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Encyclopedia > Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Henry Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld

In office
January 20, 2001 – December 18, 2006
President George W. Bush
Preceded by William S. Cohen
Succeeded by Robert Gates

In office
November 20, 1975 – January 20, 1977
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by James R. Schlesinger
Succeeded by Harold Brown

In office
September 1974 – November 20, 1975
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by Alexander Haig
Succeeded by Dick Cheney

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 13th Congressional district
In office
January 3, 1963 – March 20, 1969
Preceded by Marguerite S. Church
Succeeded by Phil Crane

Born July 9, 1932 (1932-07-09) (age 75)
Evanston, Illinois, U.S.
Political party Republican
Religion Presbyterian

Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. He is both the youngest (43 years old) and the oldest (74 years old) person to have held the position, as well as the only person to have held the position for two non-consecutive terms, and the second longest serving, behind Robert McNamara. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x3000, 898 KB) Summary From http://www. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... William Sebastian Cohen (born August 28, 1940) is an American Republican politician from Maine. ... Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... James Rodney Schlesinger (born February 15, 1929) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. ... Harold Brown (born September 19, 1927), American scientist, was U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1977 to 1981 in the cabinet of President Jimmy Carter. ... Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Illinoiss 13th congressional district is a United States Congressional District that represents the southwest suburbs of Chicago, including portions of the Cook, DuPage, and Will counties. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Marguerite S. Church, was a Republican Psychologist who represented Illinois 13th congressional district from 1951 to 1963. ... Phil Crane, right, meets with President George W. Bush and Bill Thomas, chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Incorporated City in 1872. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... GOP redirects here. ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A businessman (sometimes businesswoman, female; or businessperson, gender neutral) is a generic term for a wide range of people engaged in profit-oriented enterprises, generally the management of a company. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... GOP redirects here. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ...


Rumsfeld has also served in various positions under President Richard Nixon, served four terms in the United States House of Representatives, and served as United States Ambassador to NATO. Rumsfeld was an aviator in the United States Navy between 1954 and 1957 before transferring to the Reserve. In public life, he has also served as an official in numerous federal commissions and councils. [1][2][3] Nixon redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The United States Permanent Representative to NATO (commonly called the US Ambassador to NATO) is the official representative of the United States to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Navy Reserve is the reserve component of the United States Navy. ... This article describes the government of the United States. ...

Contents

Background and family

Youth

Donald Rumsfeld was born on July 9, 1932 in Evanston, Illinois[citation needed], to George Donald Rumsfeld (Illinois, 10 October 1904 – September 1974) and Jeannette Huster (Illinois, 27 May 19033 May 1988). His great-grandfather Johann Heinrich Rumsfeld emigrated from Weyhe near Bremen in Northern Germany in 1876.[4] In Germany, the name was sometimes spelled "Rumpsfeld". Rumsfeld grew up in Winnetka, Illinois. Evanston is the name of several places in the United States of America: Evanston, Illinois Evanston, Indiana Evanston, Ohio Evanston, Wyoming This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Weyhe is a municipality in the district of Diepholz, Lower Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Northern Germany is the the geographic area of the five German states Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein in the German Lowlands known as the Northern German Plain with Low German as the historic language (see: Benrath line). ... Incorporated Village in 1869. ...


Rumsfeld became an Eagle Scout in 1949 and is the recipient of both the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America.[5] and their Silver Buffalo Award in 2006. He was a ranger at Philmont Scout Ranch in 1949.[6] Rumsfeld would later buy a vacation house 30 miles west of Philmont at Taos, New Mexico.[7] An Eagle Scout is a Scout with the highest rank attainable in the Boy Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). ... The Distinguished Eagle Scout Award, is a special award, awarded only to Eagle Scouts, for distinguished service in his profession or to the community for a period of at least 25 years after earning his Eagle Scout rank. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... The Silver Buffalo Award is the highest service award of the Boy Scouts of America. ... Philmont Scout Ranch is a large, rugged, mountainous ranch located near the town of Cimarron in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico. ... Philmont Scout Ranch is a large, rugged, mountainous ranch located near the town of Cimarron in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico. ... Taos (IPA: ) is a city in Taos County in the north-central region of New Mexico. ...


Education

Rumsfeld went to Baker Demonstration School for middle school and graduated from New Trier High School. He attended Princeton University on academic and NROTC scholarships (A.B., 1954). In extracurricular activities he was an accomplished amateur wrestler and a member of the Lightweight Football team playing defensive back. While at Princeton his roommate was another future Secretary of Defense Frank Carlucci. Baker Demonstration School is a private school located in Wilmette, Illinois. ... New Trier High School (also known as New Trier Township High School or NTHS) is a public four-year high school with its major campus located in Winnetka, Illinois, U.S.A. and a second campus in Northfield, Illinois, with freshman classes and district administration. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... NROTC officers being comissioned The Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) program is a college-based, commissioned officers recruitment tool of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. ... Image:JR4L9085. ... In American football and Canadian football, defensive backs are the players on the defensive team who take positions somewhat back from the line of scrimmage; they are distinguished from the defensive line players, who take positions directly behind the line of scrimmage. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ...


His Princeton University senior thesis was titled "The Steel Seizure Case of 1952 and Its Effects on Presidential Powers."[8] Holding The President did not have the inherent authority to seize private property in the absence of either specifically enumerated authority under Article Two of the Constitution or statutory authority conferred on him by Congress. ...


In 1956 he attended Georgetown University Law Center, but did not graduate. Georgetown University Law Center (Georgetown Law), is Georgetown Universitys law school, located in Washington, D.C., United States. ...


Domestic life

Rumsfeld married Joyce H. Pierson (born September 18, 1932) on December 27, 1954. They have three children and six grandchildren. Their three children are psychologist Valerie J. Rumsfeld Richard (born March 3, 1956), homemaker Marcy K. Rumsfeld Walczak (born March 28, 1960), and Internet entrepreneur Donald Nicholas "Nick" Rumsfeld (born June 26, 1967). is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


Rumsfeld lives in St. Michaels, Maryland, in a former bed-and-breakfast that began its history as a plantation home named "Mount Misery."[9] The plantation is infamous as the site of the captivity of Frederick Douglass at the hands of the "slave breaker" Edward Covey. St. ... Tourists of various nationalities chatting over breakfast at a B&B in Quebec City. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... [[[[[ == // ]]]Mount Misery in Maryland (located in the town of St. ...


