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Encyclopedia > Donkey
Donkey

Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Genus: Equus
Subgenus: Asinus
Species: E. asinus
Binomial name
Equus asinus
Linnaeus, 1758

The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae family, and an odd-toed ungulate. The word donkey refers to the domesticated E. asinus, while its wild ancestor, also E. asinus, is called the African wild ass. A donkey at Clovelly, North Devon, England. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Donkey may refer to: Donkey, the animal. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Binomial name Subspecies E. a. ...


Donkeys were first domesticated around 4000 BCE or before and have spread around the world in the company of humans. They continue to fill important roles in many places today and are increasing in numbers (although the African wild ass is an endangered species, as a result of anthropogenic factors). As "beasts of burden" and companions, donkeys have worked together with humans for centuries. (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... This article is about modern humans. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... A Beast of Burden is an animal that toils for the benefit of humans such as a mule or an ox. ...


A male donkey is called a jack,, a female a jennet or jenny, and a baby a colt. In the western United States, a donkey is often called a burro. A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. The mating of a male horse and a female donkey produces a hinny. While different species of the horse family can interbreed, offspring, such as the mule and hinny, are almost invariably sterile.

Contents

Traits

Donkeys grazing in central Texas.
Donkeys grazing in central Texas.

Most wild donkeys are between 1 and 1.6 m in length. Domestic donkeys stand from 0.9 to over 1.4 m tall. The Andalucian-Cordobesan breed of southern Spain can reach up to 1.6 m high. Donkeys are adapted to marginal desert lands, and have many traits that are unique to the species as a result. They need less food than horses. Overfed donkeys can suffer from a disease called laminitis. Unlike horse fur, donkey fur is not waterproof, and so they must have shelter when it rains. Wild donkeys live separated from each other, unlike tight wild horse herds. Donkeys have developed very loud voices, which can be heard for over three kilometers, to keep in contact with other donkeys of their herd over the wide spaces of the desert. Donkeys have larger ears than horses to hear the distant calls of fellow donkeys, and to help cool the donkey's blood. Donkeys' tough digestive system can break down near-inedible vegetation and extract moisture from food more efficiently. Donkeys can defend themselves with a powerful kick of their hind legs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 857 KB) Photo taken by me, July 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 857 KB) Photo taken by me, July 2006. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... This article is about arid terrain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Etymology of the name

The word donkey is an etymologically obscure word. The first written attestation of it dates to circa 1785.[1] Until recent times, the synonym ass was often used to refer to Equus asinus (e.g., as in jackass, "male donkey"); ass has clear cognates in most other Indo-European languages. However, its homonymity with the vulgar term ass for "buttocks" probably influenced its gradual replacement by donkey in the sense of Equus asinus. No credible cognate for donkey has yet been identified. Hypotheses on its derivation include the following: Etymologies redirects here. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For the specialised use of homonym in scientific nomenclature, see Homonym (botany) and Homonym (zoology). ...

  • Perhaps a diminutive of dun (dull grayish-brown), a typical donkey colour.[2]
  • Perhaps from the name Duncan.[3]
  • Perhaps of imitative origin.[3]

History

The ancestors of the modern donkey are the Nubian[4] (a medium sized donkey with a grey and white coat, stripes on back and legs and a tall, upright mane with a black tip) and Somalian subspecies of African wild ass.[5] The African Wild Ass was domesticated around 4,000 BCE. The donkey became an important pack animal for people living in the Egyptian and Nubian regions as they can easily carry 20% to 30% of their own body weight and can also be used as a farming and dairy animal. By 1800 B.C., the ass had reached the Middle East where the trading city of Damascus was referred to as the “City of Asses” in cuneiform texts. Syria produced at least three breeds of donkeys, including a saddle breed with a graceful, easy gait. These were favored by women. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 127 KB) I took this photo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 127 KB) I took this photo. ... Wythenshawe is a district in the south of the City of Manchester, in North West England. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... Look up mane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Subspecies E. a. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... A pack animal is a beast of burden used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weigh bears on the animals back; the term may be applied to either an individual animal or a species so employed. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Cuneiform redirects here. ...


