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Encyclopedia > Don Quixote
El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha

The 1605 original title page
Author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
Original title El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha
IPA: [el iŋxe'njoso i'ð̞algo don ki'xote ð̞e la 'manʧa]
Country Spain
Language Spanish
Genre(s) Picaresco, Satire, Parody, Farce, Psychological novel
Publisher Iuan de la Cuesta
Publication date 1605, 1615
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)

Don Quixote (Spanish: , IPA: [/dɒnˈkihoʊte/], but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha ("The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha") is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Cervantes created a fictional origin for the story based upon a manuscript by the invented Moorish historian, Cide Hamete Benengeli. The name Don Quixote can, under several spelling variations, refer to several things: Don Quixote, fully Don Quixote de la Mancha, a novel by Miguel de Cervantes. ... Image File history File links Cervantes, Don Quixote (1605) - title page of the first edition. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Look up farce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The psychological novel is a type of novel supposed to have originated with Giovanni Boccaccio in 1344 CE, in La Fiammetta. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... An hidalgo or fidalgo was a member of the lower Spanish and Portuguese nobility. ... Thanks to Miguel de Cervantes, La Mancha is famous for its windmills. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Cervantes redirects here. ... For other uses, see moor. ...


The protagonist, Alonso Quixano, is a country gentleman who has read so many stories of chivalry that he descends into fantasy and becomes convinced he is a knight errant. Together with his earthy squire Sancho Panza, the self-styled "Don Quixote de la Mancha" sets out in search of adventure. The "lady" for whom Quixote seeks to toil is Dulcinea del Toboso, an imaginary object crafted from a neighbouring farmgirl (her real name is Aldonza Lorenzo) by the illusion-struck "knight" to be the object of his courtly love. "Dulcinea" is totally unaware of Quixote's feelings for her and does not actually appear in the novel. Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... The Knight Errant (1870), by John Everett Millais. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dulcinea (1957), sculpture by F. Coullaut-Valera, in Madrid (Spain). ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ...


Published in two volumes a decade apart, Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature to emerge from the Spanish Golden Age and perhaps the entire Spanish literary canon. As a founding work of modern Western literature, it regularly appears at or near the top of lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published[1] and is the best-selling non-religious, non-political work of fiction of all time.[2] The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... The term Spanish literature refers to literature written in the Spanish language, including literature composed in Spanish by writers not necessarily from Spain. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ...

Contents

Literary attributes

Don Quijote by Honoré Daumier (1868)
Don Quijote by Honoré Daumier (1868)

The novel's structure is in episodic form. It is a humorous novel in the picaresco style of the late sixteenth century. The full title is indicative of the tale's object, as ingenioso (Span.) means "to be quick with inventiveness".[3] Although the novel is farcical, the second half is serious and philosophical about the theme of deception. Quixote has served as an important thematic source not only in literature but in much of later art and music, inspiring works by Pablo Picasso and Richard Strauss. The contrasts between the tall, thin, fancy-struck, and idealistic Quixote and the fat, squat, world-weary Panza is a motif echoed ever since the book’s publication, and Don Quixote's imaginings are the butt of outrageous and cruel practical jokes in the novel. Even faithful and simple Sancho is unintentionally forced to deceive him at certain points. The novel is considered a satire of orthodoxy, truth, veracity, and even nationalism. In going beyond mere storytelling to exploring the individualism of his characters, Cervantes helped move beyond the narrow literary conventions of the chivalric romance literature that he spoofed, which consists of straightforward retelling of a series of acts that redound to the knightly virtues of the hero. Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... The picaresque novel (Spanish: picaresco, from pícaro, for rogue or rascal) is a popular subgenre of prose fiction which is usually satirical and depicts in realistic and often humorous detail the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his or her wits in a... Look up farce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Picasso redirects here. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... For the modern genre of romantic fiction, see Romance novel. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... The Virtues of a Knight (Knightly Virtues) included the following: Charity Chivalry Courage Courtesy Determination Selflessness Endurance Faithfulness Honour Humility Justice Kindness Loyalty Mercy Morality Nobility Patience Perseverance Prudence Sympathy Truthfulness Wisdom Categories: Warrior code ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ...


Farce makes use of punning and similar verbal playfulness. Character-naming in Don Quixote makes ample figural use of contradiction, inversion, and irony, such as the names Rocinante[4] (a reversal) and Dulcinea (an allusion to illusion), and the word quixote[5] itself, possibly a pun on quijada (jaw) but certainly cuixot (Catalan: thighs), a reference to a horse's rump.[6] The term rump can mean The buttocks or backside of the human body the corresponding part of an animal, as in rump steak, a cut of meat In politics, a remnant of a larger political grouping that continues to exist after the group has formally dissolved or been abolished. ...

Don Quixote and Sancho Panza Bronze Statues at the Cervantes Birth Place Museum - Alcalá de Henares
Don Quixote and Sancho Panza Bronze Statues at the Cervantes Birth Place Museum - Alcalá de Henares

The world of ordinary people, from shepherds to tavern-owners and inn-keepers, which figures in Don Quixote, was groundbreaking. The character of Don Quixote became so well-known in its time that the word quixotic was quickly calqued into many languages. Characters such as Sancho Panza and Don Quixote’s steed, Rocinante, are emblems of Western literary culture. The phrase "tilting at windmills" to describe an act of futility similarly derives from an iconic scene in the book. Location Location of Alcalá Coordinates : 40º28’N , 3º22’W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alcalá de Henares (Spanish) Spanish name Alcalá de Henares Founded Preromanian Postal code 28. ... Quixotism (IPA: [ˈkwɪksəˌtɪzm]) is the description of a person or an act that is caught up in the romance of noble deeds and the pursuit of unreachable goals. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... Rocinante is the name of Don Quixotes horse, in the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...


Because of its widespread influence, Don Quixote also helped cement the modern Spanish language. The opening sentence of the book created a classic Spanish cliché with the phrase de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarme, "whose name I do not want to remember." This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...

En un lugar de la Mancha, de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarme, no ha mucho tiempo que vivía un hidalgo de los de lanza en astillero, adarga antigua, rocín flaco y galgo corredor.

"In a place at La Mancha, which name I do not want to remember, not very long ago lived a noble, one of those nobles who keep a lance in the lance-rack, an ancient shield, a skinny old horse, and a fast greyhound."[7]


Plot summary

Alonso Quixano, a fiftyish retired country gentleman, lives in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and a housekeeper. He has become obsessed with books of chivalry, and believes their every word to be true, despite the fact that many of the events in them are clearly impossible. Quixano eventually appears to other people to have lost his mind from little sleep and food and because of so much reading. He decides to go out as a knight-errant in search of adventure. He dons an old suit of armor, improvises a makeshift helmet, renames himself "Don Quixote de la Mancha," and names his skinny horse "Rocinante." He designates a neighboring farm girl, Aldonza Lorenzo, as his ladylove, renaming her Dulcinea del Toboso, while she knows nothing about this. Thanks to Miguel de Cervantes, La Mancha is famous for its windmills. ... Rocinante is the name of Don Quixotes horse, in the novel Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...