Military service

Rumsfeld served in the U.S. Navy from 1954 to 1957 as a naval aviator and flight instructor. His initial training was in the North American SNJ Texan basic trainer after which he transitioned to flying the Grumman F9F Panther fighter. In 1957, he transferred to the Naval Reserve and continued his naval service in flying and administrative assignments as a drilling reservist until 1975. He transferred to the Individual Ready Reserve when he became Secretary of Defense in 1975 and retired with the rank of Captain in 1989."[10] The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft. ... North American Aviation was a major US aircraft manufacturer. ... This article is about the first T-6 Texan. ... The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... The American Grumman F9F Panther was the manufacturers first jet fighter and the U.S. Navys second. ... The United States Navy Reserve is the reserve component of the United States Navy. ... The Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) is a category of the Reserve Component of the Armed Forces of the United States composed of former active duty or reserve military personnel, and is authorized under 10 U.S.C. ch. ... . Captain, is the name most often given in naval circles to the NATO rank code of OF-5. ...


Early political career

In 1957, during the Eisenhower administration, he served as Administrative Assistant to David S. Dennison, Jr., a Congressman representing the 11th district of Ohio. In 1959, Rumsfeld then moved on to become a staff assistant to Congressman Robert P. Griffin of Michigan.[11] Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... David Short Dennison Jr. ... Robert Paul Griffin (born November 6, 1923) was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


After a two-year stint with investment banking firm A. G. Becker from 1960 to 1962,[12] he was elected to the United States House of Representatives for Illinois' 13th congressional district in 1962, at the age of 30, and was re-elected by large majorities in 1964, 1966, and 1968.[13] A. G. Becker was an investment bank based in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Becker was a pioneer in the pension consulting business with the creation of Green Book tables comparing results to benchmarks, to help identify the performance of institutional investors. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Illinoiss 13th congressional district is a United States Congressional District that represents the southwest suburbs of Chicago, including portions of the Cook, DuPage, and Will counties. ...


In the Congress, he served on the Joint Economic Committee, the Committee on Science and Aeronautics, and the Government Operations Committee, as well as the Subcommittees on Military and Foreign Operations. He was also a co-founder of the Japanese-American Inter-Parliamentary Council.[14] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Rumsfeld has been associated with the Chicago School of Economics and can be seen in Milton Friedman's PBS series Free to Choose.[15] The Chicago School of Economics is the term for the style of economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago after 1946. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ...


Career

Nixon Administration

Rumsfeld resigned from Congress in 1969 — his fourth term — to serve in the Nixon administration as Director of the United States Office of Economic Opportunity, Assistant to the President, and a member of the President's Cabinet (1969–1970); named Counselor to the President in December 1970, Director of the Economic Stabilization Program; and member of the President's Cabinet (1971–1972). Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The United States Office of Economic Opportunity was a division of the Executive Branch of the United States government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs relative to the provision of opportunities for economic advancement. ... The Assistant to the President of the United States was created in 1946 to take charge of affairs in the White House. ... The Economic Stabilization Act of 1970 was a United States law that authorized the President to stabilize prices, rents, wages, salaries, interest rates, dividends and similar transfers. ...


In 1971 President Nixon was recorded saying about Rumsfeld "at least Rummy is tough enough" and "He's a ruthless little bastard. You can be sure of that."[16] In February 1973, Rumsfeld left Washington to serve as U.S. Ambassador to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Brussels, Belgium. He served as the United States' Permanent Representative to the North Atlantic Council and the Defense Planning Committee, and the Nuclear Planning Group. In this capacity, he represented the United States in wide-ranging military and diplomatic matters. This is a list of ambassadors from the United States. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


Ford Administration

Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld (left) and White House Chief of Staff Dick Cheney (right) meeting with President Gerald Ford, April 1975.
Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld (left) and White House Chief of Staff Dick Cheney (right) meeting with President Gerald Ford, April 1975.

In August, 1974, he was called back to Washington to serve as transition chairman for the new president, Gerald R. Ford. He had been Ford's confidant since their days in the U.S. House when Ford was House minority leader. Later in Ford's presidency, Rumsfeld became White House Chief of Staff, where he served from 1974 to 1975. In October of 1975, Ford named Rumsfeld to become the 13th U.S. Secretary of Defense at the same time he nominated George H. W. Bush to become Director of the CIA. According to Bob Woodward's 2002 book "Bush at War," a rivalry developed between the two men and "Bush senior was convinced that Rumsfeld was pushing him out to the CIA to end his political career."[17] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Ford_meets_with_Rumsfeld_and_Cheney,_April_28,_1975. ... Image File history File links Ford_meets_with_Rumsfeld_and_Cheney,_April_28,_1975. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Bob Woodward signs his book State of Denial after a talk in March 2007. ...


At the Pentagon, Rumsfeld oversaw the transition to an all-volunteer military and, although he supported the Ford administration's efforts at détente, he sought to reverse the gradual decline in the defense budget and to build up U.S. strategic and conventional forces. He asserted, along with Team B (which he helped to set up[18]), that trends in comparative U.S.-Soviet military strength had not favored the United States for 15 to 20 years and that, if continued, they "would have the effect of injecting a fundamental instability in the world."[10] Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Team B was part of a competitive analysis exercise initiated by U.S. government officials in the 1970s to analyze intelligence on the Soviet Union. ...

Secretary Rumsfeld, seated at the Cabinet table, laughing with President Gerald Ford in 1975.
Secretary Rumsfeld, seated at the Cabinet table, laughing with President Gerald Ford in 1975.

In 1977, Rumsfeld was awarded the nation's highest civilian award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.[19] President Gerald Ford and Secretary Don Rumsfeld See http://www. ... President Gerald Ford and Secretary Don Rumsfeld See http://www. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an...


Private career

In early 1977 Rumsfeld briefly lectured at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School and Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management, in Evanston, Illinois. The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (often truncated to Woodrow Wilson School or abbreviated WWS; known as Woody Woo in campus slang) is a professional school of public affairs at Princeton University. ... The Kellogg School of Management (The Kellogg School or Kellogg) is the business school of Northwestern University located in Evanston, Illinois and downtown Chicago, Illinois. ... Incorporated City in 1872. ...


From 1977 to 1985 Rumsfeld served as Chief Executive Officer, President, and then Chairman of G.D. Searle & Company, a worldwide pharmaceutical company based in Skokie, Illinois, whose products included, among others, Metamucil, Dramamine, Aspartame, and the oral contraceptive pill Enovid. During his tenure at Searle, Rumsfeld led the company's financial turnaround that in turn earned him awards as the Outstanding Chief Executive Officer in the Pharmaceutical Industry from the Wall Street Transcript (1980) and Financial World (1981). Rumsfeld is believed to have earned around $12 million from Searle's sale to Monsanto.[20] G.D. Searle & Company was a company focusing on life sciences, specifically pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. ... For the film of the same name, see Skokie (Movie). ... Metamucil is a bulk-producing laxative and fiber supplement manufactured by Procter & Gamble. ... Dramamine is a medication used for motion sickness manufactured by Pfizer. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Aspartame (or APM) (IPA: ) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; i. ... The combined oral contraceptive pill, often referred to as the Pill, is a combination of an estrogen (oestrogen) and a progestin (progestogen), taken by mouth to inhibit normal fertility. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ...