For the Greeks, the donkey was associated with the Syrian god of wine, Dionysus. The Romans also valued the ass and would use it as a sacrificial animal. This article is about the ancient deity. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Sacrifice is the practice of offering food, or the lives of animals or people to the gods, as an act of propitiation or worship. ...


In 1495, the ass first appeared in the New World. The four males and two females brought by Christopher Columbus gave birth to the mules which the Conquistadors rode as they explored the Americas. Shortly after America won her independence, President George Washington imported the first mammoth jackstock into the country. Because the Jack donkeys in the New World lacked the size and strength he required to produce quality work mules, he imported donkeys from Spain and France, some standing over 1.63 m tall. One of the donkeys Washington received from the Marquis de Lafayette named "Knight of Malta" stood only 1.43 m and was regarded as a great disappointment. Viewing this donkey as unfit for producing mules, Washington instead bred Knight of Malta to his Jennets and, in doing so, created an American line of Mammoth Jackstock. 1495 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


Despite these early appearances of donkeys in America, the donkey did not find widespread favor in America until the miners and gold prospectors of the 1800s. Miners preferred this animal due to its ability to carry tools, supplies, and ore. Their sociable disposition and fondness for human companionship allowed the miners to lead their donkeys without ropes. They simply followed behind their master. With the introduction of the steam train, these donkeys lost their jobs and many were turned loose into the American deserts. Descendants of these donkeys can still be seen roaming the Southwest in herds to this day. The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Prospecting is the physical search for minerals, fossils, precious metals or mineral specimens, and is also known as fossicking. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Great Western Railway No. ...

Ass headcount in 2003
Ass headcount in 2003

By the early 20th century, donkeys began to be kept as pets in the United States and other wealthier nations, while remaining an important work animal in many poorer nations. The donkey as a pet is best portrayed by the appearance of the miniature donkey in 1929. Robert Green imported miniature donkeys to the United States and was a lifetime advocate of the breed. Mr. Green is perhaps best quoted when he said "Miniature Donkeys possess the affectionate nature of a Newfoundland, the resignation of a cow, the durability of a mule, the courage of a tiger, and the intellectual capability only slightly inferior to man's." Standing only 32-40 inches, many families recognized the potential of miniature donkeys as pets and companions for their children. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of asses in 2003 as a percentage of the top market (China - 8,499,000). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of asses in 2003 as a percentage of the top market (China - 8,499,000). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although the donkey fell from public notice and became viewed as a comical, stubborn beast which was considered “cute” at best, the donkey has recently regained some popularity in North America as a mount, for pulling wagons, and even as a guard animal. Some standard species are ideal for guarding herds of sheep against predators since most donkeys have a natural aversion to canines and will keep them away from the herd. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Economic use

Classic British seaside donkeys in Skegness
Classic British seaside donkeys in Skegness

Donkeys have a reputation for stubbornness, but this is due[citation needed] to some handlers' misinterpretation of their highly-developed sense of self-preservation. It is difficult[citation needed] to force or frighten a donkey into doing something it sees as contrary to its own best interest, as opposed to horses who are much more willing to, for example, go along a path with unsafe footing[citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (488x650, 156 KB)Classic British seaside donkeys at Skegness, July 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (488x650, 156 KB)Classic British seaside donkeys at Skegness, July 2005. ... , Skegness is a seaside town and civil parish within the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ...


Although formal studies of their behaviour and cognition are rather limited, donkeys appear to be quite intelligent, cautious, friendly, playful, and eager to learn. They are many times fielded with horses due to a perceived calming effect on nervous horses. If a donkey is introduced to a mare and foal, the foal will often turn to the donkey for support after it has left its mother.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... 13 year old Peruvian Paso mare A broodmare and foal In English, a mare (an old Germanic word) is a female horse; the word is also an etymological root of marshal (originally marescalcus horse servant). Mares are considered easier to handle than males, which are called stallions or after castration... A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ...


Once a person has earned their confidence they can be willing and companionable partners and very dependable in work[citation needed]. For this reason, they are now commonly[citation needed] kept as pets in countries where their use as beasts of burden has disappeared. They are also popular[citation needed] for giving rides to children in holiday resorts or other leisure contexts. This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... British seaside donkeys in Skegness, Yorkshire, used for donkey rides on the beach. ...


