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Encyclopedia > Donatello
Donatello

Statue of Donatello outside the Uffizi, Florence
Birth name Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi
Born c. 1386
Florence
Died 13 December 1466
Florence
Nationality Florentine
Field Sculpture
Training Lorenzo Ghiberti
Movement Early Renaissance
Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giotto's Bell Tower. It is now in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo of Florence.
Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giotto's Bell Tower. It is now in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo of Florence.

Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi; c. 1386 – December 13, 1466) was a famous early Renaissance Italian artist and sculptor from Florence. He is, in part, known for his work in basso rilievo, a form of shallow relief sculpture that, in Donatello's case, incorporated significant 15th-century developments in perspectival illusionism. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 368 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statua di Donatello, sita a Firenze presso la Galleria degli Uffizi. ... The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x2230, 1443 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Donatello Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1000x2230, 1443 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Donatello Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Giotto’s bell tower (campanile) stands on the Cathedral square (Piazza del Duomo) in Florence, Italy. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ...

Contents

Early years

Donatello was the son of Niccolo di Betto Bardi, who was a member of the Florentine Wool Combers Guild, and was born in Florence, most likely in 1386. Donatello was educated in the house of the Martelli family. He apparently received his early artistic training in a goldsmith's workshop, and then worked briefly in the studio of Lorenzo Ghiberti. Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence, self portrait. ...


While undertaking study and excavations with Filippo Brunelleschi in Rome (1404-1407), work that gained the two men the reputation of treasure seekers, Donatello made a living by working at goldsmiths' shops. Their Roman sojourn was decisive for the entire development of Italian art in the 15th century, for it was during this period that Brunelleschi undertook his measurements of the Pantheon dome and of other Roman buildings. Brunelleschi's buildings and Donatello's sculptures are both considered supreme expressions of the spirit of this era in architecture and sculpture, and they exercised a potent influence upon the painters of the age. Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects of the Italian Renaissance. ...


Work in Florence

Tomb of Antipope John XXIII in Florence's Baptistery.
Tomb of Antipope John XXIII in Florence's Baptistery.

In Florence, Donatello assisted Lorenzo Ghiberti with the statues of prophets for the north door of the Battistero di San Giovanni, for which he received payment in November 1406 and early 1408. In 1409-1411 he executed the colossal seated figure of Saint John the Evangelist, which until 1588 occupied a niche of the old cathedral facade, and is now placed in a dark chapel of the Duomo. This work marks a decisive step forward from late-Gothic Mannerism in the search for naturalism and the rendering of human feelings. The face, the shoulders and the bust are still idealized, while the hands and the pannings over the legs are more realistic. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1313x2445, 1038 KB) Photographer: Richard Heidler Time, Place: March 2005, Florence Camera: Canon Powershot A95 Description: Grave of Antipope Ioannes XIII, in the Baptisterio San Giovanni License: Picture by myself, GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Battistero... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1313x2445, 1038 KB) Photographer: Richard Heidler Time, Place: March 2005, Florence Camera: Canon Powershot A95 Description: Grave of Antipope Ioannes XIII, in the Baptisterio San Giovanni License: Picture by myself, GFDL File links The following pages link to this file: Battistero... Tomb of Antipope John XXIII The Tomb of Antipope John XXIII is a marble Tomb-Monument to Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Coscia) by Donatello and Michelozzo in the Battistero di San Giovanni in Florence. ... Lorenzo Ghiberti on Gates of Paradise, Baptistery, Florence, self portrait. ... The Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistery of St John) is believed to be the oldest building in Florence. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ...


In 1411-1413 Donatello worked on a statue of St. Mark for the church of Orsanmichele. In 1417 he completed the St. George for the Confraternity of the Cuirass-makers. The elegant St. George and the Dragon relief on the statue's base, executed in schiacciato (also known as bas-relief or basso rilievo) is one of the first examples of central-point perspective in sculpture. Statue of St. ... Entrance of Orsanmichele Facade - Christ and St. ... Confraternities may refer to: Confraternities of the Cord Confraternity of Christian Doctrine Confraternity of the Rosary Archconfraternity Category: ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ...


From 1423 is the St. Louis of Toulouse, now in the Museum of the Basilica di Santa Croce. Donatello had also sculpted a tabernacle for this work, but it was sold in 1460 to house the Incredulity of St. Thomas by Verrocchio. Facade of Basilica di Santa Croce, The Basilica di Santa Croce (Basilica of the Holy Cross) is the principal Franciscan church of Florence, Italy, and a minor basilica of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1435 births | 1488 deaths | Italian painters | Italian sculptors ...