It was under Rumsfeld that Searle got the Food and Drug Administration's approval for the controversial artificial sweetener, aspartame, which it marketed as NutraSweet.[20] “FDA” redirects here. ... The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of a vigorous public controversy regarding its safety and the circumstances around its approval. ... A sweetener is a food additive which adds the basic taste of sweetness to a food. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Aspartame (or APM) (IPA: ) is the name for an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener, aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; i. ... NutraSweet is the company that makes and sells aspartame, an artificial sugar substitute. ...


From 1985 to 1990 he was in private business. During his business career, Rumsfeld continued public service in various posts, including:

  • Member of the President's General Advisory Committee on Arms Control—Reagan Administration (1982–1986);
  • President Reagan's Special Envoy on the Law of the Sea Treaty (1982–1983);
  • Senior Advisor to President Reagan's Panel on Strategic Systems (1983–1984);
  • Member of the U.S. Joint Advisory Commission on U.S./Japan Relations—Reagan Administration (1983–1984);
  • President Reagan's Special Envoy to the Middle East (1983–1984);
  • Member of the National Commission on the Public Service (1987–1990);
  • Member of the National Economic Commission (1988–1989);
  • Member of the Board of Visitors of the National Defense University (1988–1992);
  • Chairman Emeritus, Defense Contractor, Carlyle Group (1989–2005);
  • Member of the Commission on U.S./Japan Relations (1989–1991);
  • Member of the Board of Directors for ABB Ltd. (1990–2001);
  • FCC's High Definition Television Advisory Committee (1992–1993);
  • Chairman, Commission on the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States (1998–1999);
  • Member of the U.S. Trade Deficit Review Commission (1999–2000);
  • Member of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR);
  • Chairman of the U.S. Commission to Assess National Security Space Management and Organization (2000);
  • Honorary Vice-Chancellor of Yale University (2001), honoring Rumsfeld's U.S. foreign policy work.
Rumsfeld, at the time Ronald Reagan's special envoy to the Middle East, meeting with Saddam Hussein during a visit to Baghdad, Iraq in December, 1983, during the Iran-Iraq War. In later years, this image was downplayed by Rumsfeld and highlighted by his opponents, as relations with Hussein's regime deteriorated. (Video frame capture; see the complete video here.)

Rumsfeld served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of General Instrument Corporation from 1990 to 1993. A leader in broadband transmission, distribution, and access control technologies for cable, satellite and terrestrial broadcasting applications, the company pioneered the development of the first all-digital high-definition television (HDTV) technology. After taking the company public and returning it to profitability, Rumsfeld returned to private business in late 1993. From January 1997 until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense in January 2001, Rumsfeld served as Chairman of Gilead Sciences, Inc. He was also a board member of the RAND Corporation. FCC redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Reagan redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... General Instrument Corporation (known simply as GI, as displayed on its products) was a company that manufactured cable box recievers and cable modems. ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with greater resolution than traditional television systems (NTSC, SECAM, PAL). ... Gilead Sciences NASDAQ: GILD is a biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes therapeutics to advance the care of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases, principally HIV, hepatitis B and influenza. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ...


Rumsfeld served as United Way Inter-governmental Affairs Director in Washington, D.C. from 1986 to 1989. He was asked to serve the U.S. State Department as a "foreign policy consultant," a role he held from 1990 to 1993 concurrently with General Instrument Corporation CEO and ABB corporate board member. The United Way of America is a coalition of charitable organizations in the United States that have traditionally pooled efforts in fundraising. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Department of State redirects here. ... General Instrument Corporation (known simply as GI, as displayed on its products) was a company that manufactured cable box recievers and cable modems. ... ABB, formerly Asea Brown Boveri, is a multinational corporation headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland, operating mainly in the power and automation technology areas. ...


ABB and North Korea

Rumsfeld sat on ABB's board from 1990 to 2001. ABB is a European engineering giant based in Zürich, Switzerland; formed through the merger between ASEA of Sweden and Brown Boveri of Switzerland. In 2000 this company sold two light water nuclear reactors to KEDO for installation in North Korea, as part of the 1994 agreed framework reached under President Bill Clinton. ABB, formerly Asea Brown Boveri, is a multinational corporation headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland, operating mainly in the power and automation technology areas. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... ASEA (Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget) was a Swedish industry company. ... Brown, Boveri & Cie (BBC) was an electrotechnical company. ... The Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO) is an organization founded on March 15, 1995 by the United States, South Korea, and Japan to implement the 1994 Agreed Framework that froze North Koreas nuclear weapons program. ... The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea (DPRK) and the United States. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


The sale of the nuclear technology was a high-profile contract. ABB's then chief executive, Göran Lindahl, visited North Korea in November 1999 to announce ABB's "wide-ranging, long-term cooperation agreement" with the communist government. Rumsfeld's office said that the Secretary of Defense did not "recall it being brought before the board at any time." But ABB spokesman Björn Edlund told Fortune that "board members were informed about this project."[21] Fortune magazine is Americas second longest-running business magazine after Forbes magazine. ...


Reagan Administration

This a pro-Iraq policy was adopted when the Iran-Iraq war began to go strongly in Iran's favor, and it looked as if Iran would overrun Iraq completely. Although the United States was hesitant to support a Soviet client state, the prospect of a greatly expanded Iran outweighed these concerns. When Rumsfeld visited on December 19December 20, 1983, he and Saddam Hussein had a 90-minute discussion that covered Syria's occupation of Lebanon, preventing Syrian and Iranian expansion, preventing arms sales to Iran by foreign countries, increasing Iraqi oil production via a possible new oil pipeline across Jordan. According to declassified U.S. State Department documents Rumsfeld also informed Tariq Aziz (Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister) that: "Our efforts to assist were inhibited by certain things that made it difficult for us ... citing the use of chemical weapons."[22] Rumsfeld brought many gifts from the Reagan administration. These gifts included pistols, medieval spiked hammers even a pair of golden cowboy spurs. Until the 1991 Gulf war these were all displayed at Saddam's Victory Museum in Baghdad which held all the gifts bestowed on Saddam by world leaders.[23] Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline Pipeline transport is a transportation of goods through a tube. ... Mikhail Yuhanna, later and more popularly known as Tariq Aziz or Tareq Aziz, (Arabic: طارق عزيز, Syriac: ܜܪܩ ܥܙܝܙ) (born 1936 in Tel Keppe) was the Foreign Minister (1983 – 1991) and Deputy Prime Minister (1979 – 2003) of Iraq, and a close advisor of former President Saddam Hussein for decades. ...


During his brief bid for the 1988 Republican nomination, Rumsfeld stated that restoring full relations with Iraq was one of his best achievements. This was not a particularly controversial position at the time, when U.S. policy considered ties with Iraq an effective bulwark against Iran. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... GOP redirects here. ...


