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Encyclopedia > Dominionism
This article is on the political-religious concept of dominionism. See Dominion (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word dominion
Part of the series on
Dominionism
Ideas

Biblical Theology
Separation of church and state
Postmillennialism
Supersessionism
Theonomy
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Dominion has numerous meanings: // A Dominion is a self-governing country outside the United Kingdom which is a Commonwealth Realm, particularly: The Dominion of Canada, the constitutional name of Canada. ... Biblical Theology is a discipline within Christian theology which studies the Bible from the perspective of understanding the progressive history of God revealing himself to Man following the Fall and throughout the Old Testament and New Testament. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christs second coming as occurring after or post- the thousand year millennium. Although some postmillennialists hold to a literal millennium of 1,000 years, most postmillennialists see the thousand years more as... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ...

Advocates

R. J. Rushdoony
Greg Bahnsen
Gary North
Gary DeMar
Kenneth Gentry
David Chilton
Paul Weyrich
D. James Kennedy
Roy Moore
James Dobson
Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) was the seminal leader of the Christian Reconstructionist theology in the United States. ... Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an influential Christian philosopher, apologist, and debater. ... Gary North For the bisexual rights activist, see Gary North (journalist) Gary North is a writer and publisher from the Christian Reconstruction movement. ... Gary DeMar is an American writer, lecturer and the president of American Vision, an American Christian nonprofit organization. ... Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. ... David Chilton M.Div. ... Paul M. Weyrich (born October 7, 1942, in Racine, Wisconsin) is a US conservative political activist and commentator. ... Dennis James Kennedy, Ph. ... Roy Stewart Moore (born February 11, 1947 in Etowah County, Alabama) is a controversial American jurist and politician noted for his refusal, as the elected Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Alabama, to remove a monument of the Ten Commandments from the courthouse despite orders from a federal court... James Clayton Jim Dobson, Ph. ...

Former advocates

James B. Jordan
Peter Leithart
Andrew Sandlin
James B. Jordan is a Calvinist theologian and author. ... Peter J. Leithart is the author of many books on literature and theology, a frequent contributor to such ecumenical and Trinitarian publications as First Things, Touchstone, and Credenda/Agenda, and a pastor of Trinity Reformed Church, a congregation of the Confederation of Reformed Evangelical Churches. ... P. Andrew Sandlin is a former Christian Reconstructionist thinker, and pastor of the Church of the King in California. ...

Organizations

American Vision
Chalcedon Foundation
National Religious Broadcasters
Free Congress Foundation
Center for Reclaiming America for Christ
Coral Ridge Ministries
Focus on the Family
American Vision is a a full service, nonprofit Christian ministry founded in 1978 by Steve Schiffman. ... The Chalcedon Foundation is the name for the Christian Reconstructionist organization founded by Rousas John Rushdoony. ... The National Religious Broadcasters (NRB) Association represents 1700 plus Christian religious broadcasters. ... The Free Congress Foundation (more formally the Free Congress Research and Education Foundation, and Free Congress or FCF for short), is a conservative think tank in Washington, D.C. founded and led by Paul Weyrich. ... Dennis James Kennedy, Ph. ... Dennis James Kennedy, Ph. ... Focus on the Family (FOTF or FotF), founded in 1977, is a Christian non-profit organization based in the United States. ...

Influences

Abraham Kuyper
Francis Schaeffer
Cornelius Van Til
Prof. ... Francis A. Schaeffer (January 30, 1912–May 15, 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ...

Financiers

Howard Ahmanson Jr
Howard Ahmanson, Jr. ...