Present status

There are about 44 million donkeys today. China has the most with 11 million, followed by Ethiopia and Mexico. Some researchers think the real number is higher since many donkeys go uncounted (Starkey 1997).


The vast majority of donkeys are used for the same types of work that they have been doing for 6000 years. Their most common role is for transport, whether riding, pack transport, or pulling carts. They may also be used for farm tillage, threshing, raising water, milling, and other jobs. Other donkeys are used to sire mules, as companions for horses, to guard sheep, and as pets. A few are milked or raised for meat (Starkey 1997). Species See text. ...


The number of donkeys in the world continues to grow, as it has steadily throughout most of history. Some factors that today are contributing to this are increasing human population, progress in economic development and social stability in some poorer nations, conversion of forests to farm and range land, rising prices of motor vehicles and gasoline, and the donkeys' popularity as pets (Starkey 1997, Blench 2000). This article is about a community of trees. ...


In prosperous countries, the welfare of donkeys both at home and abroad has recently become a concern and a number of sanctuaries for retired and rescued donkeys have been set up. The largest is the Donkey Sanctuary of England, which also supports donkey welfare projects in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Mexico (DS 2006).


Donkeys in warfare

According to British food writer Matthew Fort, donkeys were until recently used in the Italian Army. The Mountain Fusiliers each had a donkey to carry their gear and in extreme circumstances, the animal could be eaten.[7] In 2006, security forces in Afghanistan prevented a man taking a donkey which he had laden with 30 kg (66lb) of explosives and a number of landmines, which would have been set off by a remote controlled detonator, from entering a town in Zabul Province.[8] Matthew Fort, born January 29, 1954 is a British food writer and critic [1], [2]. Matthew Fort attended Eton College between 1961 and 1965, and later Lancaster University [3]. He has been the Food and Drink editor of The Guardian for over ten years. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... A pack animal is a beast of burden used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weigh bears on the animals back; the term may be applied to either an individual animal or a species so employed. ... Musculature of horse Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq. ... A detonator is a device used to trigger bombs, shaped charges and other forms of explosive material and explosive devices. ... Zabul, Afghanistan is the only Afghan province in which the Taliban have named (in the post-U.S. invasion of Afghanistan era) their own governor and officials to rival those appointed by the government in Kabul. ...


Types of donkeys

Poitou Donkey
Poitou Donkey

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1476x1200, 344 KB) Summary Poitou Donkey or Baudet du Poitou. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1476x1200, 344 KB) Summary Poitou Donkey or Baudet du Poitou. ...

Domestic donkey breeds

An incomplete list of domestic donkey breeds includes the:

  • Mammoth Donkey
  • Poitou Donkey
  • American Spotted Donkey
  • Cypriot Donkey

The Poitou Donkey breed was developed in France for the sole purpose of producing mules. It is a large donkey breed with a very long shaggy coat and no dorsal stripe. Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ...


Burro

Adopted wild burro
Adopted wild burro

The Spanish brought donkeys, called "burros" in Spanish, to North America beginning in the late fifteenth century. They were prized for their hardiness in arid country and became the beast of burden of choice by early prospectors in the Southwest United States. In the western United States the word "burro" is used as often as the word "donkey" by English speakers. Sometimes the distinction is made with donkeys descended from Mexican stock called "burros" and those from stock imported directly from Europe called "donkeys". Download high resolution version (856x670, 351 KB)personal photo taken in July 02 of adopted female wild burro File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (856x670, 351 KB)personal photo taken in July 02 of adopted female wild burro File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Beast of Burden is an animal that toils for the benefit of humans such as a mule or an ox. ...


The wild burros (or more accurately, feral burros) on the western rangelands descend from animals that ran away, were abandoned, or were freed. Wild burros in the United States were protected by Public Law 92-195, The Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971. These animals, considered to be a living legacy, have lately been at risk due to drought. The Bureau of Land Management conducts round-ups of endangered herds, and holds public auctions. A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... US BLM logo The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which administers Americas public lands, totaling approximately 261 million surface acres (1,056,229. ...