He sets out in the early morning and ends up at an inn, which he believes to be a castle. He asks the innkeeper, whom he takes to be the lord of the castle, to dub him knight. Don Quixote spends the night holding vigil over his armor, during which he becomes involved in a fight with muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horse trough so that they can water their mules. The innkeeper then "dubs" him knight advising him that he needs a squire, and sends him on his way. Don Quixote battles with traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea, and he also frees a young boy who is tied to a tree by his master because the boy had the audacity to ask his master for the wages the boy had earned but had not yet been paid. Don Quixote is returned to his home by a neighboring peasant, Pedro Crespo.[8] For other uses, see Squire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ...

Back at home, Don Quixote plots an escape. Meanwhile, his niece, the housekeeper, the parish curate, and the local barber secretly burn most of the books of chivalry, and seal up his library pretending that a magician has carried it off. Don Quixote approaches another neighbor, Sancho Panza, and asks him to be his squire, promising him governorship of an island. The rather dull-witted Sancho agrees, and the pair sneak off in the early dawn. It is here that their series of famous adventures begin, starting with Don Quixote's attack on windmills that he believes to be ferocious giants. Download high resolution version (1149x862, 432 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1149x862, 432 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about machines that convert wind energy into mechanical energy. ... Thanks to Miguel de Cervantes, La Mancha is famous for its windmills. ... From the Latin curatus (compare Curator), a curate is a person who is invested with the care, or cure (cura), of souls of a parish. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pitstone Windmill, believed to be the oldest windmill in the British Isles A windmill is an engine powered by the energy of wind. ...


Although the first half of the novel is almost completely farcical, the second half is serious and philosophical about the theme of deception. Don Quixote's imaginings are made the butt of outrageously cruel practical jokes. Even Sancho is unintentionally forced to deceive him at one point; trapped into finding Dulcinea, Sancho brings back three peasant girls and tells Quixote that they are Dulcinea and her ladies-in-waiting. When Don Quixote only sees three peasant girls, Sancho pretends that Quixote suffers from a cruel spell which does not permit him to see the truth. Sancho eventually gets his imaginary island governorship and unexpectedly proves to be wise and practical; though this too, ends in disaster. The novel ends with Don Quixote's complete disillusionment, with his melancholic return to sanity and renunciation of chivalry, and finally, his death. Look up farce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Melancholia (Greek μελαγχολια) was described as a distinct disease as early as the fifth and fourth centuries BC in the Hippocratic writings. ...


Writing and publication

Cervantes' sources

Tirant lo Blanch

Sources for Don Quixote include the Valencian novel Tirant lo Blanch, one of the first chivalric epics, which Cervantes describes in Chapter VI of Quixote as "the best book in the world." The scene of the book burning gives us an excellent list of Cervantes's likes and dislikes about literature. Tirant lo Blanc, written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished by Martí Joan De Galba and published in Valencia in 1490, is an epic romance and one of the key works in the evolution of the Western novel. ...


Orlando furioso

Cervantes makes a number of references to the Italian poem Orlando furioso. In chapter 10 of the first part of the novel, Don Quixote says he must take the magical helmet of Mambrino, an episode from Canto I of Orlando, and itself a reference to Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando innamorato.[9] The interpolated story in chapter 51 of Part II is a retelling of a tale from Canto 43 of Orlando, regarding a man who tests the fidelity of his wife.[10] Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ... Matteo Maria Boiardo (c. ... Orlando Innamorato is an epic poem written by the Italian Renaissance author Matteo Maria Boiardo. ...


Publication

Sancho Panza and Don Quixote Bronze Statues
Sancho Panza and Don Quixote Bronze Statues

In July of 1604 Cervantes sold the rights of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha (known as Don Quixote, Part I) to the publisher-bookseller Francisco de Robles for an unknown sum. License to publish was granted in September, the printing was finished in December, and the book came out in January 1605.[11] The novel was an immediate success. Most of the 400 copies of the first edition were sent to the New World, with the publisher hoping to make a better price in the Americas [12]. Although a lot of them disappeared in a shipwreck near La Havana, approximatively 70 copies reached Lima, from where they were sent to Cuzco in the heart of the defunct Inca Empire [12]. Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... City Coat of Arms. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ...


There is some evidence of its contents having been known before publication to, among others, Lope de Vega. There is also a tradition that Cervantes read some portions of his work to a select audience at the court of the Duke of Bejar, which may have helped in making the book known. Don Quixote, Part One remained in Cervantes' hands for some time before he could find a willing publisher.[13] The compositors at Juan de la Cuesta's press in Madrid are now known to have been responsible for errors in the text, many of which were attributed to the author. Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ... Béjar is a town and municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon. ... Movable metal type Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in an aesthetic form on paper or some other media. ...


No sooner was it in the hands of the public than preparations were made to issue derivative ("pirated") editions. "Don Quixote" had been growing in favour, and its author's name was now known beyond the Pyrenees. By August 1605 there were two Madrid editions, two published in Lisbon, and one in Valencia. A second edition with additional copyrights for Aragon and Portugal, which publisher Francisco de Robles secured.[14] Sale of these publishing rights deprived Cervantes of further financial profit on Part One. In 1607, an edition was printed in Brussels. Robles, the Madrid publisher, found it necessary to meet demand with a third edition, a seventh publication in all, in 1608. Popularity of the book in Italy was such that a Milan bookseller issued an Italian edition in 1610. Yet another Brussels edition was called for in 1721. [11] Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Look up Valencia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coat of arms of Aragon, 15th century The Crown of Aragon is a term used to refer to the permanent union of multiple titles and states in the hands of the King of Aragon. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


In 1613, Cervantes published Novelas Exemplares, dedicated to the Maecenas of the day, the Conde de Lemos. Eight and a half years after Part One had appeared, we get the first hint of a forthcoming Segunda Parte (Part Two). "You shall see shortly," Cervantes says, "the further exploits of Don Quixote and humours of Sancho Panza."[15] Don Quixote, Part Two, published by the same press as its predecessor, appeared late in 1615, and quickly reprinted in Brussels and Valencia (1616) and Lisbon (1617). The second tome capitalizes on the potential of the first, developing and diversifying without sacrificing familiarity. Many people agree that it is richer and more profound. Parts One and Two were published as one edition in Barcelona in 1617. Gaius or Cilnius Maecenas (70 - 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Augustus Caesar, as well as an important sponsor of young poets. ...


