2600, ColecoVision, INTV versions
1982
Atari 8-bit, Apple II, C64, TI-99, MS-DOS versions
1983
NES version
JP July 15, 1983
NA June 1986
EU October 15, 1986
FDS version
JP April 8, 1988
7800 version
NA 1988
Virtual Console
NA November 19, 2006
JP December 2, 2006
EU December 8, 2006
Genre(s) Platform
Mode(s) Up to two players, alternating turns
Rating(s) ESRB: E (Everyone) (GBA, Wii)
Input methods 4-way joystick, 1 button
Cabinet Upright, mini and cocktail
Arcade system Main CPU: Zilog Z80 (@ 3.072 MHz)
Sound CPU: I8035 (@ 400 kHz)
Sound Chips: DAC (@ 400 kHz), samples (@ 400 kHz)
Monitor: Raster, standard resolution 224 x 256 (vertical) palette colors 256

Donkey Kong (ドンキーコング Donkī Kongu?) is an arcade game that was released by Nintendo in 1981. The game is an early example of the platform genre as the gameplay focuses on maneuvering the main character across a series of platforms while dodging obstacles. The storyline is thin but well-developed for its time. In it, Mario (originally called Jumpman) must rescue a damsel in distress, Pauline, from a giant ape named Donkey Kong. The hero and ape went on to become two of Nintendo's more popular characters. Image File history File links Dkong_title. ... A video game developer is a software developer (a business or an individual) that creates video games. ... Nintendo Research and Development 1 (R&D1) is Nintendos oldest development team. ... For the video game system, see Nintendo Entertainment System. ... A game designer is a person who designs games. ... Shigeru Miyamoto , born November 16, 1952) is a Japanese video game designer. ... Donkey Kong is a video game series created by Shigeru Miyamoto, featuring a gorilla called Donkey Kong. ... The title screen The Mario series is a series of platform games by Nintendo, featuring the Mario brothers themselves, Nintendos mascot Mario, and in most of the games, his brother Luigi. ... A game engine is the core software component of a computer video game or other interactive application with real-time graphics. ... Radar Scope is an early arcade game designed by Nintendo, developed by Ikegami Tsushinki and released by Nintendo in November, 1980. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The Atari 7800 is a video game console released by Atari in June 1986 (a test market release occurred two years earlier). ... An Atari 800XL, one of the most popular machines in the series. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... C-64 redirects here. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... “GBA” redirects here. ... Legend of Zelda Famicom Disk The Family Computer Disk System , FDS) was released on February 21, 1986 by Nintendo as a peripheral to their overwhelmingly popular Family Computer (Famicom) console in Japan. ... The Intellivision is a video game console released by Mattel in 1979. ... Sony MSX 1, Model HitBit-10-P MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture in the 1980s. ... “NES” redirects here. ... The Texas Instruments TI-99/4A was an early home computer, released in June 1981, originally at a price of $525. ... The VIC-20 (Germany: VC-20; Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer. ... This article is about Nintendos emulation feature and download service. ... The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ... 1981 1981 in games 1980 in video gaming 1982 in video gaming Notable events of 1981 in computer and video games. ... 1982 1982 in games 1981 in video gaming 1983 in video gaming Notable events of 1982 in computer and video games. ... 1983 1983 in games 1982 in video gaming 1984 in video gaming Notable events of 1983 in computer and video games. ... This article is about the country in East Asia. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... North American redirects here. ... 1986 1986 in games 1985 in video gaming 1987 in video gaming Notable events of 1986 in computer and video games. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the country in East Asia. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... North American redirects here. ... Notable events of 1988 in computer and video games. ... North American redirects here. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the country in East Asia. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Further information: Game classification Video games are categorized into genres based on their gameplay interaction. ... A simple platform sequence from the game Wonder Boy Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by jumping to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles. ... A video game content rating system is a system used for the classification of video games into suitability-related groups. ... The ESRBs logo. ... For other uses, see Joystick (disambiguation). ... CPU redirects here. ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. ... The Intel 8048 microcontroller (µC), Intels first µC, was used in the Magnavox Odyssey² video game console, the Roland Jupiter-4 and Roland ProMars analog synthesizers, and (in its 8042 variant) in the original IBM PC keyboard. ... 8-channel digital-to-analog converter Cirrus Logic CS4382 placed on Sound Blaster X-Fi Fatal1ty In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or electric charge). ... A sample refers to a value or set of values at a point in time and/or space. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... For the video game system, see Nintendo Entertainment System. ... 1981 1981 in games 1980 in video gaming 1982 in video gaming Notable events of 1981 in computer and video games. ... A simple platform sequence from the game Wonder Boy Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by jumping to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles. ... Gameplay includes all player experiences during the interaction with game systems, especially formal games. ... Mario ) is a video game character created by Japanese game designer Shigeru Miyamoto and the official mascot of Nintendo. ... A poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... Donkey Kong ), sometimes abbreviated to DK, is a fictional character who first appeared in Nintendos popular 1981 video game bearing the same name. ...


The game was the latest in a series of efforts by Nintendo to break into the North American market. Hiroshi Yamauchi, Nintendo's president at the time, assigned the project to a first-time game designer named Shigeru Miyamoto. Drawing from a wide range of inspirations, including Popeye and King Kong, Miyamoto developed the scenario and designed the game alongside Nintendo's chief engineer, Gunpei Yokoi. The two men broke new ground by using graphics as a means of characterization, including cut scenes to advance the game's plot, and integrating multiple stages into the gameplay. Image:Yamauchi. ... A game designer is a person who designs games. ... Shigeru Miyamoto , born November 16, 1952) is a Japanese video game designer. ... For other uses, see Popeye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see King Kong (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cut scene or cutscene (sometimes also referred to as a cinematic) is a sequence in a video game over which the player has no control. ...