George H.W. Bush and Clinton years

Rumsfeld's public activities included service as a member of the National Academy of Public Administration and a member of the boards of trustees of the Gerald R. Ford Foundation, the Eisenhower Exchange Fellowships, the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, and the National Park Foundation. He was also a member of the U.S./Russia Business Forum and Chairman of the Congressional Leadership's National Security Advisory Group. Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... Stanford redirects here. ... The National Park Foundation, was chartered Congress on December 18, 1967 in Pub. ...


Rumsfeld was a founder and active member of the Project for the New American Century, a conservative think tank dedicated to overthrowing Saddam Hussein with military force. On January 29, 1998, he signed a PNAC letter calling for President Bill Clinton to implement "regime change" in Iraq.[24] Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


From January to July 1998 Rumsfeld chaired the nine-member Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. They concluded that Iraq, Iran, and North Korea could develop intercontinental ballistic missile capabilities in five to ten years and that U.S. intelligence would have little warning before such systems were deployed.[25] The Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States, also called the Rumsfeld Commission,[1] was an independent commission formed by the US Congress to evaluate the ballistic missile threat posed to the United States. ...


Opposing effort to release Jonathan Pollard

Rumsfeld's letter to Clinton urging him not to grant clemency to Jonathan Pollard.

Rumsfeld has long been an opponent of the release or sentence commutation of convicted spy Jonathan Pollard. In late 1998, in response to media reports that President Clinton was considering issuing a pardon to Pollard, Rumsfeld sent a letter to President Clinton, urging him not to grant clemency. According to Rumsfeld, seven former U.S. Secretaries of Defense signed the letter urging Clinton not to pardon Pollard or commute his sentence. Eventually, President Clinton decided against granting Pollard clemency. (See letter on right.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2550 × 3300 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2550 × 3300 pixel, file size: 1. ... Jonathan Jay Pollard (born August 7, 1954 in South Bend, Indiana) is a convicted Israeli spy and a former United States Naval civilian intelligence analyst. ...

George W. Bush Administration

Rumsfeld is sworn in by David O. Cooke as Secretary of Defense, January 20, 2001.
Rumsfeld is sworn in by David O. Cooke as Secretary of Defense, January 20, 2001.

Rumsfeld was named Defense Secretary soon after President George W. Bush took office in 2001. He immediately announced a series of sweeping reviews intended to plot the transformation of the U.S. military into a lighter force. These studies were led by Pentagon analyst Andrew Marshall. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 738 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Donald Rumsfeld ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 738 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Donald Rumsfeld ... David O. Cooke David O. Doc Cooke (1920 – June 22, 2002) was a United States Department of Defense civilian administrator who served under twelve Secretaries of Defense over a period of 45 years. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Andrew Marshall is the director of the United States Department of Defenses Office of Net Assessment. ...

Donald Rumsfeld with Dick Cheney.
Donald Rumsfeld with Dick Cheney.

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Rumsfeld led the military planning and execution of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Rumsfeld pushed hard to send as small a force as possible to both conflicts, a concept codified as the Rumsfeld Doctrine. Download high resolution version (1100x731, 149 KB)Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld (right) introduces Vice President Dick Cheney at a Pentagon ceremony marking the 228th Army birthday on June 13, 2003. ... Download high resolution version (1100x731, 149 KB)Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld (right) introduces Vice President Dick Cheney at a Pentagon ceremony marking the 228th Army birthday on June 13, 2003. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Rumsfeld's plan resulted in a lightning invasion that took Baghdad in well under a month with very few American casualties. Many government buildings, plus major museums, electrical generation infrastructure, and even oil equipment were looted and vandalized during the transition from the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime to the establishment of the Coalition Provisional Authority. A violent insurrection began shortly after the occupation started. The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ...


After the German and French governments voiced opposition to invading Iraq, Rumsfeld labeled these countries as part of "Old Europe", implying that countries that supported the war were part of a newer, modern Europe.[26] In January 2003 the term Old Europe surfaced after U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld used it to refer to European countries that did not support the 2003 invasion of Iraq, most notably France and Germany. ...

Rumsfeld is received by Vladimir Putin at the Kremlin in November 2001.
Rumsfeld is received by Vladimir Putin at the Kremlin in November 2001.

He gave more press conferences than his predecessors. The BBC Radio 4 current affairs program Broadcasting House had been so taken by Rumsfeld's various remarks that it once held a regular slot called "The Donald Rumsfeld sound bite of the Week" in which they played his most amusing comment from that week. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2995 × 2005 pixel, file size: 819 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2995 × 2005 pixel, file size: 819 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... Broadcasting House is a current affairs programme on BBC Radio 4. ... In film and broadcasting, a soundbite is a very short piece of footage taken from a longer speech or an interview in which someone with authority says something which is considered by those who edit the speech or interview to be a most important point. ...


Bush retained Rumsfeld after his 2004 presidential re-election. In December 2004, Rumsfeld came under fire after a "town-hall" meeting with U.S. troops where he responded to a soldier's comments about inferior military equipment by saying "you go to war with the Army you have, not the Army you want."


September 11, 2001

Rumsfeld's activities during the September 11, 2001 attacks were outlined in a Pentagon press briefing on September 15, 2001. Within three hours of the start of the first hijacking and two hours of American Airlines Flight 11 striking the World Trade Center, Rumsfeld raised the defense condition signaling of the United States offensive readiness to DEFCON 3; the highest it had been since the Arab-Israeli war in 1973.[27] Download high resolution version (2749x1990, 604 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2749x1990, 604 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is a measure of the activation and readiness level of the United States Armed Forces. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim...


Run-up to Iraq

Approximately five hours after the attack on the World Trade Center, Rumsfeld told aides he wanted the; "best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H. [Saddam Hussein] at same time. Not only UBL [Osama bin Laden]."[28][29] The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


Military decisions

Rumsfeld stirred controversy by quarreling for months with the CIA over who had the authority to fire Hellfire missiles from Predator drones, although according to The 9/11 Commission Report, the armed Predator was not ready for deployment until early 2002.[30] Hellfire AGM-114A AGM-114 Hellfire (Helicopter launched fire-and-forget) is a U.S. air-to-ground missile system designed to defeat tanks and other individual targets while minimizing the exposure of the launch vehicle to enemy fire. ... Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flies on a simulated Navy aerial reconnaissance flight off southern California in December 1995. ...


Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon note: Daniel Benjamin (born 1961) is a journalist and scholar on international security. ...