Some theories exist that question whether Cervantes alone wrote Don Quixote. Carlos Fuentes raises an intriguing possibility that, "Cervantes leaves open the pages of a book where the reader knows himself to be written and it is said that he dies on the same date, though not on the same day, as William Shakespeare. It is further stated that perhaps both were the same man."[16]


The spurious Avellaneda Segunda Parte

It is not certain when Cervantes began writing Part Two of Don Quixote, but he had probably not gotten much further than Chapter LIX by late July of 1614. About September, however, a spurious Part Two, entitled "Second Volume of the Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha: by the Licenciado (doctorate) Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, of Tordesillas", was published in Tarragona by an unidentified Aragonese who was an admirer of Lope de Vega, rival of Cervantes.[17] Avellaneda's identity has been the subject of many theories, but there is no consensus on who he was. In its prologue, the author gratuitously insulted Cervantes, who not surprisingly took offense and responded; the last half of Chapter LIX and most of the following chapters of Cervantes' Segunda Parte lend some insight of the effects upon him.[14] Many scholars agree that this book is of considerable literary merit.[18] However, in his introduction to The Portable Cervantes, Samuel Putnam, a noted translator of Cervantes' novel, calls Avellaneda's version "one of the most disgraceful performances in history". In 1614, a sequel to Cervantes Don Quixote was published under the pseudonym Alonso Fernándo de Avellaneda. ... The Crest of Tordesillas Tordesillas is a village and municipality in the province of Valladolid, part of the autonomous community of Castile-Leon in central Spain. ... Tarragona (IPA: in Catalan) is a city located in the south of Catalonia, northeastern Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Categories: Pages containing IPA | Language stubs | Romance languages | Languages of Spain ... Samuel Putnam (1892-1950) was an American translator and scholar of Romance languages. ...


The second half of Cervantes' Don Quixote, finished as a direct result of the Avellaneda book, has come to be regarded by most literary critics as being far superior to the first, because of its greater depth of characterization, its discussions, mostly between Quixote and Sancho, on random subjects, and its philosophical insights.


Editions in translation

There are many translations of the book, and it has been adapted many times in shortened versions. Many derivative editions were also being written at the time, as was the custom of envious or unscrupulous writers. Seven years after the Parte Primera appeared, Don Quixote had been translated into French, German, Italian, and English. (first French translation of 'Part II' (1618), first English translation (1620).) One abridged adaptation is authored by Agustín Sánchez, which runs slightly over 150 pages, cutting away about 750 pages.[19]


The elusive Thomas Shelton's English translation of the First Part appeared in 1612. Some claim Shelton was actually a friend of Cervantes, although there is no credible evidence to support this claim. Although Shelton's version has been a cherished translation, according to John Ormsby and Samuel Putnam respectively, it was far from satisfactory as a carrying over of Cervantes's text. [14] Shelton's translation of the novel's Second Part appeared in 1620. Thomas Shelton (fl. ... John Ormsby (1829-1895) was a nineteenth-century British translator. ... Samuel Putnam (1892-1950) was an American translator and scholar of Romance languages. ...


Near the end of the 17th century, John Phillips, a nephew of poet John Milton, published what is considered by Putnam the worst English translated version. The translation, as literary critics claim, was not based on Cervantes' text but mostly upon a French work by Filleau de Saint-Martin and upon notes which Thomas Shelton had written previously. Around 1700, a version by Pierre Antoine Motteux appeared. As stated by translator John Ormsby, this version was "worse than worthless". The prevailing slapstick quality of this work, especially where Sancho Panza is involved, the obtrusion of the obscene where it is found in the original, and the slurring of difficulties through omissions or expanding upon the text all made the Motteux version irresponsible. In 1742, the Charles Jervas translation appeared, posthumously. Through a printer's error, it came to be known, and is still known, as "the Jarvis translation". The most scholarly and accurate English translation of the novel up to that time, it has been criticized by some as being too stiff. Nevertheless, it became the most frequently reprinted translation of the novel until about 1885. Another 18th century translation into English was that of Tobias Smollett, himself a novelist. Like the Jarvis translation, it continues to be reprinted today. For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Pierre Antoine Motteux (or Peter Motteux, February 25, 1663 - February 18, 1718), English translator and dramatist, of French parentage, was born at Rouen. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Porträt der Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , 1716 by Charles Jervis currently on display at the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin. ... Tobias Smollett Tobias George Smollett (March 19, 1721 - September 17, 1771) was a Scottish author, best known for his picaresque novels, such as Roderick Random and Peregrine Pickle. ...


Most modern translators take as their model the 1885 translation by John Ormsby. It is said that his translation was the most honest of all translations, without expansions upon the text nor changing of the proverbs. The most widely read English-language translations of the mid-20th century are by Samuel Putnam (1949), J. M. Cohen (1950; Penguin Classics), and Walter Starkie (1957). The last English translation of the novel in the 20th century was by Burton Raffel, published in 1996. The 21st century has already seen two new translations of the novel into English - by John Rutherford, and by Edith Grossman. One New York Times reviewer called Grossman's translation a "major literary achievement"[20] and another called it the "most transparent and least impeded among more than a dozen English translations going back to the 17th century."[21] Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... J. M. Cohen (1903-1989) was a prolific translator (into English) of European literature. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Walter Starkie was an Irish scholar, author, and translator of Spanish literature. ... Burton Raffel is a translator, a poet and a teacher. ... Edith Grossman, born March 22, 1936, is an award-winning American translator from Spanish to English. ...


Cultural legacy

Don Quixote is often nominated as one of the world's greatest works of fiction.[1] Don Quixote's importance in literature has produced a large and varied cultural and artistic legacy. Many artists have drawn inspiration either directly or indirectly from Cervantes' work, including the painter Honoré Daumier, the composer Richard Strauss, the writer Henry Fielding and the filmmaker Terry Gilliam. Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Terrence Vance Gilliam (born November 22, 1940) is an American-born British filmmaker, animator, and member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. ...

Don Quixote, his horse Rocinante and his squire Sancho Panza after an unsuccessful attack on a windmill. By Gustave Doré.
Don Quixote, his horse Rocinante and his squire Sancho Panza after an unsuccessful attack on a windmill. By Gustave Doré.

The cultural legacy of Don Quixote is one of the richest and most varied of any work of fiction ever produced. It stands in a unique position between medieval chivalric romance and the modern novel. The former consist of disconnected stories with little exploration of the inner life of even the main character. The latter are usually focused on the psychological evolution of their characters. In Part I, Quixote imposes himself on his environment. By Part II, people know about him through "having read his adventures," and so, he needs to do less to maintain his image. By his deathbed, he has regained his sanity, and is once more "Alonso Quixano the Good". Don Quixote and his sidekick Sancho Panza. ... Don Quixote and his sidekick Sancho Panza. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... The first modern novel has generally been ascribed to a series of picaresque novels, most famously Don Quixote (1605) by Cervantes. ...


The novel contains many minor literary "firsts" for European literature—a woman complaining of her menopause, someone with an eating disorder, and the psychological revealing of their troubles as something inner to themselves. The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno- (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ...


Subtle touches regarding perspective are everywhere: characters talk about a woman who is the cause of the death of a suitor, portraying her as evil, but when she comes on stage, she gives a different perspective entirely that makes Quixote (and thus the reader) defend her. When Quixote descends into a cave, Cervantes admits that he does not know what went on there.