Despite initial misgivings on the part of Nintendo's American staff, Donkey Kong proved a tremendous success in both North America and Japan. Nintendo licensed the game to Coleco, who developed home console versions for numerous platforms. Other companies simply cloned Nintendo's hit and avoided royalties altogether. Miyamoto's characters appeared on cereal boxes, television cartoons, and dozens of other places. A court suit brought on by Universal City Studios, alleging that Donkey Kong violated their trademark of King Kong, ultimately failed. The success of Donkey Kong and Nintendo's win in the courtroom helped position the company to dominate the video game market in the 1980s and early 1990s. To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... Coleco (1932 - 1989) was a company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as Connecticut Leather Company. It became a highly successful toy company in the 1980s, known for its mass-produced version of Cabbage Patch Kids and, to a lesser extent, for its video game consoles Coleco Telstar and ColecoVision. ... Game console redirects here. ... In the computer and video game industry, a clone is a game or game series which is very similar to or heavily inspired by a previous popular game or game series. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ...

Contents

Story and characters

The eponymous Donkey Kong is the game's de facto villain. He is the pet of a carpenter named Jumpman (a name chosen for its similarity to "Walkman" and "Pac-Man"; the character was later renamed Mario, and made a plumber, not a carpenter).[1] The carpenter mistreats the ape, so Donkey Kong escapes and kidnaps Jumpman/Mario's girlfriend, originally known as the Lady, but later named Pauline. The player must take the role of Jumpman/Mario and rescue the girl. This was the first occurrence of the damsel-in-distress scenario that would provide the template for countless video games to come.[2] Donkey Kong ), sometimes abbreviated to DK, is a fictional character who first appeared in Nintendos popular 1981 video game bearing the same name. ... SONY Recorder Walkman (TCM-S68V) MD Walkman The Sony Walkman personal stereo was a transistorized miniature portable cassette tape player invented by Akio Morita, Masaru Ibuka and Kozo Ohsone, and manufactured by Sony Corporation. ... Pac-Man is an arcade game developed by Namco and licensed for distribution by Midway Games in 1979. ... Mario ) is a video game character created by Japanese game designer Shigeru Miyamoto and the official mascot of Nintendo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Donkey Kong characters. ... A poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ...

At game's end, Mario/Jumpman and Pauline/the Lady are reunited.

The game uses graphics and animation as vehicles of characterization. Donkey Kong smirks upon Jumpman/Mario's demise. The Lady/Pauline is instantly recognized as female from her pink dress and long hair,[3] and "HELP!" appears frequently beside her. Jumpman/Mario, depicted in red overalls and cap, is an everyman character, a type common in Japan. Graphical limitations forced his design: Drawing a mouth was too difficult, so the character got a mustache;[4] the programmers could not animate hair, so he got a cap; and to make his arm movements visible, he needed colored overalls.[5] The artwork used for the cabinets and promotional materials make these cartoon-like character designs even more explicit. The Lady/Pauline, for example, appears as a disheveled Fay Wray in a torn dress and stiletto heels. Image File history File links Dkong_end. ... Image File history File links Dkong_end. ... Mario ) is a video game character created by Japanese game designer Shigeru Miyamoto and the official mascot of Nintendo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Donkey Kong characters. ... For other uses, see Everyman (disambiguation). ... Vina Fay Wray (September 15, 1907 – August 8, 2004) was a Canadian–American actress. ... For other uses, see Stiletto (disambiguation). ...


Donkey Kong is the first example of a complete narrative told in video game form, and it employs cut scenes to advance its plot. The game opens with the gorilla climbing a pair of ladders to the top of a construction site. He sets the Lady/Pauline down and stamps his feet, causing the steel beams to change shape. He then moves to his final perch and sneers. This brief animation sets the scene and adds background to the gameplay, a first for video games. Upon reaching the end of the stage, another cut scene begins. A heart appears between Jumpman/Mario and the Lady/Pauline, but Donkey Kong grabs the woman and climbs higher, causing the heart to break. The narrative concludes when Jumpman/Mario reaches the end of the final stage. He and the Lady/Pauline are reunited, and a short intermission plays.[6] The game then starts over at a higher level of difficulty. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A cut scene or cutscene (sometimes also referred to as a cinematic) is a sequence in a video game over which the player has no control. ...


Gameplay

Donkey Kong is an early example of the platform genre (it is sometimes said to be the first platform game, although it was preceded by Space Panic and Apple Panic).[7] Competitive video gamers and referees stress the game's high level of difficulty compared to other classic arcade games. Winning the game requires patience and the ability to accurately time Jumpman's ascent.[2] In addition to presenting the goal of saving the Lady/Pauline, the game also gives the player a score. Points are awarded for finishing screens; leaping over obstacles; destroying objects with a hammer power-up; collecting items such as hats, parasols, and purses (presumably belonging to the Lady/Pauline); and completing other tasks. The player receives three lives with a bonus awarded for the first 7,000 points[8]. The highest recorded score was set by Billy Mitchell on June 26, 2007; he achieved 1,050,200 points.[9] A simple platform sequence from the game Wonder Boy Platform game, or platformer, is a video game genre characterized by jumping to and from suspended platforms or over obstacles. ... Screenshot of the ColecoVision port Space Panic is a 1980 arcade game designed by Universal. ... Apple Panic is a 1982 platform game for the Apple II programmed by Ben Serki of Broderbund Software. ... In a game the score refers to the amount of points achieved by a player or team. ... Power Up, the Professional Organization of Women in Entertainment Reaching Up is an organization with the stated mission to promote the visibility and integration of gay women in entertainment, the arts, and all forms of media. Power Up provided funding and assistance to the 2003 short film . ... 1-up (or 1UP, 1-UP, etc. ... Billy Mitchell, born July 16, 1965, in Holyoke, Massachusetts, is a video game player best known for recording high scores in arcade games from the so-called Golden Age of Arcade Games. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The game is divided into four different one-screen stages. Each represents 25 meters of the structure Donkey Kong has climbed, one stage being 25 meters higher than the previous. The final screen occurs at 100 m. Later ports of the game omit or change the sequence of the screens; the original arcade version includes: In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ...