These quarrels kept the Predator from being used against al Qaeda.... The delay infuriated the terrorist hunters at the CIA. One individual who was at the center of the action called this episode "typical" and complained that "Rumsfeld never missed an opportunity to fail to cooperate. The fact is, the Secretary of Defense is an obstacle. He has helped the terrorists."[31]

Following September 11, 2001, Rumsfeld was in a meeting whose subject was the review of the Department of Defense's (Contingency) Plan in the event of a war with Iraq (U.S. Central Command OPLAN 1003-98). The plan (as it was then conceived) contemplated troop levels of up to 500,000, which Rumsfeld opined was far too many. Gordon and Trainor wrote:


As [General] Newbold outlined the plan … it was clear that Rumsfeld was growing increasingly irritated. For Rumsfeld, the plan required too many troops and supplies and took far too long to execute. It was, Rumsfeld declared, the "product of old thinking and the embodiment of everything that was wrong with the military."

  • * *

[T]he Plan . . . reflected long-standing military principles about the force levels that were needed to defeat Iraq, control a population of more than 24 million, and secure a nation the size of California with porous borders. Rumsfeld's numbers, in contrast, seemed to be pulled out of thin air. He had dismissed one of the military's long-standing plans, and suggested his own force level without any of the generals raising a cautionary flag.


Id.Gordon, Michael R. and Bernard E. Trainor, Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq], 2006. Book excerpt from the Denver Post



In Rumsfeld's final television interview as Secretary of Defense, he responded to a question by Brit Hume as to whether he pressed General Tommy Franks to lower his request for 400,000 troops for the Iraq War by stating: Brit Hume (born Alexander Britton Hume on June 22, 1943 in Washington, D.C.) is the Washington, D.C. managing editor of the Fox News Channel. ... Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945 in Wynnewood, Oklahoma) is a retired General in the United States Army, previously serving as the Commander of the United States Central Command, overseeing United States Armed Forces operations in a 25-country region, including the Middle East. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

Absolutely not. That's a mythology [sic]. This town is filled with this kind of nonsense. The people who decide the levels of forces on the ground are not the Secretary of Defense or the President. We hear recommendations but the recommendations are made by the combatant commanders and by members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and there hasn't been a minute in the last six years when we have not had the number of troops that the combatant commanders have requested.[32]

Rumsfeld told Hume that Franks ultimately decided against such a troop level. By 2007 it had become commonly accepted amongst Army leadership that the war in Iraq had been initiated with too few troops. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/13/us/13cnd-army.html?pagewanted=1&hp For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ...


Role in US propaganda effort

Rumsfeld tried to instil an atmosphere of fear in the mind of the American public as part of the U.S. propaganda campaign to sell the war against Iraq and the "War on Terrorism", according to a series of leaked memoranda known as "snowflakes." An undisclosed government whistleblower leaked the memos to the press. An April 2006 memo lists instructions to Pentagon staff including:

"Keep elevating the threat".... "Talk about Somalia, the Philippines etc. Make the American people realise they are surrounded in the world by violent extremists"[33]

Rumsfeld was deliberate in crafting the propaganda message to target the public. People will "rally" to the word "sacrifice," Rumsfeld noted after a meeting. "They are looking for leadership. Sacrifice = Victory." In May 2004, Rumsfeld considered whether to redefine the war on terrorism as a fight against "worldwide insurgency." He advised aides "to test what the results could be" if the war on terrorism were renamed.[34] Rumsfeld also ordered specific public Pentagon attacks and responses to US newspaper columns that reported negative news about the war, which he often personally reviewed before being sent.[35]


In october 2003, Rumsfeld personally approved a secret Pentagon "roadmap" on war propaganda, which calls for "boundaries" between information operations abroad and the news media at home, but provides for no such limits. The Roadmap advances a policy according to which as long as the US government does not intentionally target the American public, it does not matter that pschological operations, PSYOP, reaches the American public. The Roadmap acknowledges that "information intended for foreign audiences, including public diplomacy and PSYOP, increasingly is consumed by our domestic audience" but argues that "the distinction between foreign and domestic audiences becomes more a question of USG [U.S. government] intent rather than information dissemination practices."[36]


Prisoner abuse

Rumsfeld vigorously defended the Bush administration's decision to detain alleged illegal enemy combatants without protection under the Third Geneva Convention, because the Article 4 of the Convention limits rights to those who fight in uniform, under a defined command structure, and carry arms openly. There was nonetheless a large amount of pressure to apply the Geneva Conventions to cover these illegal combatants by many international bodies. Critics feel that Rumsfeld should have been held personally responsible for the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal. Rumsfeld himself said, "These events occurred on my watch as secretary of defense. I am accountable for them."[37] However, military investigations into the matters did not find him responsible for any wrongdoing. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Third Geneva Convention The Third Geneva Convention (or GCIII) of 1949, one of the Geneva Conventions, is a treaty agreement that primarily concerns the treatment of prisoners of war (POWs), and also touched on other topics. ... Original document. ... Unlawful combatant (also illegal combatant or unprivileged combatant) describes a person who engages in combat without meeting the requirements for a lawful belligerent according to the laws of war as specified in the Third Geneva Convention. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse Beginning in 2004, accounts of abuse, torture, rape[1] and homicide[2][3] of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. ...


In November 2006, the former U.S. Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, in charge of Abu Ghraib prison until early 2004, told Spain's El Pais newspaper she had seen a letter apparently signed by Rumsfeld that allowed civilian contractors to use techniques such as sleep deprivation during interrogation. "The methods consisted of making prisoners stand for long periods, sleep deprivation ... playing music at full volume, having to sit in uncomfortably ... Rumsfeld authorised these specific techniques." She said that this was contrary to the Geneva Convention and quoted from the same "Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind". According to Karpinski, the handwritten signature was above his printed name and in the same handwriting in the margin was written: "Make sure this is accomplished". There have been no comments from either the Pentagon or U.S. Army spokespeople in Iraq on Karpinski's accusations.[38] Janis Karpinski wearing her Brigadier General star before being demoted to Colonel Janis Leigh Karpinski (born May 25, 1953, Rahway, New Jersey) is a United States Army Colonel in the 800th Military Police Brigade. ... See Abu Ghraib prison and Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. ... El País (The country) is one of the most widely read Spanish newspapers. ... Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... This article is about the United States military building. ...


Condolence letters

In December 2004, Rumsfeld was heavily criticized for using a signing machine instead of personally signing over 1000 letters of condolence to the families of soldiers killed in action in Iraq and Afghanistan. He promised to personally sign all letters in the future.[39][40] US Government employees operate a check-signing machine. ...


Tamiflu

Rumsfeld, then-National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, and then-Secretary of State Colin Powell listen to President George W. Bush speak.
Rumsfeld, then-National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, and then-Secretary of State Colin Powell listen to President George W. Bush speak.

