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Encyclopedia > Donald Olding Hebb
Neuropsychology


Topics

Brain-computer interfaces • Brain damage
Brain regionsClinical neuropsychology
Cognitive neuroscienceHuman brain
Mind and Brain • Neuroanatomy
NeurophysiologyPhrenology
Popular misconceptions
Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Hebb Records is an independant private record label based in Morgantown, WV. Some bands on their label include Solar Plexus [1] and No Name [2] ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... A sketch of the human brain by artist Priyan Weerappuli, imposed upon the profile of Michelangelos David. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... A 19th century Phrenology chart. ... A sketch of the human brain by artist Priyan Weerappuli, imposed upon the profile of Michelangelos David. ...

Brain functions

arousalattention
concentrationconsciousness
decision-makingexecutive functions
languagelearningmemory
motor coordinationperception
planningproblem solving
thinking
Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Gustatory system Somatosensory system Visual perception Motor cortex Brocas area (aka Language Area) Lateralization of brain function Phrenology Cybernetics Connectionism Modularity of mind Artificial intelligence Society of Mind Neuropsychology Electroencephalography Electrophysiology Magnetoencephalography Functional MRI Positron emission tomography Categories: | | ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. ... Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among variations. ... Executive functions are the conscious control of ones thoughts, emotions, and movements. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

People

Arthur L. BentonAntonio Damasio
Phineas GageNorman Geschwind
Donald HebbAlexander Luria
Muriel D. LezakBrenda Milner
Karl PribramOliver Sacks
Roger Sperry Arthur Lester Benton, Ph. ... António C. R. Damásio (IPA: //) (b. ... Phineas Gages death mask Phineas P. Gage (1823 – May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction foreman who suffered a traumatic brain injury when a tamping iron accidentally passed through his skull, damaging the frontal lobes of his brain. ... Norman Geschwind can be considered the father of modern behavioral neurology in America. ... Alexander Romanovich Luria Александр Романович Лурия (July 16, 1902-1977) was a famous Russian neuropsychologist. ... Muriel Deutsch Lezak is an American neuropsychologist best known for her book Neuropsychological Assessment, widely accepted as the standard in the field. ... Brenda Milner has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ... Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a research professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Georgetown University, Washington DC. He trained as a neurosurgeon and became a professor at Stanford University, where he did pioneering work on the cerebral cortex. ... Oliver Sacks Oliver Wolf Sacks (born July 9, 1933, London) is a neurologist who has written popular books about his patients. ... ...

Tests

Bender-Gestalt Test
Benton Visual Retention Test
Clinical Dementia Rating
Continuous Performance Task
Hayling and Brixton tests
Lexical decision task
Mini mental state examination
Stroop task
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wisconsin card sorting task The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test or simply the Bender-Gestalt test is a psychological test first developed by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender. ... The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Continuous Performance Task, or CPT, is a psychological test that consists of a series of stimuli. ... The Hayling and Brixton tests[1] are neuropsychological tests of executive function created by psychologists Paul W. Burgess and Tim Shallice. ... A lexical decision task is a type of experiment in psycholinguistics. ... The mini mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ... The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of set-shifting, i. ...

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Donald Olding Hebb (July 22, 1904August 20, 1985) was a psychologist who was influential in the area of neuropsychology, where he sought to understand how the function of neurons contributed to psychological processes such as learning. He has been described as the father of neuropsychology and neural networks. July 22 is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... A psychologist is a scientist and/or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...

Contents

Life

Donald Hebb was born in Chester, Nova Scotia, the oldest of four children of Arthur M. and M. Clara (Olding) Hebb, and lived there until the age of 16, when his parents moved to Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. Chester, Nova Scotia, at roughly 44. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Ferry running between Halifax and Dartmouth, docked at Dartmouth Ferry Terminal. ...


Donald's parents were both physicians. Donald's mother was heavily influenced by the ideas of Maria Montessori and home schooled him until the age of 8. He performed so well in elementary school that he was promoted to the 7th grade at 10 years old. Although his rebellious attitude and disrespect for authority eventually resulted in failing the 11th grade, he still managed to graduate. Maria Montessori Maria Montessori (August 31, 1870 - May 6, 1952) was an Italian physician, educator, philosopher, humanitarian and devout Catholic; she is best known for her philosophy and method of education of children from birth to adolescence. ...


