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Encyclopedia > Domino Theory

The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino effect suggests that some change, small in itself, will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end. The domino theory was used by successive United States administrations during the Cold War to justify American intervention around the world. A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Domino redirects here—for other meanings of the word, see Domino (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Referring to communism in America and Mexico, Eisenhower vocalized the theory:

Finally, you have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the "falling domino" principle. You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly. So you could have a beginning of a disintegration that would have the most profound influences.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...

Contents

History

In 1945, the Soviet Union brought most of the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Europe under its influence as part of the World War II settlement, prompting Winston Churchill to declare in a speech in 1946 at Fulton, Missouri that: Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fulton is a city located in Callaway County, Missouri. ...

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an "iron curtain" has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.

In 1947, Harry Truman declared what became known as the Truman Doctrine, promising to contribute financial aid to Greece and Turkey following World War II, in the hope that this would impede the advancement of communism into Western Europe. Later that year, diplomat George Kennan wrote an article in Foreign Affairs magazine that became known as the "X Article", which first articulated the policy of containment, arguing that the further spread of Communism to countries outside a "buffer zone" around the USSR was unacceptable and a threat to U.S. national security. Kennan was also involved, along with others in the Truman administration, in creating the Marshall Plan, which also began in 1947, to give aid to the countries of Western Europe (along with Greece and Turkey), in large part with the hope of keeping them from falling under Soviet domination. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Trieste (Italian: Trieste; Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian: Trst; German: Triest) is a city and port in northeastern Italy right on the border with Slovenia. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country  Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... “Wien” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ... Moscow (Moskva) (Russian: , romanised: Moskva, IPA: see also other names) is the capital of Russia and the countrys economic, financial, educational, and transportation centre. ... For the victim of Mt. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Several notable people have been named George Kennan: George Kennan (explorer) (1845-1924) George F. Kennan (born 1904), diplomat and historian; the explorers great-nephew This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about a journal. ... The X Article, formally titled The Sources of Soviet Conduct, was published in Foreign Affairs in July 1947. ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it was to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than European-American-based capitalism. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...


In 1949, China became a Communist country (officially the People's Republic of China). The takeover of the world's most populous country was perceived by many in the United States government as a great strategic loss, prompting the question "Who lost China?"[1]


North Korea had also fallen under Soviet domination at the end of World War II, and in 1950 fighting broke out between North and South Korea that soon involved troops from China and the Soviet Union (on North Korea's side), and the United States and 15 allied countries (on South Korea's side). The war ended in 1953 with a stalemate.


In March of 1954, the Viet Minh, a Communist and nationalist army, defeated French troops and took control of what became North Vietnam. This caused the French to fully withdraw from the region then known as French Indochina, a process it had begun earlier. The region was now comprised of four independent countries: North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108...


President Eisenhower was the first to refer to countries in danger of Communist takeover as dominoes, in response to a journalist's question about Indochina in an April 7, 1954 news conference, though he did not refer to the "domino theory" by name.[2] If Communists succeeded in taking over the rest of Indochina, Eisenhower argued, local groups would then have the encouragement, material support and momentum to take over Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Indonesia; all of these countries had large popular Communist movements and insurgencies within their borders at the time. This would give them a geographical and economic strategic advantage, and it would make Japan, Formosa, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand the frontline defensive states. The loss of regions traditionally within the vital regional trading area of countries like Japan would encourage the frontline countries to compromise politically with communism. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ...


Eisenhower's domino theory of 1954 was a specific description of the situation and conditions within Southeast Asia at the time, and he did not suggest a generalized domino theory as others did afterward.


The John F. Kennedy administration intervened in Vietnam in the early 1960s to, among other reasons, keep the South Vietnamese "domino" from falling. When Kennedy came to power there was concern that the communist-dominated Pathet Lao in Laos would provide the National Liberation Front with bases. The neutralisation of Laos which occurred by negotiation was a response to the fear that as North Vietnam was communist Laos would be the next domino to fall. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... National Liberation Front is a common name for guerrilla organisations fighting to free their country from foreign rule, or at least claiming to be such an organisation. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the...


Arguments in favor of the domino theory

The primary evidence for the domino theory is the communist takeover of three Southeast Asian countries in 1975, following the United States pulling its troops out of the region at the end of the Vietnam War: South Vietnam (by the Viet Cong), Laos (by the Pathet Lao), and Cambodia (by the Khmer Rouge). Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ...