From January 1997 until being sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense in January 2001, Rumsfeld was Chairman of the Board of Gilead Sciences, which is the developer of Tamiflu (Oseltamivir), which is used in the treatment of bird flu.[41] Several news sources have published stories implying that Rumsfeld profits from sales of Tamiflu to the U.S. Government while he is in office, although they note that he has recused himself from any decisions involving Gilead and also had the Pentagon's General Counsel issue additional instructions outlining what he could and could not be involved in if there were an avian flu pandemic and the Pentagon had to respond.[42][43] U.S. President George W. Bush (at podium) discusses his plan for peace in the Middle East as National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice (left), Secretary of State Colin Powell (center) and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (right) stand by his side in the White House Rose Garden on June 24... U.S. President George W. Bush (at podium) discusses his plan for peace in the Middle East as National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice (left), Secretary of State Colin Powell (center) and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (right) stand by his side in the White House Rose Garden on June 24... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Gilead Sciences NASDAQ: GILD is a biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes therapeutics to advance the care of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases, principally HIV, hepatitis B and influenza. ... Oseltamivir (INN) (IPA: ) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... Tamiflu manufactured by ROCHE active principle Oseltamivir Phosphate Drug Nomenclature Synonyms: GS-4104/002; Oseltamivir, fosfato de; Ro-64-0796/002 USAN: Oseltamivir Phosphate rINNM: Oseltamivir Phosphate erINNM: Fosfato de oseltamivir Chemical name: Ethyl (3R,4R,5S)-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (1... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A General Counsel is the chief lawyer of a legal department, usually in a corporation or government department. ...


War critics

Rumsfeld has come under fire for his remarks at the American Legion's national convention when he accused critics of the Bush administration's Iraq and counter-terrorism policies of "trying to appease a new type of fascism."[44] Also, Rumsfeld claimed that the administration's critics have "moral and intellectual confusion" about what threatens the nation's security and accused them of lacking the courage to fight back.[45][46] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ...


Calls for resignation

Eight retired generals and admirals called for Rumsfeld to resign in early 2006 in what was called the "Generals Revolt", mostly questioning his military planning and strategic competence.[47][48][49] Rumsfeld rebuffed these criticisms, stating that "out of thousands and thousands of admirals and generals, if every time two or three people disagreed we changed the secretary of defense of the United States, it would be like a merry-go-round."[50] Conservative commentator Pat Buchanan reports that "Washington Post columnist David Ignatius, who travels often to Iraq and supports the war, says that the generals mirror the views of 75 percent of the officers in the field, and probably more."[51] President Bush responded to the criticism by stating that Rumsfeld is "exactly what is needed,"[52] and also defended him in his controversial decider remark. Patrick Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), usually known as Pat Buchanan, is an American conservative journalist and a well known television political commentator. ... David R. Ignatius (born May 26, 1950), an American journalist and novelist. ... But Iraq has—have got people there that are willing to kill, and theyre hard-nosed killers. ...


Resignation

Rumsfeld shakes the President's hand as he announces his resignation, November 8, 2006.
Rumsfeld shakes the President's hand as he announces his resignation, November 8, 2006.

On November 1, 2006, President Bush stated he would stand by Rumsfeld as defense secretary for the length of his term as president.[53] Rumsfeld wrote a resignation letter dated November 6th, and, per the stamp on the letter, Bush saw it on Election Day, November 7th.[54] In the elections, the House and the Senate shifted to Democratic control. After the elections, on November 8, Bush announced Rumsfeld would resign his position as Secretary of Defense. Many Republicans were unhappy with the delay, believing they would have won more votes if voters had known Rumsfeld was resigning.[54] Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_and_Rumsfeld_shakes_hands,_November_8,_2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_and_Rumsfeld_shakes_hands,_November_8,_2006. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Investigative journalist Robert Perry reported that Bush had asked Rumsfeld to resign because he disagreed with Bush's "surge" plan to escalate the war in Iraq, and had suggested in his November 6, 2006 memorandum to the president considering “an accelerated drawdown of U.S. bases" and withdrawal of U.S. troops from their vulnerable locations[55] Robert Perry (born South Wales) is the co-author of a variety of spin-offs relating to the television series Doctor Who. ...


Bush nominated Robert Gates for the position.[56][57][58][59] At a press conference announcing the resignation of Rumsfeld and the nomination of Bob Gates, Bush stated, "America is safer and the world is more secure because of the service and the leadership of Donald Rumsfeld."[60] Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. ...


On December 18, 2006, Rumsfeld's resignation took effect and Robert Gates was sworn in as his successor. One of his last actions as defense secretary was to pay a surprise visit to Iraq on December 10, 2006 to bid farewell to the United States military serving in Iraq.[61] is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Michael Gates (born September 25, 1943) is currently serving as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Including his time serving as the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Ford from 1975 to 1977, Rumsfeld is the second-longest-serving Secretary of Defense in history, falling nine days short of becoming the longest-serving Pentagon chief (after the Vietnam-era Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara). For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ...


In a farewell ceremony attended by President Bush on December 16, 2006, Rumsfeld's long-time political collaborator Vice President Dick Cheney called the secretary "the finest secretary of defense this nation has ever had." is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...


Post-resignation activities

In the months after his resignation, Rumsfeld toured the New York publishing houses in preparation for a potential memoir[2]. Such a book would reportedly be used by Rumsfeld to justify the military strategy used in Iraq under his watch. An agreement on a book deal has not been announced.


According to Time magazine, Rumsfeld is also in the early stages of establishing an educational foundation that would provide fellowships to talented individuals from the private sector who want to serve for some time in government. Rumsfeld would self-finance the foundation[62].


In September 2007, Rumsfeld received a one year appointment as a fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University,[63] joining fellow conservatives George Shultz, retired Army Gen. John P. Abizaid and Newt Gingrich. He will participate in the institution's new task force studying post-Sept. 11 ideology and terror. Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... Stanford redirects here. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... John Philip Abizaid (Arabic: جون أبي زيد) (born April 1, 1951) is a General in the United States Army and former Commander of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM), overseeing American military operations in a 27-country region, from the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, to South and Central Asia, covering much... Newton Leroy Gingrich, (born June 17, 1943), served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. ...