Quixote's adventures tend to involve situations in which he attempts to apply a knight's sure, simple morality to situations in which much more complex issues are at hand. For example, upon seeing a band of galley slaves being mistreated by their guards, he believes their cries of innocence and attacks the guards. After they are freed, he demands that they honor his lady Dulcinea, but instead they pelt him with stones and leave.


Different ages have tended to read different things into the novel. When it was first published, it was usually interpreted as a comic novel. After the French Revolution it was popular in part due to its central ethic that individuals can be right while society is quite wrong and seen as disenchanting—not comic at all. In the 19th century it was seen as a social commentary, but no one could easily tell "whose side Cervantes was on." By the 20th century it had come to occupy a canonical space as one of the foundations of modern literature. A comic novel is a work of fiction in which the writer seeks to amuse the reader: sometimes with subtlety and as part of a carefully woven narrative, sometimes above all other considerations. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Influences upon literature and literary theory

Don Quixote by Salvador Dalí.
Don Quixote by Salvador Dalí.

The novel's landmark status in literary history has meant it has had a rich and varied influence over later writers, from Cervantes' own lifetime to the present-day. Some leading examples of Don Quixote's influence include: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2422 KB) Description: Don Quijote sentado Subject: Sculpture Artist : Salvador Dalí City : Marbella Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : January, 3rd, 2006 File links The following pages link to this file: Don Quixote Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 2422 KB) Description: Don Quijote sentado Subject: Sculpture Artist : Salvador Dalí City : Marbella Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco Shot date : January, 3rd, 2006 File links The following pages link to this file: Don Quixote Metadata This... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ...

  • Cardenio, a lost play attributed to Cervantes's contemporary William Shakespeare. Itself the source of later plays, it is assumed to be based on one of the interpolated novels in the first part.
  • Joseph Andrews (1742) by Henry Fielding notes on the title page that it is "written in Imitation of the Manner of Cervantes, Author of Don Quixote".
  • The Female Quixote (1752), a novel by Charlotte Lennox in which a young woman's reading of romances leads her to misinterpret the world around her.
  • Tristram Shandy (1759–67) by Laurence Sterne is rife with references, including Slawkenbergius' Tale and Parson Yorick's horse, Rocinante.
  • The Spiritual Quixote (1773) by Richard Graves is a satire on Methodism.
  • Don Chisciotti e Sanciu Panza (1785-1787) by Giovanni Meli (1740-1815) is a Sicilian parody of Don Quixote.
  • The Pickwick Papers (1837), by Charles Dickens. The characters of Samuel Pickwick and Sam Weller, who roam London and get into all sorts of comic predicaments, are often compared to Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, although in this case, "Quixote" is the short, plump one, and "Sancho" is the tall, thin one.
  • Madame Bovary (1856) by Flaubert was heavily influenced by Don Quixote. [22]
  • Prince Myshkin, the title character of Dostoyevsky's novel The Idiot (1869) was explicitly modelled on Don Quixote. [23]
  • "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote" (1939) by Jorge Luis Borges is an essay about a (fictional) 20th century writer who re-authors Don Quixote. "The text of Cervantes and that of Menard are verbally identical, but the second is almost infinitely richer." Borges' story is also well known as a central metaphor in John Barth's famous essay "The Literature of Exhaustion".
  • Don Quixote appears as a character in Tennessee Williams's Camino Real (1953).

Rocinante was the name Steinbeck gave his converted truck in his 1960 travelogue "Travels with Charley" Publicity poster for the 2002 Los Angeles production of The Second Maidens Tragedy as The History of Cardenio is a lost play, known to have been performed by the Kings Men, a London theatre company, in 1613. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Joseph Andrews is a novel by Henry Fielding, first published in 1742. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Charlotte Ramsey Lennox (c. ... The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (or, more briefly, Tristram Shandy) is a novel by Laurence Sterne. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Richard Graves (1715 - 1804) was an English poet and novelist. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Giovanni Meli (Palermo 1740 - 1815) was a Sicilian poet and man of letters. ... The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, better known as The Pickwick Papers, is the first novel by Charles Dickens. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Samuel Pickwick is the hero of Dickenss Pickwick Papers, a character distinguished for his general goodness and his honest simplicity. ... Sam Weller is a fictional character in The Pickwick Papers, the first novel by Charles Dickens, and is allegedly the character that made Dickens famous. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the film, see Madame Bovary (1949 film) Madame Bovary is a novel by Gustave Flaubert that was attacked for obscenity by public prosecutors when it was first serialised in La Revue de Paris between 1 October 1856 and 15 December 1856, resulting in a trial in January 1857 that... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – Croisset, May 8, 1880) is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... The Idiot is a novel written by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky and first published in 1869. ... Borgess story Pierre Menard, Author of The Quixote (Pierre Menard, autor del Quijote) originally appeared in Spanish in the Argentine journal Sur, May 1939. ... Borges redirects here. ... John Simmons Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American novelist and short-story writer, known for the postmodernist and metafictive quality of his work. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the nickname Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright of the twentieth century who received many of the top theatrical awards for his work. ... Camino Real(pronounced: Kam-uh-no Reel) is a play by Tennessee Williams. ...

  • Asterix in Spain (1969) by Goscinny and Uderzo. Asterix and Obelix encounter Don Quixote and Sancho Panza on a country road in Spain, with Quixote becoming enraged and charging off into the distance when the topic of windmills arises in conversation.
  • A Confederacy of Dunces (1980) by John Kennedy Toole. The main character, Ignatius, is considered a modern-day Quixote.
  • Monsignor Quixote (1982) by Graham Greene. Monsignor Quixote is said to be a descendant of Don Quixote.
  • Don Quixote: Which Was a Dream (1986) also known as Don Quixote: a Novel by Kathy Acker, is a work of cyber-punk, post-feminist fiction that revisits the themes of the original text to highlight contemporary issues.
  • The Moor's Last Sigh (1995) by Salman Rushdie, with its central themes of the world being remade and reinterpreted clearly draws enormous inspiration from Cervantes, with names and characters drawn from the earlier work.
  • The novel plays an important part in Michel Foucault's book, The Order of Things. To Foucault, Quixote's confusion is an illustration of the transition to a new configuration of thought in the late sixteenth century. Quixote, by confusing semiology and hermeneutics, attempts to apply an anachronistic epistemological configuration to a new intellectual world, a new episteme, in which hermeneutics and semiology have been separated.
  • Slaven, Neil, "Electric Don Quixote: the definitive story of Frank Zappa", 1996,Omnibus Press, London

Asterix in Spain is the fourteenth volume of the Asterix comic book series, by René Goscinny (stories) and Albert Uderzo (illustrations). ... René Goscinny René Goscinny (b. ... Albert Uderzo (born April 25, 1927 in France) is a French comic book artist, and scriptwriter. ... A Confederacy of Dunces is a novel written by John Kennedy Toole, published in 1980, 11 years after the authors suicide. ... John Kennedy Toole (December 17, 1937 – March 26, 1969) was an American novelist, from New Orleans, Louisiana, best known for his novel A Confederacy of Dunces. ... Monsignor Quixote is a novel by Graham Greene, published in 1982. ... This article is about the writer. ... Kathy Acker (18 April 1947 in Manhattan—30 November 1997 in Tijuana, Mexico) was an experimental novelist, prose stylist, playwright, essayist, poète maudit and sex-positive feminist writer. ... The Moors Last Sigh cover The Moors Last Sigh, a short novel by Salman Rushdie, is based in Bombay, India. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... The Order of Things (Les Mots et les choses) is a book written by Michel Foucault and was published in 1966. ... Semiotics (also spelled Semeiotics) is the study of signs and sign systems. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... As distinguished from techne, the Greek word episteme (literally: science) is often translated as knowledge. ...