The older of Donald's younger brothers, Andrew, obtained a law degree but went on to a career in journalism and then the insurance business. Donald's other younger brother, Peter, went on to become a physician like his parents. And his sister, Catherine, eventually became a prominent physiologist. But Donald, early in life, had no aspirations for psychology or the medical field, he wanted to be a writer. He entered Dalhousie University aiming to become a novelist. He wasn't an exceptional student (his best subjects were math and science) but he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1925. Afterwards, he became a teacher, teaching at his old school in Chester. And, later, a farmer in Alberta. He then traveled around as a laborer in Quebec. During his travels he encountered the works of Sigmund Freud (which he regarded as "not too rigorous"), William James, and John B. Watson which made him consider joining the field of psychology. Dalhousie University is a university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ... A B.A. issused as a certificate Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was a Jewish-Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other people named William James see William James (disambiguation) William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher. ... John Broadus Watson (January 9, 1878–September 25, 1958) was an American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, after doing research on animal behavior. ...


At the age of 23, he decided to enter the field of psychology. He asked William Dunlop Tait, the chairman of the pychology department at McGill University (a post Hebb would one day hold) what he'd have to do to get in and was given a reading list and told to come back in a year's time. During this year of study, he went back to teaching. McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ...


In 1928, he became a part-time graduate student at McGill University. But, at the same time, he was appointed headmaster of a troubled school in the suburbs of Montreal. He worked with two colleagues from the university, Kellogg and Clarke, to improve the situation. He took a more innovative approach to education, for example assigning more interesting schoolwork and sending anyone misbehaving outside (making schoolwork a privilege). This article needs cleanup. ...


In 1931, Hebb became bedridden due to tuberculosis in his hip. He used the time to read Charles Scott Sherrington's The Integrative Action of the Nervous System and Ivan Pavlov's Conditioned Reflexes. His master's thesis, written later that year, titled Conditioned and Unconditioned Reflexes and Inhibition, tried to show that skeletal reflexes were due to cellular learning. This he later dismissed as "nonesense, but no immediate disproof was available at the time". And yet, one of the men who later approved the thesis, Boris Babkin, had worked with Pavlov himself. At the very least, the thesis demonstrated the start of a thought process that would later lead to the Hebb synapse. Hebb passed cum laude. Babkin arranged for Hebb to do research on conditioning with Leonid Andreyev, another former member of Pavlov's laboratory. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Sherrington is considered one of the fathers of neuroscience. ... Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (Russian: ) (September 14, 1849 – February 27, 1936) was a Russian physiologist, psychologist, and physician. ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev (1871-1919) was a Russian Short story writer, who was active between the revolution of 1905 and the Communist revolution which finally overthrew the tsarist government. ...


Between 1933 and 1934, Hebb wrote a booklet titled Scientific Method in Psychology: A Theory of Epistemology Based on Objective Psychology. It was never published, but contained many ideas that would later become part of his later work.


By the beginning of 1934, Hebb's life was in a slump. His wife had died, following a car accident, on his twenty-ninth birthday (July 22, 1933). His work at the Montreal school was going badly. In his words, it was "defeated by the rigidity of the curriculum in Quebec's protestant schools". The focus of study at McGill was more in the direction of education and intelligence, and Hebb was now more interested in physiological psychology and was critical of the methodology of the experiments there.


He decided to leave Montreal and wrote to Robert Yerkes at Yale where he was offered a position to study for a PhD. Babkin, however, convinced Hebb to go study with Karl Lashley instead. PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Karl S. Lashley (1890-1958) was an American behaviorist well-remembered for his influential contributions to the study of learning and memory. ...


In July 1934, Hebb was accepted to study under Karl Lashley at the University of Chicago. His thesis was titled "The problem of spatial orientation and place learning". Hebb, along with two other students, followed Lashley to Harvard University in September, 1935. Here, he had to change his thesis. At Harvard, he did his thesis on the effects of early visual deprivation upon size and brightness perception in a rat. That is, he raised rats in the dark and some in the light and compared their brains. In 1936, he got his PhD from Harvard. The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ...


For the duration of the next year, he worked as a research assistant to Lashley and as a teaching assistant in introductory psychology for Edwin G. Boring at Radcliffe College. His Harvard thesis was soon published and he finished the thesis he started at University of Chicago. Edwin Garrigues Boring (October 23, 1886-July 1, 1968) was an experimental psychologist who later became one of the first historians of psychology. ... Radcliffe College was a liberal arts womens college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, closely associated with Harvard University. ...


In 1937, Hebb married his second wife, Elizabeth Nichols Donovan. That same year, on a tip from his sister Catherine (herself a PhD student with Babkin at McGill University), he applied to work with Wilder Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute. Here he researched the effect of brain surgery and injury on human brain function. He saw that the brain of a child could regain partial or full function when a portion of it is removed, but the similar damage in an adult could be far more catastrophic. From this, he deduced the prominent role that external stimulation played in the thought processes of adults. In fact, the lack of this stimulation, he showed, caused diminished function and sometimes hallucinations. Dr Wilder Graves Penfield, CC, OM, CMG, MD, FRS (January 25/26, 1891 – April 5, 1976) was a American-born Canadian neurosurgeon. ... Founded in 1934 by Dr. Wilder Penfield with a $1. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ...