  • Screen 1 (25 m)—Jumpman/Mario must scale a seven-story construction site made of crooked girders and ladders while jumping over or hammering barrels and oil barrels tossed by Donkey Kong. The hero must also avoid flaming balls, which generate when an oil barrel collides with an oil drum. Players routinely call this screen "Barrels".[10]
  • Screen 2 (50 m)—Jumpman/Mario must climb a five-story structure of conveyor belts, each of which transports pans of cement. The fireballs also make another appearance. This screen is sometimes referred to as the "Factory" or "Pie Factory" due to the resemblance of the cement pans to pies.[10]
  • Screen 3 (75 m)—Jumpman/Mario rides up and down elevators while avoiding fireballs and bouncing objects, presumably spring-weights. The bouncing weights (the hero's greatest danger in this screen) emerge on the top level and drop near the rightmost elevator. The screen's common name is "Elevators".[10] This level was replicated as a stage in Super Smash Bros. Brawl.
  • Screen 4 (100 m)—Jumpman/Mario must remove eight rivets, which support Donkey Kong. The fireballs remain the primary obstacle. Removing the final rivet causes Donkey Kong to fall and the hero to be reunited with the Lady/Pauline. This is the final screen of each level. Players refer to this screen as "Rivets".[10]

These screens combine to form levels, which become progressively harder. For example, Donkey Kong begins to hurl barrels more rapidly and sometimes diagonally, and fireballs get quicker. The victory music alternates between levels 1 and 2. The 22nd level is unofficially known as the kill screen due to an error in the game's programming that kills Jumpman after a few seconds, effectively ending the game.[10] With its four unique levels, Donkey Kong was the most complex video game at the time of its release, and only the second game to feature multiple levels. (The first was Gorf by Midway Games.)[11] Super Smash Bros. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gorf is an arcade game released in 1981 by Midway Mfg. ... Midway Games (NYSE: MWY) is an American video game publisher. ...


Development

As of the beginning of 1981, Nintendo's efforts to crack the North American video game market had all failed, culminating with the flop Radar Scope in 1980. In order to keep the company afloat, company president Hiroshi Yamauchi decided to convert unsold Radar Scope games into something new. He approached a young industrial designer named Shigeru Miyamoto, who had been working for Nintendo since 1977, to see if Miyamoto thought that he could design an arcade game. Miyamoto said that he could.[12] Yamauchi appointed Nintendo's head engineer, Gunpei Yokoi, to supervise the project. For the video game system, see Nintendo Entertainment System. ... North American redirects here. ... Radar Scope is an early arcade game designed by Nintendo, developed by Ikegami Tsushinki and released by Nintendo in November, 1980. ... Image:Yamauchi. ... Example of industrial design item - hanger chair Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... Shigeru Miyamoto , born November 16, 1952) is a Japanese video game designer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


At the time, Nintendo was pursuing a license to make a game based on the Popeye comic strip. When this fell through, Nintendo decided that it would take the opportunity to create new characters that could then be marketed and used in later games.[5] Miyamoto came up with many characters and plot concepts, but he eventually settled on a gorilla/carpenter/girlfriend love triangle that mirrored the rivalry between Bluto and Popeye for Olive Oyl.[1] Bluto became an ape, who in Miyamoto's words was "nothing too evil or repulsive". He would be the pet of the main character, "a funny, hang-loose kind of guy".[13] Miyamoto has also named "Beauty and the Beast" and the 1933 film King Kong as influences.[14] Although its origin as a comic strip license played a major part, Donkey Kong marked the first time that the storyline for a video game preceded the game's programming rather than simply being appended as an afterthought.[15] For other uses, see Popeye (disambiguation). ... A love triangle is a romantic relationship involving three people. ... Bluto, in Im in the Army Now (1936) Bluto is a cartoon character created in 1933 by Fleischer Studios for its Popeye the Sailor theatrical animated series. ... For other uses, see Popeye (disambiguation). ... Olive Oyl in Little Swee Pea (1936). ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... This is about the original movie and novel. ... Programming redirects here. ...


Yamauchi wanted to primarily target the North American market, so he mandated that the game be given an English title. Miyamoto decided to name the game for the ape, whom he felt to be the strongest character.[1] The story of exactly how Miyamoto came up with the name Donkey Kong varies. A popular urban myth says that the name was originally meant to be Monkey Kong but was misspelled or misinterpreted due to a blurred fax or bad telephone connection.[16] Another story claims that Miyamoto looked in a Japanese-English dictionary for something that would mean stubborn gorilla[17] or that Donkey was meant to convey silly and that Kong was common Japanese slang for gorilla.[5] A rival claim is that he worked with Nintendo's export manager to come up with the title, and that Donkey was meant to represent stupid and goofy.[18]


Miyamoto had high hopes for his new project. He lacked the technical background to program it himself, so he instead came up with concepts and ran them by the technicians to see if they were possible. He wanted to make the characters different sizes, move them in different manners, and make them react in various ways. Yokoi declared Miyamoto's original design too complex.[19] Another idea that Yokoi himself suggested was to use see-saws that the hero could use to catapult himself across the screen; this too proved too difficult to program. Miyamoto then came up with the idea to use sloped platforms, barrels, and ladders. When he specified that the game would have multiple stages, the four-man programming team complained that he was essentially asking them to make the game over and over.[20] Nevertheless, they followed Miyamoto's design, creating about 20 000 lines of code.[21] Meanwhile, Miyamoto composed the game's music on an electronic keyboard.[22]


Hiroshi Yamauchi knew that Nintendo had a hit on its hands and called up Minoru Arakawa, head of Nintendo's operations in the U.S., to tell him.[23] Nintendo's American distributors, Ron Judy and Al Stone, brought Arakawa to a lawyer named Howard Lincoln to secure a trademark. Minoru Arakawa (荒川實, Arakawa Minoru; born September 3, 1946) was the president of Nintendo of America (NOA) from 1980 to 2002. ... Howard Charles Lincoln (b. ...