Lawsuits

Pentagon database

Several New York teenagers brought a lawsuit against Rumsfeld in federal court over a Pentagon database of potential military recruits. The Pentagon defended the database as critical to national security, but the plaintiffs argue that the database retains information on people as young as 16 in violation of federal privacy laws. New York Civil Liberties Union director Donna Lieberman said, "On the one hand Congress has afforded broad latitude to collect information but on the other hand the Department of Defense has completely flouted those limits."[64]


Alleged torture

Civil actions

On March 1, 2005, the American Civil Liberties Union and Human Rights First filed a lawsuit against Rumsfeld in a federal court in Illinois on behalf of eight detainees who they say were subjected to torture and abuse by U.S. forces. It seeks compensatory damages on behalf of the eight men allegedly tortured and abused by U.S. military forces after being captured in Iraq and Afghanistan.[65] A federal judge dropped the charges against Rumsfeld citing the legal precedent that U.S. Government officials cannot be held personally responsible for actions committed while in office.[66] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities. ... Human Rights First is a U.S. based association formerly known as Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


On December 18, 2006, U.S. citizen Donald Vance filed suit against Rumsfeld and the U.S. government alleging illegal incarceration and torture he endured in Iraq. Vance, a former U.S. Navy sailor, went to Iraq as a civilian security-contractor for Shield Group Security (SGS). He became an unpaid informant for the F.B.I., passing them evidence over a period of several months suggesting that SGS was engaged in illegal weapons trading with the Iraqi Interior Ministry. When Vance felt he was in grave danger, U.S. forces retrieved him from the Red Zone but subsequently detained him without charges for 97 days at Camp Cropper. Vance's lawsuit against Rumsfeld and the U.S. Government alleges that during his detention he was tortured and his rights of habeas corpus were violated. is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Vance is a American civilian who was held in detention at Camp Cropper, the United States militarys maximum-security detention site in Baghdad for ninety seven days beginning in April 2006. ... Shield Groups Security (SGS) was an Iraqi company that provided protection for businesses and organizations. ... Camp Cropper is a high-value detention site (HVD) near Baghdad International Airport in Iraq, operated by the United States Army. ...


Criminal charges sought

Criminal charges were sought in 2004 by Wolfgang Kaleck as well as Michael Ratner and Peter Weiss of the U.S.-based Center for Constitutional Rights in German courts against Donald Rumsfeld for war crimes. They were rejected by German Federal Public Prosecutor Kay Nehm with the explanation that criminal prosecution in the nations of the accused and the victims should be given priority.[67][68] Wolfgang Kaleck is a German attorney, who, on November 14, 2006, charged Donald Rumsfeld, George Tenet, Alberto Gonzales, Barbara Fast, William J. Haynes, II, John Yoo, David Addington, Walter Wojdakowski, Stephen Cambone, Ricardo S. Sanchez, Thomas Pappas, Marc Warren, Geoffrey Miller (general), and Jay Bybee for their involvement in the... Michael Ratner is an attorney, adjunct professor of law at Columbia University Law School, and president of the Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR), a non-profit human rights litigation organization based in New York, New York. ... Peter Weiss (November 8, 1916 - May 10, 1982) was a German writer, painter and artist. ... Center for Constitutional Rights. ...


On 14 November 2006, 11 former prisoners of Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo were backed by over 30 human rights organizations in support of charges by Wolfgang Kaleck and the CCR lodged at the German Federal Attorney General (Generalbundesanwalt) against Rumsfeld, former CIA Director George Tenet, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez and a number of other high U.S. officials. They invoke command responsibility in blaming the accused officials for various alleged human rights violations in Abu Ghraib in Iraq and Guantanamo Bay. According to a spokesmen of the agency Federal Public Prosecutor Monika Harms will examine the statement of claim now.[69][68] Notable co-plaintiffs include 1980 Nobel Peace Prize winner Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (Argentine), 2002 Nobel Peace Prize winner Martín Almada (Paraguay), Theo van Boven, the former United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture. On March 15, 2007, the city council of Berkeley, California endorsed the war crimes complaint from Germany. [3] is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency, which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. ... George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) was previously the Director of Central Intelligence for the United States Central Intelligence Agency and is Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lt. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... See Abu Ghraib prison and Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. ... Detainees upon arrival at Camp X-Ray, January 2002 Guantánamo Bay detainment camp serves as a joint military prison and interrogation center under the leadership of Joint Task Force Guantanamo (JTF-GTMO), has occupied a portion of the United States Navys base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba since 2002. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (born November 26, 1931 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was the recipient of the 1980 Nobel Peace Prize. ... Martín Almada is a lawyer, writer and educationalist from Paraguay. ... Theo van Boven (b. ... Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations who bear a specific mandate from the former UN Commission on Human Rights to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to human rights problems. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ...


Similar criminal charges are being sought in France. A complaint has been filed before a French court accusing Rumsfeld of authorizing and ordering torture. The complaint invokes the provisions of the United Nations Convention Against Torture, ratified by both the United States and France, which provides that signatory countries must prosecute a torturer or someone who knowingly oversees torturers, irrespective of where the torture occurred. The complaint argues that both the U.S. and Iraq have failed to independently investigate the matter and therefore France is obligated to prosecute Rumsfeld. International Federation for Human Rights (La Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l’Homme, FIDH) president Souhayr Belhassen said that “[France] has no choice but to open an investigation.”[70] The complaint was registered at the office of the prosecutor of the Court of First Instance in Paris when Rumsfeld's personal presence in the city for a talk sponsored by the magazine Foreign Policy provided for French jurisdiction.[70] Former U.S. Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, former commander of Abu Ghraib and other U.S.-run prisons in Iraq, submitted written testimony to the Paris Prosecutor for the plaintiffs’ case on Rumsfeld’s personal responsibility for the abuse of detainees.[71] CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... The International Federation of Human Rights (Fédération Internationale des Ligues des Droits de lHommes, FIDH) is an international non-governmental human rights organization created in 1922 and currently based in Paris. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Janis Karpinski wearing her Brigadier General star before being demoted to Colonel Janis Leigh Karpinski (born May 25, 1953, Rahway, New Jersey) is a United States Army Colonel in the 800th Military Police Brigade. ... See Abu Ghraib prison and Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse. ...


Ratner said of these developments that “We will not rest until those U.S. officials involved in torture are brought to justice. Rumsfeld must understand that he has no place to hide.”[70]


Human rights advocates pressing criminal charges against Rumsfeld are concerned that politics will trump the legal obligation of countries to prosecute torturers, and that thus, bowing to US government pressure, French prosecutors might refuse to lodge charges in court notwithstanding the law requiring that they do so. "I hope that the fight against impunity will not be sacrificed in the name of politics. We call on France to refuse to be a safe haven for criminals.” said FIDH President Souhayr Belhassen.


Rumsfeld however quitted France two days later without being worried by the authorities. The prosecutor of Paris sent a letter several weeks later to the lawyers, alleging that according to current jurisprudence by the International Court of Justice, Rumsfeld could not be pursuied. The lawyers immediately pointed out that, in reality, the jurisprudence invoked was the ICJ Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium), which concerned an incumbent minister, which was not Rumsfeld's case, while other jurisprudence (Pinochet's arrest) demonstrated the reverse [72]. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. ... General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the British government in 2000. ...