Critics

TheocracyWatch
Chip Berlet
Randall Balmer
PRA
Chris Hedges
Thomas Ice
Dave Hunt
Hal Lindsey TheocracyWatch is a project run by the Center for Religion, Ethics and Social Policy (CRESP), located at Cornell University. ... Chip Berlet. ... Randall Herbert Balmer (born October 22, 1954) is an American author, professor of American religious history at Barnard College, Columbia University, an editor for Christianity Today and an Episcopal priest. ... Political Research Associates (PRA) is a non-profit research group located in Somerville, Massachusetts, which studies the U.S. political right wing, as well as white supremacists, anti-Semitic groups, and paramilitary organizations. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Thomas Ice is Executive Director of The Pre-Trib Research Center in Arlington, Texas, which he founded in 1994 with Dr. Tim LaHaye to research, teach, and defend the pretribulational rapture and related Bible prophecy doctrines. ... Dave Hunt, born in 1926, is a Christian apologist, speaker, radio commentator and author. ... Harold Lee Hal Lindsey (born 1929) is an American evangelist and Christian writer. ...

v  d  e

Dominionism is a term used to describe a perceived trend among some politically active, "socially conservative" Christians, in a variety of theological traditions. To delineate this trend, scholars point to public rhetoric which asserts a privileged place[citation needed] for the influence of Christian faith in public life, especially in the United States. As Bruce Barron succinctly observes, the described activists articulate a perceived "need to restore Christians to leadership roles in American society."[1] The scholars who use this terminology allege that, in the United States, Canada, and several European countries, radical forms of "dominionism" have had a direct influence upon the more moderate Christian Right in America.[1][2][3]. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The term Christian Right is used by scholars and journalists, to refer to a spectrum of right-wing Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of conservative social and political values. ...


The term "dominionist" is rarely used as a self-description. However, writers who use the term apply it to conservative Christians and their allies, who despite religious differences appear to share a political outlook, an agenda which they themselves characterize as distinctly and uniquely "Christian", "traditional" or "Judeo-Christian", but which these critical writers typically portray as "theocratic"[citation needed], a "threat to democracy"[citation needed] and a contradiction of a constitutional principle of the separation of church and state[citation needed]. Other observers, such as Stanley Kurtz of the National Review, dismiss the implied connection between these diverse groups, as "conspiratorial nonsense," "political paranoia," and "guilt by association".[4] The Christian Right, is a broad label applied to a number of political and religious movements with particularly conservative and right wing views. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley Jr. ... An association fallacy is a type of logical fallacy which asserts that qualities of one are inherently qualities of another, merely by association. ...

Contents

A declaration of culture war

Dominionism as a trend in the late 1970s and 1980s was sparked in part by a series of books and films featuring Francis A. Schaeffer, a popular Evangelical apologist and founder of L'Abri, a Christian community in Huemoz-sur-Ollon, Switzerland. Some evangelical authors question whether or not Schaeffer has the dominionist views with which he is credited.[5] The theological works of Cornelius Van Til are sometimes cited as inspiring certain proponents of Dominionism or Dominion Theology, although Van Til himself disavowed entanglement of his work with political movements like these. The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a supposed political conflict based on different idealized cultural values. ... Francis A. Schaeffer (January 30, 1912–May 15, 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... LAbri (from the French word meaning shelter) is an evangelical Christian organization founded by Francis Schaeffer and his wife Edith in Huemoz, Switzerland on June 5, 1955. ... Ollon is a municipality in the district of Aigle of the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Cornelius Van Til Cornelius Van Til (May 4, 1895 - April 17, 1987), born in Grootegast, the Netherlands, was a Christian philosopher, Reformed theologian, and presuppositional apologist. ... See Dominion (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word Dominion. ...


The term emerged in relation to the Christian Right in the mid-1990s, but became more widely known due in large part to the U.S. presidential election, 2004 where the media attributed Republican wins to Evangelical voters in Red states who voted for moral values.[6] For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Presidential election results map. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the GOP as red. ... Moral values are things held to be right or wrong or desirable or undesirable. ...