Influences upon the arts

Operatic, music, and ballet renditions of Quixote

Maya Plisetskaya as Kitri in the ballet Don Quixote.

The 18th century French baroque composer Joseph Bodin de Boismortier wrote a short ballet titled Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse. The ballet, which includes sung parts, is about a Duke's and Duchess' efforts to fool Don Quixote. Image File history File links Maya Plisetskaya in Don Quixote (1964). ... Image File history File links Maya Plisetskaya in Don Quixote (1964). ... Maya Mikhailovna Plisetskaya (Russian: ; born November 20, 1925) is a Russian ballet dancer, frequently cited as the greatest ballerina of modern times. ... Svetlana Zakharova as Kitri in the Entrance of Kitri from the Bolshoi Ballets production of the Petipa/Gorsky/Minkus Don Quixote, Moscow, 2006 The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel de Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... Joseph Bodin de Boismortier (born December 23, 1689 in Thionville; died October 28, 1755 in Roissy-en-Brie) was a French baroque composer of instrumental music, cantatas, opera ballets, and vocal music. ... Don Quichotte chez la Duchesse (Don Quixote at the Duchess) is a comic ballet by the French baroque composer Joseph Bodin de Boismortier. ...


A play by Thomas D'Urfey with music and songs by Baroque composer Henry Purcell, entitled The Comical History of Don Quixote (1694), adapts and rearranges some of his adventures. The play, like other eighteenth-century adaptations of the novel, reflects that era's view of Don Quixote as a comic work, with no hint of seriousness. Thomas DUrfey (Tom Durfey) (1653 - February 26, 1723), was an English writer and wit. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ...


Georg Philipp Telemann wrote an orchestral suite entitled Don Quichotte and an opera called Don Quichotte auf der Hochzeit des Camacho, based on an episode from the novel. Georg Philipp Telemann. ... In music, a suite is an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting, as a separate musical performance, not accompanying an opera, ballet, or theater-piece. ...


Die Hochzeit des Camacho, an early opera by Felix Mendelssohn (composed in 1827) is based on the same section of the book on which Telemann based his opera. Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ...


Ludwig Minkus composed the music for Marius Petipa's ballet Don Quixote, which was staged for the Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow in 1869, and was revised in more elaborate production for the Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg in 1871. The libretto was based on the same chapters in the novel which attracted Mendelssohn and Telemann. Petipa's ballet was substantially revised by Alexander Gorsky in 1900 for the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, a version which was staged for the Imperial in 1902. It is Gorsky's 1902 staging which has been revisited by several other choreographers in the course of the twentieth century in Soviet Russia, and has since been staged by ballet companies all over the world. In 1972, Rudolf Nureyev filmed his celebrated versionof the ballet. The choreography, credited to Nureyev, was based closely on the Soviet edition. Maestro Ludwig Minkus, Paris, circa 1870. ... Maestro Marius Ivanovich Petipa, Maître de Ballet of the Imperial Theatres. ... Svetlana Zakharova as Kitri in the Entrance of Kitri from the Bolshoi Ballets production of the Petipa/Gorsky/Minkus Don Quixote, Moscow, 2006 The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel de Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... The Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: , Bolshoy Teatr, Large Theater) is a theatre and opera company in Moscow, Russia, which gives performances of ballet and opera. ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Jules Massenet's Don Quichotte premiered at Monte Carlo Opera on February 24, 1910. In the title role at the first performance was the legendary Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin, for whom the part was written. Jules Massenet Jules (Émile Frédéric) Massenet (May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer. ... Don Quichotte is an opera in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Henri Cain. ... Feodor Chaliapin Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Шаля́пин) [a more accurate English transliteration is Fyódor Shalyápin] (born February 13 [O.S. February 1] 1873, Kazan – died April 12, 1938, Paris) was the most famous Russian opera singer, bass of the first half of the 20th century. ...


Master Peter's Puppet Show, a puppet opera by Manuel de Falla, is based on an episode from Book II and was first performed at the Salon of the Princess de Polignac in Paris in 1923. Master Peters Puppet Show (El retablo de Maese Pedro) is a puppet-opera composed by Manuel de Falla to a Spanish libretto he based on an episode from Don Quixote by Cervantes. ... Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer of classical music. ...


Maurice Ravel composed a set of three songs for voice and piano, Don Quichotte à Dulcinée (Don Quixote to Dulcinea) to poems by Paul Morand in 1932, and orchestrated them in 1934. Maurice Ravel. ... Paul Morand (b. ...


Jacques Ibert composed music for the 1933 film Adventures of Don Quixote starring the Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin, directed by G.W. Pabst. Three versions were filmed, in French, English, and German. The French and English versions have been released on home video. Jacques François Antoine Ibert (August 15, 1890 – February 5, 1962) was a French composer of classical music. ... Feodor Chaliapin Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Шаля́пин) [a more accurate English transliteration is Fyódor Shalyápin] (born February 13 [O.S. February 1] 1873, Kazan – died April 12, 1938, Paris) was the most famous Russian opera singer, bass of the first half of the 20th century. ... Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ...


Richard Strauss composed the tone poem Don Quixote, subtitling it "Introduction, Theme with Variations, and Finale" and 'Fantastic Variations for Large Orchestra on a Theme of Knightly Character.' The music makes explicit reference to many of the novel's most entertaining sections, including the sheep (described famously by double-tongued brass) and windmill episodes. This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Don Quixote, Op. ...


The Catalan composer Roberto Gerhard, shortly after being exiled to the United Kingdom at the end of the Spanish Civil War, composed in 1940–41 a ballet on Don Quixote as the most important of a number of tributes to Spanish culture. Not staged in this original form, the ballet became the source for a number of orchestral suites and Gerhard also used it in the extensive incidental music he provided for a BBC radio adaptation of Cervantes’s novel by Eric Linklater, The Adventures of Don Quixote (1940). Gerhard re-wrote the ballet in 1947–49 and it was staged by Sadler’s Wells Ballet at Covent Garden with choreography by Ninette de Valois and décor by Edward Burra. This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Roberto Gerhard (born Robert Juan Rene Gerhard, September 25, 1896 in Valls, Spain; died January 5, 1970 in Cambridge, England), was a Spanish Catalan composer and musical scholar and writer whose works are among the most important produced by any composer from Spain in the twentieth century. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program or some other form not primarily musical. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Eric Robert Russell Linklater (1899-1974) was a Scottish writer, known for more than 20 novels, also short stories, travel writing and autobiography, and military history. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... At age 16 Dame Ninette de Valois (June 6, 1898 – March 8, 2001) was the Irish founder of Londons renowned Royal Ballet. ... Edward Burra (29 March 1905 – 22 October 1976) was an English painter, draughtsman and printmaker, best known for his depictions of the urban underworld, black culture and the Harlem scene of the 1930s. ...