Wild burros make good pets when treated well and cared for properly. They are clever and curious. When trust has been established, they appreciate, and even seek, attention and grooming.


Donkey hybrids

A male donkey (jack) can be crossed with a female horse to produce a mule. A male horse can be crossed with a female donkey (jennet or jenny) to produce a hinny. This is North American nomenclature; in the United Kingdom, the word hinny is not used. A female donkey in the UK is called a mare, or jenny and the word jennet is more commonly applied to the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse, regardless of whether the foal is female or male. For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ...


Horse-donkey hybrids are almost always sterile because horses have 64 chromosomes whereas donkeys have 62, producing offspring with 63 chromosomes. Due to different mating behavior, jacks are often more willing to cover mares than stallions are to breed jennets. Mules are much more common than hinnies. This is believed to be caused by two factors, the first being proven in cat hybrids, that when the chromosome count of the male is the higher, fertility rates drop (as in the case of stallion x jennet). The lower progesterone production of the jennet may also lead to early embryonic loss. Although it is commonly believed that mules are more easily handled and also physically stronger than hinnies, making them more desirable for breeders to produce, it is simply that mules are more common in total number. This article is about a biological term. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ...


The offspring of a zebra-donkey cross is called a zonkey, zebroid, zebrass, or zedonk;[9] zebra mule is an outdated term. The foregoing terms generally refer to hybrids produced by breeding a male zebra to a female donkey. Zebra hinny, zebret and zebrinny all refer to the cross of a female zebra with a male donkey. Zebrinnies are rarer than zedonkies because female zebras in captivity are most valuable when used to produce full-blooded zebras.[10] There are not enough female zebras breeding in captivity to spare them for hybridizing; there is no such limitation on the number of female donkeys breeding. For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... A zebra/donkey hybrid A zebroid is a cross between a zebra and any other equid: essentially, a zebra hybrid. ...


For at least the past century, a few donkeys and burros in Mexico have been painted with white stripes to amuse tourists. These are not hybrids.


An animal which may look like a zebra-donkey hybrid because of its distinctly striped hindquarters and hind legs is the okapi, which has no relationship to either of those species. Okapi are most closely related to the giraffe. In addition to the rear stripes, okapi have some striping near the top of their forelegs. Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal of the Ituri Rainforest in central Africa. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ...


Wild Ass, Onager, and Kiang

With domestication of almost all donkeys, few species now exist in the wild. Some of them are the African Wild Ass (Equus africanus) and its subspecies Somalian Wild Ass (Equus africanus somaliensis). The Asiatic wild ass or Onager, Equus hemionus, and its relative the Kiang, Equus kiang, are closely related wild species. Binomial name Subspecies E. a. ... Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ... Binomial name Equus kiang , The Kiang (Equus kiang) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family. ...


There was another extinct subspecies called the Yukon Wild Ass (Equus asinus lambei). In the wild the asses can reach top speeds equalling zebras and even most horses. This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


Cultural references

A donkey in Santiago, Chile
A donkey in Santiago, Chile

The long history of human use of donkeys means that there is a rich store of cultural references to them. Subject: A donkey in Santiago, Chile. ... Subject: A donkey in Santiago, Chile. ... Satellite image of Santiago Santiago (full form Santiago de Chile) is the capital of Chile. ...