He also became critical of the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler intelligence tests for use with brain surgery patients. These tests were designed to measure overall intelligence, whereas Hebb believed tests should be designed to measure more specific effects that surgery could have had on the patient. Together with N.W. Morton, he created the Adult Comprehension Test and the Picture Anomaly Test. The development of the Stanford-Binet IQ test initiated the modern field of intelligence testing. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ...


Putting the Picture Anomaly Test to use, he provided the first indication that the right temporal lobe was involved in visual recognition. He also showed that removal of large parts of the frontal lobe had little effect on intelligence. In fact, in one adult patient, who had a large portion of their frontal lobes removed in order to treat their epilepsy, he noted "a striking post-operative improvement in personality and intellectual capacity". From these sorts of results, he started to believe that the frontal lobes were instrumental in learning only early on in life.


In 1939, he was appointed to a teaching position at Queen's University. In order to test his theory of the changing role of the frontal lobes with age, he designed a variable path maze for rats with Kenneth Williams called the Hebb-Williams maze. A method for testing animal intelligence later used in countless studies. He used the maze to test the intelligence of rats blinded at different developmental stages, showing that "there is a lasting effect of infant experience on the problem-solving ability of the adult rat." This became one of the main principles of developmental psychology, later helping the founding of Head Start programs. Queens University, generally referred to simply as Queens, is a coeducational, non-sectarian, public university located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that focuses on assisting children from low-income families. ...


In 1942, he moved to Orange Park, Florida to once again work with Karl Lashley who had replaced Yerkes as the Director of the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Here, studying primate behaviour, Hebb developed emotional tests for chimpanzees. Although, the experiment were somewhat unsuccessful as chimpanzees turned out to be hard to teach. During the course of the work there, Hebb wrote The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory, his ground-breaking book which set forth the theory that the only way to explain behaviour was in terms of brain function. Orange Park is a town located in Clay County, Florida, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 9,081. ... The Yerkes National Primate Research Center, located in Atlanta, Georgia at Emory University, is one of eight national primate research centers funded by the National Institutes of Health. ... Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzees, also called chimps, are the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ...


Afterwards, he returned to McGill University to become a professor of psychology in 1947 and was made chairman of the department in 1948. Here, he once again worked with Penfield, but this time through his students, which included Mortimer Mishkin, Haldor Enger Rosvold, and Brenda Milner, all of whom extended his earlier work with Penfield on the human brain. McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Brenda Milner has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ...


His wife Elizabeth died in 1962. In 1966, Hebb married his third wife, Margaret Doreen Wright née Williamson, a widow.


Also during the 1960's, Hebb conducted a study at McGill on the effects of sensory deprivation on human subjects, funded by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The CIA was apparently interested in using sensory deprivation to overcome prisoner resistance during interrogation; this is considered by some to be a form of torture. [1] The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ...


Hebb remained at McGill until retirement in 1972. Afterwards, in 1976, he returned to Dalhousie University as professor emeritus of psychology. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the 1976 Gregorian calendar. ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ...


Hebb was a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) and was its president in 1960. He won the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1961. The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...


Donald Hebb died in 1985, two years after his wife, in Nova Scotia. He was survived by two daughters (both by his second marriage), Mary Ellen Hebb and Jane Hebb Paul. Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Donald O. Hebb Award, named in his honor, is awarded to distinguished Canadian scientists.


Work

The Organization of Behavior (1949)

This work is considered Hebb's most important. A combination of his years of work in brain surgery mixed with his study of human behavior, it finally brought together the two realms of human perception that for a long time could not be connected properly. That is, the biological function of the brain as an organ together with the higher function of the mind.


There were many theories on how the brain and the mind were connected. Pavlovian theories, for example, were based on stimulus and response. That is, a theory based on the belief that a path existed from sensory organs to the mind, which then made a response. The problem with the theory was that it was assumed that signals travel one way to the brain. It could not explain all the extra processing that adds to the input signals of human senses. And perhaps this was based on the fact that neurons themselves transmit in only one direction. But connections between various neurons are not necessarily one-way.


In 1929, Hans Berger discovered that the mind exhibits continuous electrical activity and cast doubt on the Pavlovian model of perception and response because, now, there appeared to be something going on in the brain even without much stimulus. Hans Berger was born in May 21, 1873, in Neuses near Coburg, Thuringia, Germany. ...


At the same time, there were many mysteries. For example, if there was a method for the brain to recognize a circle, how does it recognize circles of various sizes or imperfect roundness? To accommodate every single possible circle that could exist, the brain would need a far greater capacity than it has.