George Balanchine created another Don Quixote ballet in 1965, to music by Nicolas Nabokov. This was dedicated to the dancer Suzanne Farrell, whom he played opposite in the original production. George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... Svetlana Zakharova as Kitri in the Entrance of Kitri from the Bolshoi Ballets production of the Petipa/Gorsky/Minkus Don Quixote, Moscow, 2006 The ballet Don Quixote is based on the famous Miguel de Cervantes novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... Nicolas Nabokov (April 17, 1903 [O.S. April 4] – 6 April 1978), American composer, writer, and cultural figure, was born in Russia. ... Suzanne Farrell (born August 16, 1945) (real name Roberta Sue Ficker) was one of the most noted ballerinas of the 20th century, and was the most important dancer for the legendary choreographer George Balanchine. ...


Man of La Mancha, with music by Mitch Leigh, lyrics by Joe Darion and book by Dale Wasserman based on his non-musical teleplay I, Don Quixote, is a one-act Broadway musical which combines episodes in the novel with a story about its author, Miguel de Cervantes, as a play within a play that premiered in 1965. Man of La Mancha is a 1965 Broadway musical in one act which tells the story of the classic novel Don Quixote as a play within a play, performed by Miguel de Cervantes and his fellow prisoners as he awaits a hearing with the Spanish Inquisition. ... Mitch Leigh (born January 30, 1928 in Brooklyn, New York) is a Jewish-American writer of musical theatre and theatrical producer best known for the show Man Of La Mancha. ... Dale Wasserman, a prolific writer of drama, admits to little more than being born (1917). ... I, Don Quixote is a 1959 teleplay first broadcast on the CBS anthology series DuPont Show of the Month on the evening of November 9, 1959. ... Cervantes redirects here. ...


The British composer Ronald Stevenson has composed an extensive work for two guitars, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, subtitled 'a Bagatelle Cycle' (1982–3) and consisting of a double theme with seventeen variations based on various events in Cervantes' novel. The work was premiered in Glasgow in 1998. Ronald Stevenson (born March 6, 1928 in Blackburn) is a British composer, virtuoso pianist and writer on music. ... Bagatelle (from French by way of the Italian bagattella, a trifle) is a game, the object of which is to get a number of balls past pins (which act as obstacles) into holes. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


British singer-songwriter Nik Kershaw released a song entitled Don Quixote, which reached No. 10 in the UK top 40 in 1985. Nik Kershaw Nik Kershaw (born Nicholas David Kershaw on March 1, 1958) is an English singer-songwriter, popular during the 1980s. ...


Don Quixote was the title song of the eighth album released by Canadian singer/songwriter Gordon Lightfoot. Don Quixote is Canadian singer Gordon Lightfoots 8th original album, released in 1972 on the Reprise Records Label. ... Gordon Meredith Lightfoot Jr. ...


The 1998 Concept Album La Leyenda de la Mancha by popular Spanish Rock band Mägo De Oz is a modern retelling of the story of Don Quixote. The most popular song from that album 'Molinos De Viento' is about Don Quixote's conversation with Sancho Panza after the adventure with the windmills, in which Don Quixote attacks the windmills because he believes them to be giants. Music sample: Mägo de Oz - Molinos de Viento ( file info) — 30 second sample from Mägo de Oz Molinos de Viento, from the album Finisterra. ... Mägo de Oz Mägo de Oz (Wizard of Oz with a heavy-metal umlaut) is a Spanish folk metal band formed in mid-1989 by drummer Txus. ...


Don Quixote is the subject of the song Windmills on the album The Village Lanterne released in 2006 by Renaissance-inspired folk rock band Blackmore's Night. The Village Lanterne is an album by the renaissance rock band Blackmores Night, released on Steamhammer US in 2006. ... Blackmores Night is a Renaissance-inspired folk rock band led by Ritchie Blackmore (electric guitar and acoustic guitar) and Candice Night (lyricist and lead vocals). ...


In Iris Johansen's "No One to Trust" the DEA agent, Ben Forbes, is often compared to Don Quixote by the mercenary, Sean Galen.


Quixote in the visual arts

Don Quixote and Sancho Panza by Honoré Daumier.
Don Quixote and Sancho Panza by Honoré Daumier.

Don Quixote has inspired a large number of illustrators, painters and draughtsmen such as Gustave Doré, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Antonio de la Gandara.The French artist Honoré Daumier produced 29 paintings and 49 drawings based on the book and characters of Don Quixote starting with an exhibition at the 1850 Paris Salon, which would later inspire Pablo Picasso. In 1863, Gustave Doré produced a large set of drawings based on Don Quixote. These include the famous, if fanciful, engraving of Don Quixote in his library. On August 10, 1955, Pablo Picasso drew an illustration of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza that has become the most iconic image ever made of these characters, drawn for the journal weekly Les Lettres françaises (week of August 18-24, 1955), and which quotes from the Daumier caricature of a century before, shown left. Widely reproduced, today it is the iconic image used by the Spanish government to promote Cervantes and Don Quixote. Image File history File links Honore-Daumier-Don-Quixote. ... Image File history File links Honore-Daumier-Don-Quixote. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Púbol (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), was a Spanish surrealist painter of Catalan descent born in Figueres, Catalonia (Spain). ... Antonio de La Gandara (December 16, 1861 - June 30, 1917) was a painter, pastellist and draughtsman. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ...

Spelling and pronunciation

Quixote is the original spelling in medieval Castilian, and is used in English. However, modern Spanish has since gone through spelling reforms and phonetic changes which have turned the x into j. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The aim of spelling reform is to make spelling easier for learners and users by removing its difficulties. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ...


The x was pronounced like an English sh sound (voiceless postalveolar fricative) in medieval times — IPA: [kiˈʃote] — and this is reflected in the French name Don Quichotte, the Dutch Don Quichot (or Don Quichote), as well as in the Italian name Don Chisciotte. However, in Spanish such words (now virtually all spelled with a j) are now pronounced with a voiceless velar fricative sound like the Scottish or German ch (as in Loch, Bach) or the Greek Chi (χ) — [kiˈxote]. English speakers generally attempt something close to the modern Spanish pronunciation when saying Quixote/Quijote, as IPA: /dɒŋkiːˈhoʊte/, although the incorrect traditional English pronunciation /ˈkwɪksət/ or /ˈkwɪksoʊt/ is still frequently used, more in the United Kingdom than in the United States [24]. The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ...