Donkey Kong promotional flier from 1981 showing Mario, Donkey Kong, and Pauline in their full-bodied, cartoon forms

The game was sent to Nintendo of America for testing. The sales manager hated it for being too different from the maze and shooter games common at the time,[24] and Judy and Lincoln expressed reservations over the strange title. Still, Arakawa swore that it would be big.[23] American staffers pleaded with Yamauchi to at least change the name, but he refused. Resigned, Arakawa and the American staff set about translating the storyline for the cabinet art and naming the other characters. They chose Pauline for the girl, after Polly James, wife of Nintendo's Redmond, Washington, warehouse manager, Don James. Mario was named for Mario Segali, the warehouse landlord.[25] These character names were printed on the American cabinet art and used in promotional materials. Donkey Kong was ready for release. Image File history File linksMetadata Donkey_Kong_flier. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Donkey_Kong_flier. ... Nintendo Corporation, Limited (Japanese: 任天堂; Ninten is translated roughly as leave luck to heaven or in heavens hands, do is a common suffix for names of shops or laboratories; TSE: NTDOY) was originally founded in 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards, for use in a Japanese... Shooter games cover a fairly broad spectrum of sub-genres that have the commonality of controlling a character who is usually armed with a firearm that can be freely aimed. ... Location of Redmond within King County, and King County within Washington. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Don James (born December 31, 1932 in Massillon, Ohio) was a college football coach at the University of Washington. ...


Stone and Judy convinced the managers of two bars in Seattle, Washington, to set up Donkey Kong machines. The managers initially showed reluctance, but when they saw sales of $30 a day—or 120 plays—for a week straight, they requested more units.[26] In their Redmond headquarters, a skeleton crew composed of Arakawa, his wife Yoko, James, Judy, Phillips, and Stone set about gutting 2,000 surplus Radar Scope machines and converting them with Donkey Kong motherboards and power supplies from Japan. The game officially went on sale in July 1981. Seattle redirects here. ...


In his 1982 book Video Invaders, Steve Bloom describes Donkey Kong as "another bizarre cartoon game, courtesy of Japan."[27] To American and Canadian gamers, however, Donkey Kong was irresistible. The game's initial 2,000 units sold through, and more orders poured in. Arakawa began manufacturing the electronic components in Redmond because waiting for shipments from Japan was taking too long.[28] By October, Donkey Kong was selling 4,000 units a month, and by late June 1982, Nintendo had sold 60,000 Donkey Kong games overall and earned some $180 million.[29] Judy and Stone, who worked on straight commission, became millionaires.[28] Arakawa used Nintendo's profits to buy 27 acres of land in Redmond in July 1982.[30] The game made another $100 million in its second year of release.[31] It remained Nintendo's top seller even into summer 1983.[32] Donkey Kong sold steadily in Japan, as well.[33]


Licensing and ports

By late June 1982, Donkey Kong's success had prompted more than 50 parties in the U.S. and Japan to license the game's characters.[34] Mario and his simian nemesis appeared on cereal boxes, board games, pajamas, and manga. In 1983, the animation studio Ruby-Spears produced a Donkey Kong cartoon (as well as Donkey Kong Jr) for the Saturday Supercade program on CBS. In the show, mystery crime-solving plots in the mode of Scooby-Doo are framed around the premise of Mario and Pauline chasing Donkey Kong, who has escaped from the circus. The show lasted two seasons. To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Ruby-Spears Productions (also known as Ruby-Spears Enterprises) is a California-based entertainment production company that specializes in animation. ... Saturday Supercade was an animated television series produced for Saturday mornings by Ruby-Spears Productions. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Basil Rathbone as Sherlock Holmes Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centers upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... Scooby-doo is also British naval divers slang for civilian sport scuba diver. Scooby-Doo is an important character in animation up to this day Scooby-Doo is a long-running animated series produced for television by Hanna-Barbera Productions from 1969 to 1986, 1988 to 1991, and from 2002...

Instructions to the Coleco tabletop version of Donkey Kong, 1982

Makers of video game consoles were interested, as well. Taito offered a considerable sum to buy all rights to Donkey Kong, but Nintendo turned them down.[35] Rivals Coleco and Atari approached Nintendo in Japan and the United States respectively. In the end, Yamauchi granted Coleco exclusive console and tabletop rights to Donkey Kong because he felt that "It [was] the hungriest company".[36] In addition, Arakawa felt that as a more established company in the U.S., Coleco could better handle marketing. In return, Nintendo would receive an undisclosed lump sum plus $1.40 per game cartridge sold and $1 per tabletop unit. On December 24, 1981, Howard Lincoln drafted the contract. He included language that Coleco would be held liable for anything on the game cartridge, an unusual clause for a licensing agreement.[37] Arakawa signed the document the next day, and on February 1, 1982, Yamauchi persuaded the Coleco representative in Japan to sign without running the document by the company's lawyers.[38] Image File history File links Donkey_Kong_tabletop_instructions. ... Image File history File links Donkey_Kong_tabletop_instructions. ... Game console redirects here. ... The Taito Corporation (タイトー株式会社, taitou kabushikigaisha) TYO: 9646 is a Japanese developer of video game software and arcade hardware. ... Coleco (1932 - 1989) was a company founded in 1932 by Maurice Greenberg as Connecticut Leather Company. It became a highly successful toy company in the 1980s, known for its mass-produced version of Cabbage Patch Kids and, to a lesser extent, for its video game consoles Coleco Telstar and ColecoVision. ... This article is about the corporate game company. ... Tabletop game is a general term used to refer to card games, board games, parlor games, role-playing games, miniature wargames, tile-based games and other games that are normally played on a table or other flat surface. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Coleco did not offer the game stand-alone; instead, they bundled it with their ColecoVision. The units went on sale in July 1982. Coleco's version is very close to the arcade, more so than ports of earlier games that had been done. Six months later, Coleco offered Atari 2600 and Intellivision versions, too. Coleco's sales doubled to $500 million and their earnings quadrupled to $40 million.[39] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Atari 2600, released in October 1977, is the video game console credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor based hardware and cartridges containing game code, instead of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware with all games built in. ... The Intellivision is a video game console released by Mattel in 1979. ...

