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Encyclopedia > Domoic acid
Chemical structure of Domoic acid
Chemical structure of Domoic acid

Domoic acid, which causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), is an amino acid phycotoxin (algal toxin) found associated with certain algal blooms [1]. Domoic acid chemical structure selfmade by cacycle File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is one of the four recognised syndromes of shellfish poisoning (the others being neurologic shellfish poisoning, diarrheal shellfish poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning). ... The general structure of an amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ...

In 1958, domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga called "doumoi" or "hanayanagi" (Chondria armata[2]) in Japan. "Doumoi" is used as an anthelmintic in Tokunoshima, Kagoshima. 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Possible classes Florideophyceae Bangiophyceae Cyanidiophyceae Red algae (Rhodophyta, pronounced /ˈrəʊdə(ʊ)ˌfʌɪtə/) are a large group of mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... Tokunoshima (徳之島町; -chou) is a town located in Ooshima District, Kagoshima, Japan. ...

Domoic acid is also produced by diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia[3][4]. The chemical can bioaccumulate in marine organisms that feed on the phytoplankton, such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines. In mammals, including humans, domoic acid acts as a neurotoxin, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage, and death in severe cases. Red tides are associated with the phenomenon of ASP. Considerable recent research has been carried out by the Marine Mammal Center and other scientific centers on the association of red tides to domoic acid and to resulting neurological damage in marine mammals of the Pacific Ocean. Diatoms (Gr. ... To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. ... The worlds oceans as seen from the South Pacific Ocean Oceans (from Okeanos in Greek, the ancient Greeks noticing the strong current that flowed off Gibraltar and assuming it was a great river) cover almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth, and nearly half of the... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton refers to the autotrophic component of the plankton that drifts in the water column. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Genera Amazonsprattus Anchoa Anchovia Anchiovella Cetengraulis Coilia Encrasicholina Engraulis Jurengraulis Lycengraulis Lycothrissa Papuengraulis Pterengraulis Setipinna Stolephorus Thryssa The anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small but common schooling saltwater plankton-feeding fish. ... Sardines or pilchards are a group of several types of small oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... It has been suggested that Neurotoxicity be merged into this article or section. ... In psychology, memory is the ability of an organism to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... Release of rehabilitated pinnipeds into the Pacific Ocean The Marine Mammal Center is a private non-profit organization centered on rescue, rehabilitation, environmental research and education pertaining to certain species within the pinnipedia, carnivora and cetacea biological orders. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... A marine mammal is a mammal that is primarily ocean-dwelling or depends on the ocean for its food. ...

In the brain, domoic acid especially damages the hippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus. It damages the neurons by activating AMPA and kainate receptors, causing an influx of calcium. Although calcium flowing into cells is a normal event, the uncontrolled increase of calcium causes the cell to degenerate. The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Biochemicals ... Kainate is a specific agonist for kainate receptor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ...

In late 1987 a serious outbreak of food poisoning occurred in Canada. Symptoms of the poisoning included vomiting and diarrhea, followed in some cases by confusion, memory loss, disorientation, and coma. Three elderly patients died and other victims suffered long-term neurological problems. The term amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)is now used to refer to this clinical syndrome [M. A. Quilliam, J. L. C. Wright, Anal. Chem., 61 (1989) 1053A].

The scientific detective story that unfolded was followed closely by a concerned Canadian public and made front-page newspaper headlines. For health, political, and economic reasons, scientists in Canadian government laboratories were eager to solve the mystery. Epidemiologists from Health Canada quickly linked the illnesses to restaurant meals of cultured mussels harvested from one area in Prince Edward Island, a place never before affected by toxic algae. Mouse bioassays on aqueous extracts of the suspect mussels caused death with some unusual neurotoxic symptoms very different from those of paralytic shellfish poison and other known toxins. On December 12, 1987, a team of scientists was assembled at the National Research Council laboratory in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The team used an efficient strategy based on an integration of bioassay-directed fractionation with chemical analysis that led to the identi­fication of the toxin on the afternoon of December 16, just 4 days after the start of the concerted investigation.

On June 22, 2006, a California brown pelican, possibly under the influence of domoic acid, flew through the windshield of a car on the Pacific Coast Highway. The acid is found in the local seas. Domoic acid poisoning was the most likely cause of a 1961 invasion of thousands of frantic seabirds in Santa Cruz, California. Director Alfred Hitchcock heard about this invasion while working on his adaptation of Daphne du Maurier novella "The Birds" for his feature film The Birds (1963). June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Pelecanus occidentalis Linnaeus, 1766 The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis †) is the smallest (42-54) member of the seven species of the pelican family. ... State Route 1, often called Highway 1, is a state highway that runs along a large length of the Pacific coast of the U.S. State of California. ... Santa Cruz is the county seat of Santa Cruz County, California, United States. ... Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was a highly influential director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Daphne du Maurier DBE (13 May 1907 – 19 April 1989) was one of the most successful Cornish novelists of all time. ... The Birds (1963) is a horror film by Alfred Hitchcock, roughly based on a short story by Daphne Du Maurier with the same name. ...

External links

  • Link page to external chemical sources.

  Results from FactBites:
MBNMS: Domoic Acid Toxicity In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) Stranded Along The Central California ... (1309 words)
Domoic acid, a biotoxin produced by a diatom, was detected in serum of 3 of 7 animals, urine of 7 of 14 animals, and feces of 3 of 9 animals.
Domoic acid was detected in urine of two of these animals by the microplate assay.
Domoic acid was first reported as a cause of toxicity in humans in 1987, when four people died and approximately one hundred were clinically ill following ingestion of contaminated mussels on the Prince Edward Island, Canada.
  More results at FactBites »



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