Walt Rostow and Lee Kuan Yew have argued that the U.S. intervention in Indochina, by giving the nations of ASEAN time to consolidate and engage in economic growth, prevented a wider domino effect. McGeorge Bundy argues that the prospects for a domino effect, though high in the 1950s and early 1960s, were weakened in 1965 when the Indonesian communist party was destroyed. Walt Whitman Rostow (also known as Walt Rostow or W.W. Rostow) (October 7, 1916 - February 13, 2003) was an American economist and political thinker prominent for his staunch opposition to Communism and belief in the efficacy of capitalism and free enterprise. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 李 (Li) Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born September 16, 1923; also spelled Lee Kwan-Yew), was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore from 1959 to 1990. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... McGeorge Bundy (1967) McGeorge Mac Bundy (March 30, 1919–September 16, 1996) was United States National Security Advisor to Presidents Kennedy and Johnson from 1961–1966, and was president of the Ford Foundation from 1966–1979. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


Some supporters of the domino theory note the history of communist governments supplying aid to communist revolutionaries in neighboring countries. For instance, China supplied the Vietminh, the North Vietnamese army, with troops and supplies, and the Soviet Union supplied them with tanks and heavy weapons. The fact that the Pathet Lao and Khmer Rouge were both originally part of the Vietminh, not to mention Hanoi's support for both in conjunction with the Viet Cong, also give credence to the theory. The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... Pathet Lao (Laotian, Land of Laos) was a communist, nationalist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid 20th century. ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ... A Viet Cong soldier, heavily guarded, awaits interrogation following capture in the attacks on Saigon during the festive Tet holiday period of 1968. ...


Arguments against the domino theory

The primary evidence against the domino theory is the failure of communism to take hold in Thailand, Indonesia, and other large Southeast Asian countries after the end of the Vietnam War, as Eisenhower's speech warned it could. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Critics of the theory charged that the Indochinese wars were largely indigenous or nationalist in nature (such as the Vietnamese driving out the French), and that no such monolithic force as "world communism" existed. There was indeed fracturing of communist states at the time, beginning with the rivalry between the Soviet Union and China, known as the Sino-Soviet split, in the 1950s. This split led to tensions between Vietnam and Cambodia, since Vietnam had affiliated itself with the USSR and Cambodia with China, tensions exacerbated by the flood of Cambodian refugees into Vietnam beginning in 1975. This led to the Cambodian-Vietnamese War, which lasted from 1975 to 1989, and reached its apex in 1979, when Vietnam overthrew the Khmer Rouge and took control of Cambodia. This in turn led China to attack Vietnam in 1979 in the brief Sino-Vietnamese War. The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Combatants Socialist Republic of Vietnam Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Văn Tiến Dũng Pol Pot Strength 150,000+ Vietnamese troops, supported by around 20,000 KNUFNS 70,000+ Casualties 30,000? 30,000? The Cambodian-Vietnamese War, also known as Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In both cases, the Vietnam war spread over the borders of Vietnam into these countries. And Vietnam had imperial and political regional ambitions with regard to both countries. The fall of Laos was due to repeated outright invasions by Vietnam and the inability of the army of Laos to defend the country. The fall of Cambodia was due to the Cambodian government allowing North Vietnam to use the country as a base area for its attacks on South Vietnam which dragged the country into the Vietnam war and led to first the Khmer Rouge and then after to military rule for many years by Vietnam.


Opponents also argued that the domino theory misrepresented the real nature of the widespread and growing civil opposition that the previous, U.S.-backed regimes in these countries had generated because of entrenched official corruption and widespread human rights abuses, notably in South Vietnam.


Some critics have charged that the theory was used as a propaganda scare tactic to try to justify unwarranted intervention policies.


Applications to Communism outside Southeast Asia

Michael Lind has argued that though the domino theory failed regionally, there was a global wave, as communist or Marxist-Leninist regimes came to power in Benin, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Angola, Afghanistan, Grenada, and Nicaragua during the 1970s. The global interpretation of the domino effect relies heavily upon the "prestige" interpretation of the theory, meaning that the success of Communist revolutions in some countries, though it did not provide material support to revolutionary forces in other countries, did contribute morale and rhetorical support. In this vein, Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara wrote an essay, in 1967, calling for "one, two, many Vietnams" across the world.[3] Historian Max Boot wrote, "In the late 1970s, America's enemies seized power in countries from Mozambique to Iran to Nicaragua. American hostages were seized aboard the SS Mayaguez (off Cambodia) and in Tehran. The Red Army invaded Afghanistan. It is impossible to prove the connection with the Vietnam War, but there is little doubt that the enfeeblement of a superpower encouraged our enemies to undertake acts of aggression that they might otherwise have shied away from."[4] Michael Lind is an American journalist and historian, currently the Whitehead Senior Fellow at the New America Foundation. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14,[1] 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che or just Che was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, medical doctor , political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Max Boot (born 1969 in Moscow, Soviet Union) is an American author, editorialist, lecturer and military historian. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