Donkey Kong was ported to many systems, including the ColecoVision, shown here.

Meanwhile, Atari got the rights to the floppy disk version of Donkey Kong and prepared the Atari 800 version of the game. When Coleco unveiled the Adam Computer, playing a port of Donkey Kong at the 1983 Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, Illinois, Atari protested. Yamauchi demanded that Arnold Greenberg, Coleco's president, shelve his Adam port. This version of the game was cartridge-based, and thus not a violation of Nintendo's license with Atari; still, Greenberg complied. Ray Kassar of Atari was fired the next month, and the home PC version of Donkey Kong fell through.[40] Image File history File links screenshot Colecovision Donkey Kong (arcade game) by me This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... Image File history File links screenshot Colecovision Donkey Kong (arcade game) by me This is a screenshot of a copyrighted computer game or video game. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ... An Atari 800XL, one of the most popular machines in the series. ... Memory console and keyboard for Coleco Adam computer expansion for the Colecovision The Coleco Adam was a home computer, an attempt in the early 1980s by American toy manufacturer Coleco to follow on the success of its ColecoVision game console. ... The International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) is a trade show held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Arnold Greenberg is an American businessman best known as the CEO of Coleco in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Raymond E. Kassar (born January 2, 1928) was president, and later CEO, of Atari from 1978 to 1983. ...


The Atari Computer console versions include all four levels of the original arcade game. Most console releases omit the conveyor belt level and make other changes. For example, the ColecoVision release lacks projectile springboards on the elevator level. The Atari 2600 and Intellivision releases omit the elevator level entirely.

The Game & Watch version of Donkey Kong.

Miyamoto created a greatly simplified version for the Game & Watch multiscreen. Other ports include the Apple II, Atari 7800, Commodore 64, Commodore VIC-20, Famicom Disk System, PC, ZX Spectrum, Amstrad CPC and Mini-Arcade. The game was ported to the Famicom in 1983 as one of the system's three launch titles; the same version was a launch title for the Famicom's North American version, the NES. However, the cement factory level is not included, mainly due to storage limitations. At the title screen, this port includes a new song composed by Yukio Kaneoka; an arrangement of the tune called "Simian Segue" appears in Donkey Kong Country for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. The NES version was re-released as an unlockable game in Animal Crossing for the GameCube and as an item for purchase on the Wii's Virtual Console. The original arcade version of the game appears in the Nintendo 64 game Donkey Kong 64. In 2004, Nintendo released the NES version for the Game Boy Advance Classic NES series and on the e-Reader.[41] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (893x983, 1846 KB) Summary Picture of the Game & Watch title Donkey Kong. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (893x983, 1846 KB) Summary Picture of the Game & Watch title Donkey Kong. ... (New Wide Screen), 1982 The Game & Watch (G&W) series were handheld electronic games made by Nintendo and created by its game designer Gunpei Yokoi from 1980 to 1991. ... (New Wide Screen), 1982 The Game & Watch (G&W) series were handheld electronic games made by Nintendo and created by its game designer Gunpei Yokoi from 1980 to 1991. ... The 1977 Apple II, complete with integrated keyboard, color graphics, sound, a plastic case and eight expansion slots. ... The Atari 7800 is a video game console released by Atari in June 1986 (a test market release occurred two years earlier). ... C-64 redirects here. ... The VIC-20 (Germany: VC-20; Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer. ... Legend of Zelda Famicom Disk The Family Computer Disk System , FDS) was released on February 21, 1986 by Nintendo as a peripheral to their overwhelmingly popular Family Computer (Famicom) console in Japan. ... IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones since they almost exactly duplicated all the significant features of the PC, XT, or AT internal design, facilitated by various manufacturers... The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ... The Amstrad CPC was a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad during the 1980s and early 1990s. ... “NES” redirects here. ... Super Mario Brothers was a launch title for the NES. A launch title is a video game that has been made available to consumers synchronously with its respective video game console, meaning they are the only available games at the time of the consoles launch. ... Yukio Kaneoka ) is a Japanese video game music composer working for Nintendo. ... For the television series, see Donkey Kong Country (TV series). ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ... For other uses, see Animal Crossing (disambiguation). ... The Nintendo GameCube (GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the sixth generation era. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... This article is about Nintendos emulation feature and download service. ... The Nintendo 64, often abbreviated as N64, is Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... Donkey Kong 64 is a 3D platformer video game developed by Rare for the Nintendo 64. ... “GBA” redirects here. ... The Classic NES Series in North America (Famicom Mini Series in Japan and NES Classics in Europe) are a series of Game Boy Advance games that were originally released on the Nintendo Entertainment System/Famicom and Famicom Disk System emulated on the Game Boy Advance. ... This article is about the Nintendo device. ...