In Spanish, the "qu" in "qui" and "que" are pronounced almost identically to the English "k", so when people pronounce it /ˈkwɪksoʊt/, it is ultimately incorrect. The e at the end of "Quixote" is pronounced as a soft e, not a hard e, nor a silent e, due to Spanish phonetics. The traditional English rendering is also preserved in the pronunciation of the adjectival form quixotic.


Films based on, or inspired by Don Quixote

  • Don Quixote (1933), directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst. This version was actually made three times in the same year, and in three different languages — French, English and German. All three versions used the same script, set designs, and costumes, and all three starred the great Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin.
  • Don Quixote (1934), directed by Ub Iwerks and published as a Comicolor cartoon, is an animated cartoon loosely based on the novel. It takes great liberties with the story (e.g., Don Quixote demolishes the windmill and emits a Tarzan-like yell of triumph). It was made in color.
  • Don Quijote de la Mancha (1947), the first full-length Spanish film version of the novel, directed by Rafael Gil, and allegedly the most faithful film version of the book ever made.
  • Дон Кихот (1957), a Soviet production by Grigori Kozintsev, and starring Nicolai Cherkassov, the first live-action version in color.
  • Don Quijote (1965), a French/German made-for-television miniseries comprising four feature length parts, directed by Carlo Rim. It stars the noted Austrian actor and keeper of the Iffland-Ring Josef Meinrad as Don Quijote.
  • Don Quichotte de Cervantes (1965), a short (23 minute) French film by Éric Rohmer.[1]
  • Man of La Mancha (1972), directed by Arthur Hiller (a film version of the hit stage musical by Dale Wasserman, Mitch Leigh, and Joe Darion. The stage musical was, in turn, based on Wasserman's 1959 live TV drama, I, Don Quixote.) It stars Peter O'Toole as both Don Quixote and Miguel de Cervantes, as well as Sophia Loren as Aldonza / Dulcinea and James Coco as Sancho Panza and Cervantes's manservant.
  • Don Quijote cabalga de nuevo (1973), directed by Roberto Gavaldón, a Mexican/Spanish comedy with Cantinflas in the role of Sancho Panza and Fernando Fernán Gómez as Don Quixote.
  • The Adventures of Don Quixote (1973), a British made-for-television version first telecast on the anthology series Play of the Month, but shown as a television special in the U.S, presumably to capitalize on the publicity engendered by the then-recent release of the film version of Man of La Mancha. It stars Rex Harrison and Frank Finlay. Directed by Alvin Rakoff, with a script by Hugh Whitemore.
  • Don Quixote (1973), a film version of the Minkus ballet, starring Rudolf Nureyev, Lucette Aldous, Robert Helpmann (as Don Quixote) and artists of the Australian Ballet. The third of three Don Quixote films shown in the U.S. that year (the others being Man of La Mancha, which, although released in 1972, was still playing in theatres in '73, and the aforementioned Rex Harrison The Adventures of Don Quixote.)
  • Don Quixote: Tales of La Mancha (1980), a Japanese anime series produced by Ashi Productions and distributed by Toei Animation. [25]
  • The Adventures of Don Coyote and Sancho Panda
  • Life of Don Quixote and Sancho (1988), 9 episode series, filmed in Georgia and Spain by Georgian director Rezo Chkheidze.
  • El Quijote de Miguel de Cervantes (1991), a television miniseries version of Part I of the novel, directed by Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón, and starring Fernando Rey as Don Quixote
  • Don Quixote, begun by Orson Welles but never finished; a reshaped version by Jesus Franco was released in 1992
  • Don Quixote (2000), directed by Peter Yates, a made-for-TV version co-produced by Hallmark and Turner Network Television, starring John Lithgow, Bob Hoskins, Vanessa L. Williams, and Isabella Rossellini. The script was by noted British playwright John Mortimer.
  • Lost in La Mancha (2002) is a documentary movie about Terry Gilliam's failed attempt to make a movie adaptation of Don Quixote.
  • El Caballero Don Quijote (2002), Manuel Gutiérrez Aragon's belated filming of Part II of the novel, with an entirely different cast from the one that had appeared in his version of Part I. This was a two-hour theatrical film, not a miniseries. Juan Luis Galiardo starred as Quixote.
  • Donkey Xote (2008),[2]

Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ... Feodor Chaliapin Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Шаля́пин) [a more accurate English transliteration is Fyódor Shalyápin] (born February 13 [O.S. February 1] 1873, Kazan – died April 12, 1938, Paris) was the most famous Russian opera singer, bass of the first half of the 20th century. ... A publicity photograph (circa 1929) of Ub Iwerks and his most famous co-creation, Mickey Mouse. ... The Comicolor series was a series of animated short subjects produced by the Ub Iwerks studio from 1933 to 1936. ... For other uses, see Tarzan (disambiguation). ... Rafael Gil ( 22 May 1913 Madrid- 10 July 1986 Madrid) was a Spanish film director and screenwriter. ... Grigori Mikhailovich Kozintsev (Russian: ; Kiev, 22 March (O.S. 9 March) 1905 – Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, 11 May 1973) was a Soviet Russian film director. ... Cherkasov as Ivan the Terrible in Eisensteins film. ... The Iffland-Ring is a ring with the picture of August Wilhelm Iffland (an actor, dramatist and theatre director who played Franz Moor in the debut performance of Friedrich Schillers Die Räuber in the national theatre of Mannheim). ... Josef Meinrad (April 21, 1913 - February 18, 1996) was a famous Austrian actor. ... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Éric Rohmer (born Jean-Marie Maurice Scherer, April 4, 1920, Tulle, France) is a French film director and screenwriter. ... Man of La Mancha is a 1972 film based on the Broadway musical Man of La Mancha by Dale Wasserman, with music by Mitch Leigh and lyrics by Joe Darion. ... Arthur Hiller, O.C. (born November 22, 1923 in Edmonton, Alberta) is an Oscar-nominated Canadian film director. ... Dale Wasserman, a prolific writer of drama, admits to little more than being born (1917). ... Mitch Leigh (born January 30, 1928 in Brooklyn, New York) is a Jewish-American writer of musical theatre and theatrical producer best known for the show Man Of La Mancha. ... I, Don Quixote is a 1959 teleplay first broadcast on the CBS anthology series DuPont Show of the Month on the evening of November 9, 1959. ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress. ... James Coco (March 21, 1930–February 25, 1987) was an American character actor. ... Roberto Gavaldón (born June 7, 1909 in Jiménez, Chihuahua — died September 4, 1986 in Mexico City) was a Mexican film director. ... Fortino Mario Alfonso Moreno Reyes (August 12, 1911 – April 20, 1993) was a comedian of the Mexican theatre and film industry. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fernando Fernández Gómez (born August 28, 1921) was born in Lima, Peru, the son of actress Carola Fernán-Gómez. ... A television movie (also known as a TV film, TV movie, TV-movie, feature-length drama, made-for-TV movie, movie of the week (MOTW or MOW), single drama, telemovie, telefilm, or two-hour-long drama) is a film that is produced for and originally distributed by a television network. ... A television special is a television program, typically a short film or television movie, which interrupts or temporarily replaces programming normally scheduled for a given time slot. ... Sir Reginald Rex Carey Harrison, KBE (5 March 1908 – 2 June 1990) was an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning English theatre and film actor. ... Francis Frank Finlay, CBE (born 6 August 1926) is a British stage, film and television actor. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Lucette Aldous (born 1938) is an Australian ballet dancer and ballet teacher. ... Sir Robert Murray Helpmann CBE (April 9, 1909 – September 28, 1986) was an Australian dancer, actor, director and choreographer, Born Robert Murray Helpman he added the extra n to avoid there being 13 letters in his name. ... Australian Ballet is a leading Ballet dance company in Australia. ... Ashi Productions ) is a Japanese anime studio, located in Suginami, Tokyo, Japan, known for its four magical-girl anime, especially Magical Princess Minky Momo. ... Toei Animation Company, Limited ) (JASDAQ: 4816) is a Japanese animation studio owned by the Toei Company. ... The Adventures of Don Coyote and Sancho Panda was an animated television series loosely based on the characters in Miguel de Cervantes’ 17th century novel, Don Quixote With the help of Don Coyote’s noble steed Rocinante, and Sacho Panda’s voice-of-cynicism donkey Dapple, these crusaders of chivalry... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Fernando Rey Fernando Casado DArambillet, known as Fernando Rey, (September 20, 1917 - March 9, 1994) was born in A Coruña, Spain, then known as La Coruña, the son of Colonel Casado Veiga. ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ... Jesus (or Jess) Franco (born May 12, 1930 as Jesús Franco Manera) is a Spanish film director, writer, cinematographer and actor. ... A hallmark is an official marking made by a trusted party, guardians of the craft or nowadays by an assay office, on items made of precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) that guarantees a certain purity of the metal. ... Turner Network Television, usually referred to as TNT, is an American cable TV network created by media mogul Ted Turner and currently owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. ... This article is about the actor. ... Robert William Bob Hoskins Jr. ... For other persons of the same name, see Vanessa Williams. ... Isabella Fiorella Elettra Giovanna Rossellini (born June 18, 1952) is an Italian actress, filmmaker, author, philanthropist, and model. ... This article is about the writer. ... A defeated Terry Gilliam, in Lost in La Mancha Lost in La Mancha is a documentary movie about Terry Gilliams failed attempt to make The Man Who Killed Don Quixote, a movie adaptation of the novel Don Quixote. ... Terrence Vance Gilliam (born November 22, 1940) is an American-born British filmmaker, animator, and member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. ... The Man Who Killed Don Quixote, the doomed feature film from director Terry Gilliam, commenced filming in 2000, but shooting stopped within a week when star Jean Rochefort was injured. ...