Religion and myth

  • The ass may have been the symbol of the Egyptian god, Seth
  • Several were buried in Hor-Aha's tomb
  • The ass was a symbol of the Greek god Dionysus, particularly in relationship to his companion, Silenus.
  • Greek mythology includes the story of King Midas who judged against Apollo in favor of Pan during a musical contest, and had his ears changed to those of a donkey as punishment.
  • There are numerous references to the donkey ("hamor" or "chamor" חמור) in the Hebrew Bible, (Old Testament). It mostly appears reflecting the natural environment of Israel and as an aspect of the agricultural economy. Ownership of many donkeys is a sign of God’s blessing. The Bible often specifies if a person rode donkeys, since this was used to indicate a person’s wealth in much the same way luxury cars do today. (Horses at that time were used solely for war, powerful kings such as Solomon being the only ones who could afford to import them from Egypt.)
  • In Genesis the King of Shechem (the modern Nablus), killed by Jacob's sons, is called "Hamor" - showing that at the time this animal was held in high enough esteem that it was no disrespect for royalty to use its name as their first name. (See Dinah, Shechem, Animal names as first names in Hebrew).
  • In Numbers 22:22-41 "The Lord opened the mouth of the donkey" (vs. 28) and it speaks to Balaam. In Judges 15:13-17 where the hero Samson slays Philistines with the jawbone of an ass. Additional references can be found in Deuteronomy 22:10, Job 11:12, Proverbs 26:3 and elsewhere.
  • The most common Greek word for ass appears roughly 100 times in the Biblical text. In the Gospels, Jesus rides a donkey into Jerusalem (Mark 11:1 in which colt refers to a donkey colt).
  • Traditionally, Mary is portrayed as riding a donkey while pregnant. Legend has it that the cross on the donkey’s shoulders comes from the shadow of Christ’s crucifixion, placing the donkey at the foot of the cross. It was once believed that hair cut from this cross and hung from a child’s neck in a bag would prevent fits and convulsions.
  • In both Jewish and Christian traditions, the messiah (Jesus Christ in the later case) was often described as riding on a donkey. As noted, in the context of the Hebrew Bible this connoted wealth and affluence befitting the House of David, as at the time commoners are described as simply going on foot. However, in later times when the aristocracy used horses, depicting the messiah as riding a donkey came to have an opposite connotation, as indicating a simple, sober way of life and avoiding luxury. The same connotation is evident in the description of saints such as Francis of Assisi as riding donkeys.
  • In contemporary Israel, the term "Messiah's Donkey" (Chamoro Shel Mashiach חמורו של משיח) stands at the center of a controversial religious-political doctrine, attributed to Rabbi Avraham Yitchak Hacohen Cook, under which it was the Heavenly-imposed "task" of secular Zionists to build up a Jewish State, but once the state is established they are fated to give place to the Religious who are ordained to lead the state. The secularists in this analogy are "The Donkey" while the religious who are fated to supplant them are a collective "Messiach". A book on the subject, published in 1998 by the militant secularist Sefi Rechlevsky, aroused a major controversy in the Israeli public opinion.[11]
  • Muhammad, the prophet of Islam said that dogs and donkeys - if they pass in front of men in prayer - they will void or nullify that prayer.[12] He also said that "when you hear the braying of donkeys, seek Refuge with Allah from Satan for (their braying indicates) that they have seen a devil."[13]

In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... Hor-Aha was the 2nd Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... In Greek mythology, sileni were a race of half-horse, half-humans, unlike the satyrs, who were half-goat. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... Look up blessing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... The Hebrew Languague has many first names which are animal names, some of which are derived from the Bible, while others are more modern. ... Balaam (Hebrew בִּלְעָם, Standard Hebrew BilÊ»am, Tiberian Hebrew Bilʻām; could mean glutton or foreigner, but this etymology is uncertain), is a prophet in the Bible, his story occurring in the Book of Numbers. ... Samson and Delilah, by Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641) This article is about Biblical figure. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... For other uses, see Crucifixion (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... House of David was a religious commune founded in 1902. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ... Abraham Isaac Kook (1864 - 1935) was the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine, the founder of the (now) Religious Zionist Yeshiva Merkaz HaRav, and a renowned Torah scholar. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... The book Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl. ... Orthodox Judaism is one of the three major branches of Judaism. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...

Fable and folklore

  • European folklore also claims that the tail of a donkey can be used to combat whooping cough or scorpion stings.
  • An Indian tale has an ass dressed in a panther skin gave himself away by braying.
  • One of Aesop's fables has an ass dressed in a lion skin who gives himself away by braying.

For other uses, see Scorpion (disambiguation). ... A melanistic leopard, or black panther The black panther is the common name for a black specimen (a melanistic variant) of any of several species of cats. ... Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ...