Legacy

Other companies bypassed Nintendo completely. In 1981, O.R. Rissman, president of Tiger Electronics, obtained a license to use the name King Kong from Universal City Studios. Under this title, Tiger created a handheld game with a scenario and gameplay based directly on Nintendo's creation. Tiger Electronics is an American toy manufacturer, best known for their handheld LCD games, the Furby, and Giga Pets. ... For other uses, see King Kong (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... A handheld game console is a lightweight, portable electronic machine for playing video games. ...


Crazy Kong is another example, a clone manufactured by Falcon and licensed for some non-American markets. Nevertheless, Crazy Kong machines found their way into some American arcades during the early 1980s, often installed in cabinets marked as Congorilla. Nintendo was quick to take legal action against those distributing the game in the U.S.[42] Bootleg copies of Donkey Kong also appeared in both North America and France under the Crazy Kong or Donkey King names. In 1983, Sega created its own Donkey Kong clone called Congo Bongo. Despite being in isometric perspective, the gameplay is very similar. Clones on the TRS-80 Color Computer include Donkey King and Monkey Kong. Crazy Kong (J: クレイジーコング) is an arcade game created by Falcon, released in 1981 and is almost exactly the same as Nintendos Donkey Kong. ... In the computer and video game industry, a clone is a game or game series which is very similar to or heavily inspired by a previous popular game or game series. ... The Cathach of St. ... This article is about the video game company. ... Congo Bongo (J: Tip Top )) is an arcade game developed by Ikegami Tsushinki and released by Sega in 1983. ... An isometric drawing of a cube. ... 4k TRS-80 Color Computer from 1981, 26-3001 The Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer (also called Tandy Color Computer, or CoCo) was a home computer based around the Motorola 6809E processor and part of the TRS-80 line. ...


Donkey Kong spawned two direct sequels: Donkey Kong Jr. and Donkey Kong 3. Mario Bros. is a spin-off featuring Mario. A later sequel (unofficially called GB Donkey Kong or Donkey Kong '94) that pairs Donkey Kong and Donkey Kong Junior. It starts with the same damsel-in-distress premise and four basic locations as the arcade game then progresses to other puzzle-based levels. Nintendo revived the Donkey Kong license in the 1990s for a series of platform games and spin-offs developed by Rare, beginning with Donkey Kong Country in 1994. Donkey Kong Jungle Beat (2005) is the latest in this series. In 2004, Nintendo released Mario vs. Donkey Kong, a sequel to the Game Boy title. In it, Mario must chase Donkey Kong to get back the stolen Mini-Mario toys. In the follow-up Mario vs. Donkey Kong 2: March of the Minis, the grown Donkey Kong falls in love with Pauline and kidnaps her, and Mario uses the Mini-Mario toys to help him rescue her. In 2004, Nintendo released the first of the Donkey Konga games, a series that involves a rhythm-based bongo controller. In 2007, Donkey Kong Barrel Blast was released for the Wii. Super Smash Bros. Brawl features music from the game arranged by Hirokazu "Hip" Tanaka[43] and a stage called "75m", an exact replica of its Donkey Kong namesake.[44] It has been suggested that Donkey Kong 2 be merged into this article or section. ... Donkey Kong 3 ) is the third video game in the original Donkey Kong series by Nintendo. ... This article is about the original arcade game and its ports. ... Donkey Kong (Also known as Donkey Kong 94) is a platform game developed by Nintendo for the Game Boy handheld video game system, which also contains puzzle elements. ... Rare, Ltd is a United Kingdom-based video game development company. ... For the television series, see Donkey Kong Country (TV series). ... Donkey Konga Jungle Beat ) is a Nintendo GameCube video game featuring the gorilla Donkey Kong and played with a pair of bongos (tarukonga). ... Mario vs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Donkey Kong Barrel Blast , lit. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ... Super Smash Bros. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Its success entrenched the game in American popular culture. In 1982, Buckner and Garcia and R. Cade and the Video Victims both recorded songs based on the game. Artists like DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince and Trace Adkins referenced the game in songs, as did episodes of The Simpsons and Futurama. Even today, sound effects from the Atari 2600 version often serve as generic video game sounds in films and television shows. The Killer List of Videogames ranks Donkey Kong the third most popular arcade game of all time and places it at #25 on the "Top 100 Videogames" list. It was also rated the 148th best game made on a Nintendo System in Nintendo Powers Top 200 Games list.[45] Today, Donkey Kong is the fifth most popular arcade game among collectors.[46] The 2007 motion picture documentary The King of Kong: A Fistful of Quarters explores the world of competitive classic arcade gaming and tells the story of Steve Wiebe's quest to beat Billy Mitchell's world high score in Donkey Kong. This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... Buckner & Garcia are the duo of Jerry Buckner and Gary Garcia. ... Will Smith For the geologist who invented fossil correlation, see William Smith. ... Tracy Darrell (Trace) Adkins (born January 13, 1962 in Sarepta, Louisiana) is an American country music singer-songwriter. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... This article is about the television series. ... The Killer List of Videogames (otherwise known simply as KLOV, pronounced Kay-El-Oh-Vee) is a website devoted to cataloging arcade games past and present. ... Nintendo Power magazine is a monthly news and strategy magazine formerly published in-house by Nintendo. ... Weibe speaking at Comic-Con International 2007 in San Diego Steve Wiebe (pronounced We Be) is a math and science teacher at Finn Hill Junior High, a school in Kirkland, WA. A competitive gamer, Wiebe is the current world record holder (under the current gaming guidelines) of the highest recorded... Billy Mitchell, born July 16, 1965, in Holyoke, Massachusetts, is a video game player best known for recording high scores in arcade games from the so-called Golden Age of Arcade Games. ...


Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo Co., Ltd.