Another theory, the Gestalt theory, stated that signals to the brain established a sort of field. The form of this field only depended on the pattern of the inputs, but it still could not explain how this field was understood by the mind. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The behaviorist theories at the time did well at explaining how the processing of patterns happened. However, they could not account for how these patterns made it into the mind.


Hebb combined up-to-date data about behavior and the mind into a single theory. And, while the understanding of the anatomy of the brain did not advance much since the development of the older theories on the operation of the brain, he was still able to piece together a theory that got a lot of the important functions of the brain right.


His theory became known as Hebbian theory and the models which follow this theory are said to exhibit Hebbian learning. This method of learning is best expressed by this quote from the book: Hebbian theory describes a basic mechanism for synaptic plasticity wherein an increase in synaptic efficacy arises from the presynaptic cells repeated and persistent stimulation of the postsynaptic cell. ... Hebbian learning is a hypothesis for how neuronal connections are enforced in mammalian brains; it is also a technique for weight selection in artificial neural networks. ...

When an axon of cell A is near enough to excite cell B and repeatedly or persistently takes part in firing it, some growth process or metabolic change takes place in one or both cells such that A's efficiency, as one of the cells firing B, is increased

This is often paraphrased as "Neurons that fire together wire together." It is commonly referred to as Hebb's Law.


The combination of neurons which could be grouped together as one processing unit, Hebb referred to as "cell-assemblies". And their combination of connections made up the ever-changing algorithm which dictated the brain's response to stimuli.


Not only did Hebb's model for the working of the mind influence how psychologists understood the processing of stimuli within the mind, but it also opened up the way for the creation of computational machines that mimicked the biological processes of a living nervous system. And while the dominant form of synaptic transmission in the nervous system was later found to be chemical, modern artificial neural networks are still based on the transmission of signals via electrical impulses that Hebbian theory was first designed around. An artificial neural network (ANN), often just called a neural network (NN), is an interconnected group of artificial neurons that uses a mathematical model or computational model for information processing based on a connectionist approach to computation. ...


Hebb as an educator

Throughout his life Hebb enjoyed and was very successful as a teacher. Both in his early years as a teacher and a headmaster in a Montreal school and in his later years at McGill University, he proved to be a very effective educator and a great influence on the scientific minds which were then his students.


As a professor at McGill, he believed that you could not teach motivation. The only thing you could do was create the conditions necessary for students to study and do research. You could train them to write, help them choose a problem to study, and even help keep them undistracted, but the motivation and passion for research and study had to come from the student. He believed that students should be evaluated on their ability to think and create rather than their ability to memorize and reprocess older ideas.


Hebb believed in a very objective study of the human mind, more as a study of a biological science. This attitude towards psychology and the way it is taught made McGill University a prominent center of psychological study.


Hebb also came up with the A/S ratio, a value that measures the brain complexity of an organism. The A/S ratio is the proportion of the brain not directly connected with either receptor inputs or motor outputs, where A is the Association Cortex and S is the Sensory Cortex. ...


Known Students

  • Donald Forgays
  • Stevan Harnad
  • Woodburn Heron
  • Bernard Hymovitch
  • W. Jake Jacobs
  • Helen Mahut
  • Ronald Melzack
  • Brenda Milner
  • Peter Milner
  • Mortimer Mishkin
  • Gordon Mogenson
  • Aryeh Routtenberg
  • Seth Sharpless
  • Case Vanderwolf

Professor Stevan Harnad Professor Stevan Harnad (Hernád István, Hesslein István) - born June 2, 1945 in Budapest - is a Hungarian-born cognitive scientist. ... Ronald Melzack (born July 19, 1929, Montreal, Quebec) is a Canadian neurophysiologist. ... Brenda Milner has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ...

References

  • The Hebb Legacy. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. Retrieved on 2006-03-08.
  • "Hebb, Donald O. (1904-1985)". Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (2). (2001). 
  • Donald Hebb Biography. University of Alberta Website. Retrieved on 2006-03-09.
  • Richard E. Brown & Peter M. Milner (December 2003). "The Legacy Of Donald O. Hebb: More Than The Hebb Synapse". Nature 4: 1013-1019. 
  • Donald Hebb (1904 - 1985). Harnad E-Print Archive and Psycoloquy and BBS Journal Archives. Retrieved on 2006-03-18.
Academic offices
Preceded by
Howard Irwin Ross
Chancellor of McGill University
1970–1974
Succeeded by
Stuart Milner Finlayson
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Donald Hebb - Wikipédia (695 words)
Donald Hebb (1904-1985) est un psychologue et neuropsychologue canadien.
Hebb, D. Hebb in G. Lindzey (dir.), A history of psychology in autobiography Vol.
Glickman Donald Olding Hebb: Returning the nervous system to psychology in G. Kimble, C. Boneau, and M. Wertheimer (dir.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology, Vol.
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