In addition, this theory can be further bolstered by the rise in terrorist incidents by left-wing terrorist groups in Western Europe, funded in part by Communist governments, between the 1960's and 1980's. In Italy, this includes the kidnapping and assassination of Aldo Moro, and the kidnapping of former US Brigadier General James Dozier, by the Red Brigades. In West Germany, this includes the terrorist actions of the Red Army Faction. In the far east the Japanese Red Army carried out similar acts. All three, as well as others worked with various Arab and Palestinian terrorists, which like the red brigades were backed by the Soviet Bloc. The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Aldo Moro (September 23, 1916 – May 9, 1978) was an Italian politician and five time Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968 and then from 1974 to 1976. ... James L. Dozier is a US Army Brigadier General, kidnapped by the leftist Italian Red Brigade terrorist group in December of 1981. ... The Red Brigades (Brigate Rosse in Italian, often abbreviated as the BR) were a terrorist group[1] located in Italy and active during the Years of Lead. Formed in 1970, the Marxist-Leninist Red Brigades sought to create a revolutionary state through armed struggle and to separate Italy from the... Red Army Faction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction or RAF (German Rote Armee Fraktion) (in its early stages commonly known as Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang]), was one of postwar West Germanys most active and prominent militant left-wing groups. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the 1980s, the domino theory was used again to justify the Reagan administration's interventions in Central America and the Caribbean region. Ronald Wilson Reagan, GCB (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Other applications

According to Debka.com (an Israeli intelligence website), Abu Hafiza, a member of Al-Qaeda and one of the masterminds of the 2004 Madrid train bombings, felt that correctly-timed terror attacks against countries involved in the Iraq War could help defeat pro-war Western leaders one at a time, writing "After knocking over one domino after another, we will stand face to face with the key domino, the United States."[5] DEBKAfile (Hebrew: תיקדבקה) is a Jerusalem based website with news and indepth information about terrorism, intelligence, military affairs, security and politics. ... Abu Hafiza (Arabic: أبو حافيزه ) is a Moroccan psychiatrist and a master planner for Al Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 3/11 and -in Spanish- as 11-M [1]) consisted of a series of coordinated bombings against the Cercanías (commuter train) system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004 (three days before Spains general elections), killing 191... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Some foreign policy analysts in the United States have referred to the potential spread of both Islamic theocracy and liberal democracy in the Middle East as two different possibilities for a domino theory. During the Iran-Iraq war the United States and other western nations supported Iraq, fearing the spread of Iran's radical theocracy throughout the region. In the 2003 invasion of Iraq neoconservatives argued that by invading Iraq a democratic government could be implemented, which would then help spread democracy and liberalism across the Middle East; this has often been referred to as a "reverse domino theory".[6] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...


References

  1. ^ "What Would He Have Done?", Arthur Schlesinger, The New York Times, March 29, 1992
  2. ^ President Eisenhower’s Press Conference of April 7, 1954
  3. ^ "Rough Draft of History: 'All Right, Let's Get the Hell Out of Here'", Richard Gott, August 11, 2005
  4. ^ "Another Vietnam?", Max Boot, The Wall Street Journal, August 24, 2007
  5. ^ "Moroccan Cell links 9/11 to Casablanca, Madrid and Baghdad", Debka.com, March 19, 2004
  6. ^ "The War and the Peace", Robert Wright, Slate, April 1, 2003

Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Sr. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... Max Boot (born 1969 in Moscow, Soviet Union) is an American author, editorialist, lecturer and military historian. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Wikipedia has articles about multiple individuals named Robert Wright: For the Royal Air Force historian and biographer of Hugh Dowding, see Robert_Wright_(historian). ...

See also

Domino theory:

Domino effect: For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it was to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than European-American-based capitalism. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nieman Watchdog > Commentary > A reverse domino theory may be playing out in the Middle East (1391 words)
And the dire consequences of the domino theory that were so widely proclaimed by hawks at the time never came to pass.
But a reverse domino theory is. The longer the U.S. stays in Iraq, the more likely the collapse of the secular regimes in those Muslim nations, and the more likely a full-scale war between Israel and its neighbors.
Ironically, a "democratic domino theory" was one of the rationales Cheney invoked for the invasion of Iraq.
What Is "The Domino Effect"? - Dominoes FAQ - Domino-Games.com (399 words)
Supporters of the "domino theory" argued that a communist victory would mean that U.S. alliance guarantees for other small nations would no longer be credible, and a series of communist victories could be expected.
Critics of the theory charged that the Indochinese wars were largely indigenous in nature, that no such monolithic force as "world communism" existed, and that the theory was used as a propaganda scare tactic to try to justify unwarranted intervention policies.
In the 1980s, the "domino theory" was used to justify the Reagan administration's interventions in Central America and the Caribbean region.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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