Nintendo's success with Donkey Kong was not without obstacles. In April 1982, Sid Sheinberg, a seasoned lawyer and president of MCA and Universal City Studios, learned of the game's success and suspected it might be a trademark infringement of Universal's own King Kong.[29] On April 27, 1982, he met with Arnold Greenberg of Coleco and threatened to sue over Coleco's home version of Donkey Kong. Coleco agreed on May 3, 1982 to pay royalties to Universal of 3% of their Donkey Kong's net sale price, worth about $4.6 million.[47] Meanwhile, Sheinberg revoked Tiger's license to make its King Kong game, but O. R. Rissman refused to acknowledge Universal's claim to the trademark.[48] When Universal threatened Nintendo, Howard Lincoln and Nintendo refused to cave. In preparation for the court battle ahead, Universal agreed to allow Tiger to continue producing its King Kong game as long as they distinguished it from Donkey Kong. Universal City Studios, Inc. ... Sid Sheinburg was the head of Universal Studios productions from 1973 to 1995. ... The Music Corporation of America was a United States based corporation in the music business. ... Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights attaching to a registered trademark without the authorisation of the trademark owner or any licensees (provided that such authorization was within the scope of the license). ... For other uses, see King Kong (disambiguation). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Universal officially sued Nintendo on June 29, 1982 and announced its license with Coleco. The company sent cease and desist letters to Nintendo's licensees, all of which agreed to pay royalties to Universal except Milton Bradley and Ralston Purina.[49] is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Cease-and-desist is a legal term meaning essentially stop: It is used in demands for a person or organization to stop doing something (to cease and desist from doing it). ... For the Oakland Athletics outfielder, see Milton Bradley (baseball player) The Milton Bradley Company is an American game company established by Milton Bradley in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1860. ... Nestlé Purina PetCare is the pet food division of Swiss based Nestlé, following a merger in 2002 between the Nestlés Friskies PetCare Company and the American Ralston Purina Company. ...


Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo, Co., Ltd. was heard in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York by Judge Robert W. Sweet. Over seven days, Universal's counsel, the New York firm Townley & Updike, argued that the names King Kong and Donkey Kong were easily confused and that the plot of the game was an infringement on that of the films.[50] Nintendo's counsel, John Kirby, countered that Universal had themselves argued in a previous case that King Kong's scenario and characters were in the public domain. Judge Sweet ruled in Nintendo's favor, awarding the company Universal's profits from Tiger's game ($56,689.41), damages, and attorney's fees.[51] The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (S.D.N.Y.) is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties: New York (Manhattan), Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, and Sullivan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Universal appealed, trying to prove consumer confusion by presenting the results of a telephone survey and examples from print media where people had allegedly assumed a connection between the two Kongs.[52] On October 4, 1984, however, the court upheld the previous verdict. Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Nintendo and its licensees filed counterclaims against Universal. On May 20, 1985, Judge Sweet awarded Nintendo $1.8 million for legal fees, lost revenues, and other expenses.[53] However, he denied Nintendo's claim of damages from those licensees who had paid royalties to both Nintendo and Universal.[54] Both parties appealed this judgment, but the verdict was upheld on July 15, 1986.[55] A Counterclaim is made by the defendant to a civil procedure, in a main actions against the plaintiff or against the plaintiff and other persons. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Nintendo thanked John Kirby with a $30,000 sailboat christened the Donkey Kong along with "exclusive worldwide rights to use the name for sailboats".[56] More importantly, the court battle was a rite of passage for the company, teaching Nintendo that they could compete with the giants of the entertainment industry.[57]


Notes

  1. ^ a b c Kohler 39.
  2. ^ a b De Maria 82.
  3. ^ Ray 19–20.
  4. ^ Kohler 37.
  5. ^ a b c De Maria 238.
  6. ^ Kohler 40–42.
  7. ^ Crawford 94.
  8. ^ Twin Galaxies
  9. ^ Twin Galaxies.
  10. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named King_of_Kong
  11. ^ Sellers 66.
  12. ^ Kent 157.
  13. ^ Both quotes from Sheff 47.
  14. ^ Kohler 36.
  15. ^ Kohler 38.
  16. ^ Mikkelson and Mikkelson.
  17. ^ Kent 158.
  18. ^ Sheff 48–49.
  19. ^ Sheff 47–48.
  20. ^ Kohler 38–39.
  21. ^ Kent 530.
  22. ^ Sheff 48.
  23. ^ a b Kent 159.
  24. ^ Sheff 49.
  25. ^ Sheff 109.
  26. ^ Sellers 68.
  27. ^ Quoted in Kohler 5.
  28. ^ a b Kent 160.
  29. ^ a b Kent 211.
  30. ^ Sheff 113.
  31. ^ Sheff 111.
  32. ^ Kent 284.
  33. ^ Kohler 46.
  34. ^ Kent 215.
  35. ^ Sheff 110.
  36. ^ Quoted in Sheff 111.
  37. ^ Kent 208–209.
  38. ^ Sheff 112.
  39. ^ Kent 210.
  40. ^ Kent 283–285.
  41. ^ Parish
  42. ^ Second Court of Appeals, 1984, 119.
  43. ^ Smash Bros. DOJO!! - Donkey Kong. Smash Bros. Dojo.. Retrieved on 2008-03-08..
  44. ^ Smash Bros. DOJO!! - 75m. Smash Bros.Dojo. Retrieved on 2008-03-08.
  45. ^ "NP Top 200", Nintendo Power 200: 58-66, February 2006.
  46. ^ McLemore.
  47. ^ Sheff 121.
  48. ^ Kent 214.
  49. ^ Second Court of Appeals, 1986, 74–75.
  50. ^ Second Court of Appeals, 1986, 74.
  51. ^ Kent 217.
  52. ^ Second Court of Appeals, 1984, 118.
  53. ^ Kent 218.
  54. ^ Second Court of Appeals, 1986, 72.
  55. ^ Second Court of Appeals, 1986, 77–78.
  56. ^ Quoted in Sheff 126.
  57. ^ Sheff 127.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Consalvo, Mia (2003). “Hot Dates and Fairy-tale Romances”. The Video Game Theory Reader. New York: Routledge.
  • Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design. New Riders Publishing.
  • Day, Walter, chief ed. (2007). Donkey Kong: Points [Hammers Allowed] [Default, TGTS]". Twin Galaxies, LLC.
  • De Maria, Rusel, and Wilson, Johnny L. (2004). High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne.
  • Fox, Matt (2006). The Video Games Guide. Boxtree Ltd.
  • Gordon, Seth, director (2007). The King of Kong: A Fistful of Quarters. Picturehouse.
  • Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story behind the Craze that Touched Our Lives and Changed the World. New York City: Three Rivers Press.
  • Kohler, Chris (2005). Power-up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Indianapolis, Indiana: BradyGAMES.
  • McLemore, Greg, et al. (2005). "The Top Coin-operated Videogames of All Time". Accessed 15 February 2006.
  • Mikkelson, Barbara, and Mikkelson, David (February 25, 2001). "Donkey Wrong." Snopes.com. Accessed August 15, 2006.
  • Miyamoto, Shigeru, designer (1981). Donkey Kong. Nintendo.
  • Parish, Jeremy (2006-10-31). Wii Virtual Console Lineup Unveiled. 1UP.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  • Ray, Sheri Graner (2004). Gender Inclusive Game Design: Expanding the Market. Hingham, Massachusetts: Charles Rivers Media, Inc.
  • Schodt, Frederick L. (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press.
  • Sellers, John (2001). Arcade Fever: The Fan's Guide to the Golden Age of Video Games. Philadelphia: Running Book Publishers.
  • Sheff, David (1999). Game Over: Press Start to Continue: The Maturing of Mario. Wilton, Connecticut: GamePress.
  • United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit (October 4, 1984). Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo Co., Ltd.
  • United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit (15 July 1986). Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Nintendo Co., Ltd.