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Amadis de Gaula. ... Belianis of Greece (Don), the hero of an old romance of chivalry on the model of Amadis de Gaul. ... A page from the beginning of the 1491 edition. ... The following is a list of characters in the novel Don Quixote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Cervantes redirects here. ...

References and sources

  1. ^ a b Most recently in a poll of leading authors around the world conducted by the Norwegian Book Clubs in 2002.The top 100 books of all time. Don Quixote gets authors' votes.
  2. ^ List of best-selling books
  3. ^ ingenio 1. Real Academia Española.
  4. ^ rocinante: deriv. of rocín, work horse; colloq., brusque laborer; rough, unkempt man. Real Academia Española.
  5. ^ The suffix -ote is superlative.
  6. ^ quijote1.2: rump or haunch. Real Academia Española.
  7. ^ Don Quixote as translated by Burton Raffel (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999), p. 13.
  8. ^ Crespo[Span.]: stylistically obscure, artificial; ambiguous. RAE; "crespo3
  9. ^ Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes, Edicíon de Florencio Sevilla Arroyo, Área 2002 p. 161
  10. ^ "Don Quixote" by Miguel de Cervantes, translated and annotated by Edith Grossman, p. 272
  11. ^ a b "Cervantes, Miguel de". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
    * J. Ormsby, About Cervantes and Don Quixote
  12. ^ a b Serge Gruzinski, teacher at the EHESS, "'Don Quichotte', best-seller mondial'" in L'Histoire n°322, July-August 2007, p.30
  13. ^ "Cervantes, Miguel de". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  14. ^ a b c J. Ormsby, About Cervantes and Don Quixote
  15. ^ See also the introduction to Cervantes, Miguel de,. Don Quixote, Penguin Books, Ltd., 1984, p. 18, for a discussion of Cervantes's statement in response to Avellaneda's attempt to write a sequel.
  16. ^ Fuentes, Carlos. Myself With Others: Selected Essays Farrar, Straus and Giroux; 1st ed edition (April 1, 1988).
  17. ^ D. Eisenberg, Cervantes, Lope and Avellaneda, 1
  18. ^ "Cervantes, Miguel de". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
    * D. Eisenberg, Cervantes, Lope and Avellaneda, 1
  19. ^ Catalogue library of the Cervantes Institute of Belgrade. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  20. ^ Fuentes, Carlos (2 November 2003), "Tilt", New York Times, <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9902E1DE1431F931A35752C1A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1>
  21. ^ Eder, Richard (14 November 2003), "Beholding Windmills and Wisdom From a New Vantage", New York Times, <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E1DD1438F937A25752C1A9659C8B63>
  22. ^ Fox
  23. ^ Penguin Classics: Features
  24. ^ § 157. quixotic. 7. Pronunciation Challenges. The American Heritage Book of English Usage. 1996
  25. ^ Don Quixote - Tales of La Mancha @ Toonarific Cartoons.

The frontispiece to the 1611 first edition of the King James Bible This page provides lists of best-selling single-volume books, book series, authors, and childrens books of all time and in any language. ... The École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (or School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences, also known as EHESS) is a French institution for research and higher education, a Grand Établissement. ... LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Printed

Online

  • Ormsby, John. Don Quixote - Translator's Preface - About Cervantes And Don Quixote. The University of Adelaide Library. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Don Quixote Art : Hand Crafted Don Quixote Marionettes (293 words)
Czech Marionettes has a wonderful Don Quixote marionette puppet which is highly collectible.
Miguel de Cervantes' Don Quixote was recently voted the most important multi-cultural publication of the 16th century, and that Don Quixote art and memorabilia are among the most collected European Collectibles!
Sancho Panza stands 14 inches tall and carries a spear with Don's pennant attached, a wine flask hangs from his neck (carved from wood), and a knapsack is slung over his shoulder.
Don Quixote - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3493 words)
Don Quixote de la Mancha (now usually spelled Don Quijote by Spanish-speakers; Don Quixote is an archaic spelling) (IPA: [don ki'xote ð̞e la 'manʧa]) is a novel by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.
He and Quixote agree for instance that because Dulcinea is not as pretty nor does she smell as good as she should, she "must have been enchanted", and from that point on the mission is to disenchant her.
Don Quixote inspired a large number of illustrators, painters and draughtsmen such as Gustave Doré, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí and Antonio de La Gandara.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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