Between 1415 and 1426, Donatello created five statues for the campanile of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, also known as the Duomo. These works are the Beardless Prophet; Bearded Prophet (both from 1415); the Sacrifice of Isaac (1421); Habbakuk (1423-1425); and Jeremiah (1423-1426); which follow the classical models for orators and are characterized by strong portrait details. From the late teens is the Pazzi Madonna relief in Berlin. In 1425, he executed the notable Crucifix for Santa Croce; this work portrays Christ in a moment of the agony, eyes and mouth partially opened, the body contracted in an ungraceful posture. Giottos bell tower seen from the top of the Duomo. ... The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church, or Duomo, of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence, noted for its distinctive dome. ... The duomo of Milan. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Between 1425-1427, Donatello collaborated with Michelozzo on the funerary monument of the Antipope John XXIII for the Battistero in Florence. Surely by Donatello is the recumbent bronze figure of the deceased, under a shell. In 1427, he completed in Pisa a marble panel for the funerary monument of Cardinal Rainaldo Brancacci at the church of Sant'Angelo a Nilo in Naples. In the same period, he executed the relief of the Feast of Herod and the statues of Faith and Hope for the Baptistery of Siena. The relief is mostly in stiacciato, while the foreground figures are done in bas-relief. Palazzo Medici in Florence. ... Antipope John XXIII Baldassare Cossa, (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), also known as John XXIII,was Pope or antipope during the Western Schism (1410–1415) and is now officially regarded by the Catholic Church as an antipope. ... In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Latin baptisterium) is the separate centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. ... For other uses, see Pisa (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Latin baptisterium) is the separate centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ...

Statue of St. George in Orsanmichele, Florence.
Statue of St. George in Orsanmichele, Florence.
Statue of St. John the Baptist in the Duomo di Siena.
Statue of St. John the Baptist in the Duomo di Siena.
Donatello's equestrian monument of Gattamelata at Padua.
Donatello's equestrian monument of Gattamelata at Padua.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (875x2190, 1201 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Donatello Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (875x2190, 1201 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Donatello Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Entrance of Orsanmichele Facade - Christ and St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1239, 478 KB) Summary Statue of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1239, 478 KB) Summary Statue of St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (628x850, 147 KB) Summary Donatellos equestrian statue of Gattamelata (Erasmo of Narni) Cross-posted from Wikipedia Sweden: see sv:Bild:Gattamelata. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (628x850, 147 KB) Summary Donatellos equestrian statue of Gattamelata (Erasmo of Narni) Cross-posted from Wikipedia Sweden: see sv:Bild:Gattamelata. ... Apotheosis of Saint Louis by Charles H. Niehaus In sculpture, an equestrian (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue consisting of a horse with mounted rider. ... Erasmo of Narni aka Gattamelata was born in Narni. ...

Major commissions in Florence

Around 1430, Cosimo de' Medici, the foremost art patron of his era, commissioned from Donatello the bronze David (now in the Bargello) for the court of his Palazzo Medici. This is now Donatello's most famous work. At the time of its creation, it was the first known free-standing nude statue produced since ancient times. Conceived fully in the round, independent of any architectural surroundings, and largely representing an allegory of the civic virtues triumphing over brutality and irrationality, it was the first major work of Renaissance sculpture. Also from this period is the disquietingly small Love-Atys, housed in the Bargello. Jacopo Pontormo: posthumous portrait of Cosimo de Medici, 1518-1519: the laurel branch, il Broncone, was an impresa used also by his heirs. ... Rare, water preserved Greek Athlete 310. ... Donatellos David Donatellos bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is notable as the first unsupported standing work in bronze cast since classical times. ... the Bargello For the type of embroidery, please visit Bargello (needlework) The Bargello palace was built in 1255 to house first the Capitano del Populo and later, in 1261, the Podestà, the highest magistrate of the Florence City Council, Italy. ... ... The word nude may refer to: The state of nudity. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


When Cosimo was exiled from Florence, Donatello went to Rome, remaining until 1433. The two works that testify to his presence in this city, the Tomb of Giovanni Crivelli at Santa Maria in Aracoeli, and the Ciborium at St. Peter's Basilica, bear a strong stamp of classical influence. Facade of Santa Maria in Aracoeli with the monumental ladder The basilica of Santa Maria in Aracoeli is on the Campidoglio, in Rome. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: ), officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. ...


Donatello's return to Florence almost coincided with Cosimo's. In May of 1434, he signed a contract for the marble pulpit on the facade of Prato cathedral, the last project executed in collaboration with Michelozzo. This work, a passionate, pagan, rhythmically-conceived bacchanalian dance of half-nude putti, was the forerunner of the great Cantoria, or singing tribune, at the Duomo in Florence on which Donatello worked intermittently from 1433 to 1440 and was inspired by ancient sarcophagi and Byzantine ivory chests. In 1435, he executed the Annunciation for the Cavalcanti altar in Santa Croce, inspired by 14th century iconography, and in 1437-1443, he worked in the Old Sacristy of the San Lorenzo in Florence, on two doors and lunettes portraying saints, as well as eight stucco tondoes. From 1438 is the wooden statue of St. John the Evangelist for Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. Around 1440, he executed a bust of a Young Man with a Cameo now in the Bargello, the first example of a lay bust portrait since the classical era. the Duomo with the statue of Giuseppe Mazzoni. ... Palazzo Medici in Florence. ... Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... Categories: Saints | Ancient Roman Christianity | Christianity-related stubs ... West front. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