Literature

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... Look up puck in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oberon, also Auberon, King of the Fairies, is most well-known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The original stuffed toys owned by Christopher Robin Milne and featured in the Winnie-the-Pooh stories. ... Alan Alexander Milne (January 18, 1882 _ January 31, 1956), also known as A. A. Milne, is an English author best known for his books about the talking stuffed bear; Winnie the Pooh and for various childrens poems, some of which also feature Winnie-the-Pooh and friends. ... Winnie the Pooh Winnie-the-Pooh is a fictional bear created by A. A. Milne. ... In George Orwells novel Animal Farm, Benjamin is a donkey that represents the aged population of Russia. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pinocchio (disambiguation). ... This article discusses transportation vehicles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... This article is about the novel by C. S. Lewis. ... Juan Ramón Jiménez (December 24, 1881 - May 29, 1958) was a Spanish poet. ...

Film

Donkey is a fictional talking donkey from the Shrek series of films, voiced by Eddie Murphy. ... For other uses, see Eddie Murphy (disambiguation). ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... For other uses, see Shrek (disambiguation). ... Shrek 2, which was released in the United States on May 19, 2004, is the 2004 sequel to the 2001 computer-animated DreamWorks Pictures film Shrek. ... This article is about the film. ... The DreamWorks Boy on the Moon Logo DreamWorks SKG (Spielberg, Katzenberg, Geffen) is a Big Ten studio in the United States of America which develops, produces, and distributes films, music, and television programming. ... Balthazar ... Robert Bresson (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1901 – December 18, 1999) was a French film director known for his spiritual, ascetic style. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ... The year 1940 in film involved some significant events. ...

Proverb and idiom

  • A German proverb claims a donkey can wear a lion suit but its ear will still stick out and give it away.
  • English proverbs include "better be the head of an ass than the tail of a horse", "if an ass goes a-traveling, he'll not come back a horse", and "better ride on an ass that carries me home than a horse that throws me" (though all these are now obsolete).
  • Classical Greek expressions about donkeys included: onos pros eortēn = "a donkey at the festival" (gets all the work); onos hyetai = "a donkey is rained on" (i.e. he is unaffected or insensitive), onos pros phatnēn = "a donkey at a feed trough" (like the English expression "in clover").
  • British colloquial expressions also include "donkey's years" which means for a long time or for many years, "to talk the hind leg off a donkey" means to tire somebody with one's talk.

Pub names

  • The Jack and Jenny is a common pub-name in Britain.

Advertising

  • Budweiser used a donkey in advertising during Super Bowl in 2004, called the Budweiser donkey he trains to be a Budweiser Clydesdale complete with hair extensions.

Clydesdale (Dail Chluaidh in Scottish Gaelic) was formerly (1975-96) a local government district in the Strathclyde Region of Scotland. ...

Insult and vulgarity

  • The donkey has long been a symbol of ignorance. Examples can be found in Aesop's Fables, Apuleius's The Golden Ass (The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius) and Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream.
  • Because of its connection with ignorance, in modern slang, referring to someone as a dumbass means that they are unintelligent. Many people would find this term vulgar and rude.
  • In contrast, to refer to someone as a jackass in modern slang provides a connotation of being obnoxious, rude, and thoughtless, with or without the added connotation of stupidity. This usage is also considered vulgar. A less vulgar substitute is donkey itself.
  • The unmodified word ass has entered common use in the English language as a term used to describe a person who resembles a donkey in some way, such as appearance, stubbornness, foolishness, etc.
  • In football, especially in the United Kingdom, a player who is considered unskilful, and to rely overly on his physical attributes to cover up his technical shortcomings, is often dubbed a "donkey."
  • In horse racing in the British Isles typically unsuccessful horses are labeled donkeys.
  • Term for bad poker players that play hands when the odds are against them. "Wayne is such a donkey, he put all his chips in drawing dead," or "Songman is such a donkey, calling my all-in with a runner-runner flush draw" (also sometimes referred to as a fish)
  • In the Middle East, حمار (ḥomar), meaning "donkey", is a derogatory term that refers to someone of very limited intelligence. Another usage is حمار شغل (ḥomar shuġl, literally "work donkey"), roughly equivalent in meaning to workaholic but with a distinct derogatory note and typically implying that the work is routine and non-creative; for example, someone might say, "Give that job to Ali, he's a work donkey anyway and he won't mind."

Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, which according to St. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... The term vulgar originally meant of the common people, from the Latin vulgus. ... The term vulgar originally meant of the common people, from the Latin vulgus. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... For the domestic fireplace tool, see fireplace poker. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A workaholic is a person addicted to work. ...

Politics

This article is about the political process. ... Example Instant-runoff voting ballot Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting system most commonly used for single member elections in which voters have one vote, but can rank candidates in order of preference. ... In Australia, where all State, Federal and Territory electoral systems use compulsory voting combined with some form of preferential voting, a donkey vote refers to the practice of numbering the candidates boxes sequentially from top to bottom of the ballot-paper. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... For the band, see Cartoons (band). ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... Teresa Bagioli Sickles confession, 1859 Harpers Weekly (A Journal of Civilization) was an American political magazine based in New York City. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ...

See also

The definition of jennet varies depending on location and on the antiquity of the usage. ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Ponui donkey refers to a feral herd of donkeys established on Ponui Island, New Zealand. ... The subject of this article may not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... A burro racer and her burro on the trail Pack burro racing is a sport indigenous to the State of Colorado which is deeply rooted in the states mining heritage. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster free online dictionary, based on the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary. Headword donkey. Accessed 2007-09-13.
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Unabridged (MWU). (Online subscription-based reference service of Merriam-Webster, based on Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.) Headword donkey. Accessed 2007-09-13.
  3. ^ a b Houghton Mifflin (2000). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed, Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, page 535. ISBN 978-0-395-82517-4. 
  4. ^ J. Clutton-Brook, J. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals 1999.
  5. ^ Albano Beja-Pereira, "African Origins of the Domestic Donkey," in Science, 2004
  6. ^ Donkeys
  7. ^ Fort, Matthew (2005-06-20). Eating Up Italy: Voyages on a Vespa. HarperPerennial. ISBN 0007214812. 
  8. ^ "Afghan Police Stop Bombing Attack From Explosives-laden Donkey", Fox News, 2006-06-08. Retrieved on 2007-11-04. 
  9. ^ American Donkey and Mule Society: Zebra Hybrids
  10. ^ All About Zebra Hybrids
  11. ^ http://www.hofesh.org.il/books/chamoro.html
  12. ^ Al-Nawawi, Sahih Muslim, 3-4:450-1; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, 5:194, 197, 202, 208; Abu Bakr Ibn al-‘Arabi, ‘Aridat al-Ahwadhi bi Sharh Sahih al-Tirmidhi (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, n.d.), 1:133. All reported in El-Fadl.
  13. ^ Sahih Bukhari 4:54:522

Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...

References

  • Blench, R. 2000. The History and Spread of Donkeys in Africa. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA)
  • Clutton-Brook, J. 1999. A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521634954
  • The Donkey Sanctuary (DS). 2006. Website. [1] (accessed December 2, 2006).
  • Huffman, B. 2006. The Ultimate Ungulate Page: Equus asinus. (accessed December 2, 2006).
  • International Museum of the Horse (IMH). 1998. Donkey. (accessed December 3, 2006).
  • Nowak, R. M., and J. L. Paradiso. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore, Maryland, USA : The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801825253
  • Oklahoma State University (OSU). 2006. Breeds of Livestock. (accessed December 3, 2006).
  • Starkey, P. and M. Starkey. 1997. Regional and World trends in Donkey Populations. Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA) [2]

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Donkey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2566 words)
The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae.
Although, the donkey fell from public notice and became viewed as a comical, stubborn beast who was considered “cute” at best, the donkey has recently regained some popularity in North America as a mount, for pulling wagons, and even as a guard animal.
Donkeys have a reputation for stubbornness, but this is due to some handlers' misinterpretation of their highly-developed sense of self preservation.
Donkey (463 words)
Donkeys are slower in their movements than horses and are still used as beasts of burden, especially in areas where horses do not thrive or where poverty prevents their purchase.
A mule is the offspring of a jackass (male donkey) and a mare (female horse).
A hinny is the offspring of a stallion (male horse) and a jenny (female donkey).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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