Criminal charges against Rumsfeld were also pressed in Sweden in 2007 and in Argentina in 2005.[73]


Awards

The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... Royal Order of the Intare (Lion) is the dynastic order of the Rwandan Monarchy[1]. It was founded by King Mutara III of Rwanda. ... Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie, President of the Crown Council of Ethiopia (L) and King Kigeli V of Rwanda (R). ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Brig. ... The Hudson Institute is a right-leaning U.S. think tank, founded in 1961 in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by the futurist Herman Kahn and other colleagues from the RAND Corporation. ... The inner courtyard of the library. ... The Ford Foundation is a charitable foundation incorporated in Michigan and based in New York City created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty, promote international understanding, and advance human achievement. ... The Distinguished Eagle Scout Award, is a special award, awarded only to Eagle Scouts, for distinguished service in his profession or to the community for a period of at least 25 years after earning his Eagle Scout rank. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... The Union League building located on South Broad Street in Center City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania A Union League is one of a number of organizations established 1863-64 during the American Civil War to promote loyalty to the Union side and the policies of Abraham Lincoln. ...

Affiliation history

Institutional affiliations

CSPs Freedom Flame logo. ... Hoover Tower at the Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is a public policy think tank and library founded by Herbert Hoover at Stanford University, his alma mater. ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ... The Committee for the Free World (CFW), according to the August 1998 update by Group Watch, was founded in 1981 by Midge Decter who was the organizations executive director. ... This article needs more references or sources. ...

Government posts, panels, and commissions

Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... The United States Permanent Representative to NATO (commonly called the US Ambassador to NATO) is the official representative of the United States to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ...

Corporate connections and business interests

Gilead Sciences NASDAQ: GILD is a biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes therapeutics to advance the care of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases, principally HIV, hepatitis B and influenza. ... General Instrument Corporation (known simply as GI, as displayed on its products) was a company that manufactured cable box recievers and cable modems. ... G.D. Searle & Company was a company focusing on life sciences, specifically pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest civil engineering company in the world. ... Gulfstream G200 Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation is a producer of several models of private jets. ... The Tribune Company (NYSE: TRB) is a large American multimedia corporation based in Chicago, Illinois. ... Sears, Roebuck and Company (NYSE: S) was founded in Chicago, Illinois as a catalog merchandiser in 1886 by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck. ... Asea Brown Boveri, or ABB, is a multinational corporation operating mainly in the energy and automation business areas. ... Kellogg Company (often referred to as simply Kellogg or Kelloggs) is an American multinational producer of breakfast foods, snack foods, cookies, and crackers, with corporate headquarters in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Kellogg trades under the ticker symbol NYSE: K. Revenues in 2006 were $10. ...

Education

Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...

Intellectual heritage

Colonel John (Richard) Boyd (January 23, 1927–March 9, 1997) was a United States Air Force fighter pilot and military strategist of the late 20th century whose theories have been highly influential in the military and in business. ... The OODA Loop is a concept originated by military strategist Col. ...

See also

Agathidium bushi, Agathidium cheneyi, and Agathidium rumsfeldi are species of slime-mold beetles named after George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Donald Rumsfeld, respectively, by two former Cornell entomologists, Dr Kelly B Miller (now at Brigham Young University) and Dr Quentin D Wheeler (now at the Natural History Museum). ... These are tables of congressional delegations from Illinois to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... In January 2003 the term Old Europe surfaced after U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld used it to refer to European countries that did not support the 2003 invasion of Iraq, most notably France and Germany. ... Winkler v. ... Unlike in many European, parliamentary cabinets, in the United States Cabinet it is generally less common for a cabinet secretary to hold multiple positions in cabinet over the years. ... Hillbilly armor is improvised armour for humvees made by attaching scrap metal. ...

References

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  3. ^ Gracious me. Economist (2006-11-09). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
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  11. ^ RUMSFELD, Donald Henry on Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed April 22, 2007.
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  66. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2007/LAW/03/27/iraq.torturesuit/index.html
  67. ^ U.S. lawyers file complaint over abuses in Abu Ghraib. seattlypi.com, 1 Dezember 2004
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  69. ^ Adam Zagorin: Exclusive: Charges Sought Against Rumsfeld Over Prison Abuse. TIME, 10 November 2006
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  74. ^ http://www.defenselink.mil/bios/rumsfeld_bio.html

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CNN.com is the news website maintained by CNN. The website debuted on August 30, 1995, and it describes itself as the first major news and information website on the Internet. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rue 89 is a French website created by former journalists from Libération. ...

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Works

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Biographies

  • White House Biography
  • Department of Defense Biography
  • Rumsfeld's War: The Untold Story of America's Anti-Terrorist Commander by Rowan Scarborough (Regnery Publishing, 2004) ISBN 0-89526-069-7
  • Rumsfeld: A Personal Portrait by Midge Decter (Regan Books, 2003) ISBN 0-06-056091-6
  • The Rumsfeld Way: The Leadership Wisdom of a Battle-Hardened Maverick by Jeffrey A. Krames (McGraw-Hill, 2002) ISBN 0-07-140641-7
  • Rumsfeld: His Rise, Fall, and Catastrophic Legacy by Andrew Cockburn (Scribners, 2007) ISBN 1-4165-3574-8

Documentary video

Articles profiling Rumsfeld

Preceded by
Marguerite S. Church
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 13th congressional district

1963-1969
Succeeded by
Phil Crane
Preceded by
Bertrand Harding
Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity
Served Under: Richard Nixon

1969–1971
Succeeded by
Frank Carlucci
Preceded by
Alexander Haig
White House Chief of Staff
Served Under: Gerald Ford

1974–1975
Succeeded by
Dick Cheney
Preceded by
James R. Schlesinger
United States Secretary of Defense
Served Under: Gerald Ford

1975–1977
Succeeded by
Harold Brown
Preceded by
William S. Cohen
United States Secretary of Defense
Served Under: George W. Bush

2001–2006
Succeeded by
Robert Gates
Persondata
NAME Rumsfeld, Donald Henry
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION U.S. Secretary of Defense
DATE OF BIRTH July 9, 1932 (1932-07-09) (age 75)
PLACE OF BIRTH Evanston, Illinois, United States
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Donald Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense (2001-2006) (803 words)
Donald H. Rumsfeld was sworn in as the 21st Secretary of Defense on January 20, 2001, and served until December 18, 2006.
Secretary Rumsfeld was responsible for directing the actions of the Defense Department in response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, to include Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Rumsfeld attended Princeton University on academic and NROTC scholarships (A.B., 1954) and served in the U.S. Navy (1954-57) as an aviator and flight instructor.
Donald Rumsfeld - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4950 words)
Rumsfeld married the former Joyce Pierson in 1954.
Rumsfeld himself is said to have found the slot "hilarious." Rumsfeld's penchant for talking with his hands also made him the butt of jokes, including a series portraying him as a martial arts master.
Rumsfeld stirred controversy by quarreling for months with the CIA over who had the authority to fire Hellfire missiles from Predator drones, although according to The 9/11 Commission Report, the armed Predator was not physically ready for deployment until the Spring of 2002.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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