In Padua

In 1443, Donatello was called to Padua by the heirs of the famous condottiero Erasmo da Narni, who had died that year. Completed in 1450 and placed in the square facing the Basilica of St. Anthony, his equestrian statue of Erasmo (better known as the Gattamelata, or "Honey-Cat") was the first example of such a monument since ancient times. (Other equestrian statues, from the 14th century, had not been executed in bronze and had been placed over tombs rather than erected indepedently, in a public place.) This work became the prototype for other equestrian monuments executed in Italy and Europe in the following centuries. Erasmo of Narni (1370 - 1443), better known as Gattamelata, was was among the most famous of the condottieri or mercenaries in the Italian Renaissance. ... The Basilica of SantAntonio da Padova. ...


For the Basilica of St. Anthony, Donatello created, most famously, the bronze Crucifix of 1444-7 and additional statues for the choir, including a Madonna with Child and six saints, constituting a Holy Conversation, which is no longer visible since the renovation by Camillo Boito in 1895. The Madonna with Child portrays the Child being displayed to the faithful, on a throne flanked by two sphinxes, allegorical figures of knowledge. On the throne's back is a relief of Adam and Eve. During this period -- 1446-50 -- Donatello also executed four extremely important reliefs with scenes from the life of St. Anthony for the high altar. Camillo Boito Camillo Boito (October 30, 1836 - June 28, 1914) was an Italian architect, engineer and art historian. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ...


Last years in Florence

Donatello returned to Florence in 1453.


Until 1456, he worked on a wooden Mary Magdalene now in the Duomo's museum, an unusally expressionistic work depicting the saint in her late, hermetic period and characterized by meagerness of body and a face marked by fatigue, pain, and intense asceticism. From 1455-1460, dates the Judith and Holofernes, begun for the Duomo di Siena but later acquired by the Medici. This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... The bronze statue Judith and Holofernes (1460), created by Donatello at the end of his career, can be seen in the Hall of Lilies (Sala dei Gigli), in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy. ... Duomo di Siena is the medieval cathedral of Siena, Italy. ...


Until 1461, Donatello remained in Siena, where he created a St. John the Baptist, also for the Duomo, and models for its gates, now lost.


For his last commission in Florence, Donatello produced reliefs for the bronze pulpits in the church of San Lorenzo, with help from students Bartolomeo Bellano and Bertoldo di Giovanni. Donatello provided the general design and personally executed the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence and the Deposition from the Cross; he worked on the reliefs of Christ before Pilate and Christ before Caiphus, with Bellano. This work is characterized by an intense, free, indeed sketchy and suggestively unfinished -- in Italian a non-finito -- technique that heightens the dramatic effect of the scenes and emphasizes their spiritual intensity. Bartolomeo Bellano, who is also known as Bartolomeo Vellano was an Italian renaissance sculptor and architect who was born in Padua in 1437 or 1438. ... Bertoldo di Giovanni (born circa 1435/40 in Florence, Italy, died 28 December 1491 in Poggio a Caiano) was an Italian sculptor. ...


Donatello died in Florence in 1466 and was buried in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, next to Cosimo de' Medici the Elder.


Main works

Statue of St. ... Entrance of Orsanmichele Facade - Christ and St. ... The Bargello palace was built in 1255 to host Florence ( Italy) City Council. ... Duomo di Siena is the medieval cathedral of Siena, Italy. ... Donatellos bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is notable as the first unsupported standing work in bronze cast since classical times. ... Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 239 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (319 × 800 pixel, file size: 53 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links No pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file. ... The bronze statue Judith and Holofernes (1460), created by Donatello at the end of his career, can be seen in the Hall of Lilies (Sala dei Gigli), in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy. ... Palazzo Vecchio The Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of Florence, Italy. ...

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Donatello article in the 1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Adrian W. B. Randolph, Engaging symbols: gender, politics, and public art in fifteenth-century Florence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Donatello
David Alexander Edward Lindsay, 27th Earl of Crawford, 10th Earl of Balcarres (1871-1940) was a British Conservative politician. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Donatello - LoveToKnow 1911 (1388 words)
Brunelleschi's buildings and Donatello's monuments are the supreme expression of the spirit of the early Renaissance in architecture and sculpture and exercised a potent influence upon the painters of that age.
Donatello probably did not return to Florence before 1405, since the earliest works in that city that can be traced to his chisel are two small statues of " prophets " for the north door of the cathedral, for which he received payment in November 1406 and in the beginning of 1408.
Donatello's share in the Naples monument is probably confined to the characteristic low relief of the " Ascension." The baptistery tomb shows how completely Donatello had mastered the forms of Renaissance architecture, even before his second visit to Rome.
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