is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

The Killer List of Videogames (otherwise known simply as KLOV, pronounced Kay-El-Oh-Vee) is a website devoted to cataloging arcade games past and present. ... MobyGames is a website devoted to cataloging computer and video games, both past and present. ... StrategyWiki is a wiki founded in December 2005 for the gaming community. ... Donkey Kong is a video game series created by Shigeru Miyamoto, featuring a gorilla called Donkey Kong. ... It has been suggested that Donkey Kong 2 be merged into this article or section. ... Donkey Kong 3 ) is the third video game in the original Donkey Kong series by Nintendo. ... Donkey Kong (Also known as Donkey Kong 94) is a platform game developed by Nintendo for the Game Boy handheld video game system, which also contains puzzle elements. ... For the television series, see Donkey Kong Country (TV series). ... Donkey Kong 64 is a 3D platformer video game developed by Rare for the Nintendo 64. ... Donkey Kong Wii is an upcoming video game for Nintendos Wii. ... Donkey Kong Land is a video game developed by Rareware for the Game Boy. ... Donkey Kong Land 2 was the sequel to 1995s Game Boy hit, Donkey Kong Land. ... Donkey Kong Land III is the third and final entry in the Donkey Kong Land trilogy of games for the original Game Boy. ... Diddy Kong Racing is a 1997 racing game for the Nintendo 64 developed by Rareware. ... Donkey Kong Racing is a canceled video game for the Nintendo GameCube. ... Diddy Kong Pilot game was presented originally in E3 2001 by Rareware / Nintendo for GameBoy Advance. ... Diddy Kong Racing DS is a racing game developed by Rare for the Nintendo DS. It is Rares first Nintendo DS game, and was released on February 5, 2007 in North America, April 20, 2007 in Europe and April 19, 2007 in Australia. ... Donkey Kong Barrel Blast , lit. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Donkey Konga 2 is the sequel to Donkey Konga for the Nintendo GameCube, a game where you must pound on a special, barrel-like controller called the DK Bongos along with a selected song. ... // Donkey Kong Series The games in this section are classed as any single-screen games that primrily feature Donkey Kong (normally as the antgonist). ... Donkey Kong is one of the characters that helped break Nintendo into the homes and hearts of many gamers throughout the world. ... Donkey Kong Country is a computer-generated animated television series based on the successful Nintendo franchise Donkey Kong as portrayed in the Donkey Kong Country video game series by Rare. ... The title screen The Mario series is a series of platform games by Nintendo, featuring the Mario brothers themselves, Nintendos mascot Mario, and in most of the games, his brother Luigi. ... This article is about the original arcade game and its ports. ... This article is about the Super Mario Brothers video game for the NES. For other uses, see Super Mario Bros. ... SMB 2 title screen (Japanese version) Super Mario Bros. ... This article is about the version released outside of Japan. ... Super Mario Bros. ... Super Mario World , commonly abbreviated SMW) is a platform game developed and published by Nintendo Co. ... For the Nintendo DS enhanced remake, see Super Mario 64 DS. Super Mario 64 ) is a top-selling platform game developed by Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo 64. ... Super Mario Sunshine ) is a platform game developed by Nintendo Entertainment Analysis and Development and published by Nintendo for the Nintendo GameCube. ... NSMB redirects here. ... Super Mario Galaxy ) is a 3D platform game developed by Nintendo EAD Tokyo and published by Nintendo for the Wii. ... Super Mario Land ) is a platforming video game developed by Nintendo for the Game Boy video game console. ... Screenshot from Super Mario Land 2 Super Mario Land 2: 6 Golden Coins is Marios second adventure for Game Boy. ... Categories: Computer and video game stubs | 1993 computer and video games | Game Boy games ... // This category includes any of the main Mario games: platform games (2D and 3D) that feature Mario as the main player character. ... This is a list of licensed games in which Mario has appeared, in chronological order. ... Mario is the best-known icon of video gaming. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m