Dominionism has been described as a more aggressive form of evangelicalism typified by Francis A. Schaeffer, founder of the L'Abri Fellowship in Switzerland, in which the notion that Christians owe it to God to exercise God's dominion in secular society is asserted, by means of "[taking] control of a sinful secular society." [7] Francis Schaeffer Francis A Schaeffer (January 30, 1912–May 15, 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... LAbri (from the French word meaning shelter) is an evangelical Christian organization founded by Francis Schaeffer and his wife Edith in Huemoz, Switzerland on June 5, 1955. ...


Dominion

The dominionist interpretation sees adherents as heeding a command from God to all humankind to subject the world to the rule of the Word of God. The terminology of dominionism, and the broad concept of the trend described by critics, has been taken from the King James Version of the Bible, Genesis 1:26 An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Anarchism is a form of social criticism, a political movement as well as a political philosophy. ... Christian Democracy is a diverse political ideology and movement. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing radical individualism, and other similar philosophies while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the social, political and economic equality of the sexes. ... Green politics or Green ideology is the ideology of the Green Parties, mainly informed by environmentalism, ecosophy and sustainable economics and aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... This is a list of political parties around the world by ideology. ...

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.


Christians typically interpret this verse as meaning that God gave humankind responsibility over the Earth. In the United States, some Christians see in various Biblical mandates an implied obligation to be responsible managers of resources. On that basis they argue for conservation measures, and believe that the obligation to care for the earth, and for non-human creatures, rests on all people but especially on Christians. In the environmental movement, these Christians call for stewardship of the planet. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Stewardship is a concept in theology. ...


Influence on the Christian Right

Within the Christian Right, concern over social, cultural, and political issues such as abortion, euthanasia, same-sex marriage, sympathy for Israel sometimes expressed as Christian Zionism, the banning of teacher-led prayer in the public schools, and the reduction of overtly fundamentalist Christian perspectives in the public square has prompted participation in elections since the 1970s. Activists and intellectuals in the Christian Right work in a coalition of religious conservatives, operating through the Republican Party to promote their influence. The term Christian Right is used by scholars and journalists, to refer to a spectrum of right-wing Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of conservative social and political values. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal in a presumably painless or minimally painful way, usually by lethal injection. ... Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live together as a family. ... for Christians who belong to Zionist denominations in southern Africa, see Zionist Churches Christian Zionism is a belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, is in accordance with Biblical prophecy. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ...


Dominionism within the Christian Right grows out of theological challenges posed by Schaeffer and Rousas John Rushdoony, founder of Christian Reconstructionism. For Rushdoony, the idea of dominion drawn from Genesis implied a form of Christian theocracy or, more accurately, a theonomy. For example, he wrote that: Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) was the seminal leader of the Christian Reconstructionist theology in the United States. ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ...

The purpose of Christ's coming was in terms of the creation mandate. . . . The redeemed are called to the original purpose of man, to exercise dominion under God, to be covenant-keepers, and to fulfil "the righteousness of the law" (Rom. 8:4). . . . Man is summoned to create the society God requires.[8]

Elsewhere he wrote:

The man who is being progressively sanctified will inescapably sanctify his home, school, politics, economics, science, and all things else by understanding and interpreting all things in terms of the word of God and by bringing all things under the dominion of Christ the King.[9]

According to sociologist and professor of religion William Martin[2], author of With God on Our Side:

"It is difficult to assess the influence of Reconstructionist thought with any accuracy. Because it is so genuinely radical, most leaders of the Religious Right are careful to distance themselves from it. At the same time, it clearly holds some appeal for many of them. One undoubtedly spoke for others when he confessed, 'Though we hide their books under the bed, we read them just the same.' In addition, several key leaders have acknowledged an intellectual debt to the theonomists. Jerry Falwell and D. James Kennedy have endorsed Reconstructionist books. Rushdoony has appeared on Kennedy's television program and the 700 Club several times. Pat Robertson makes frequent use of 'dominion' language; his book, The Secret Kingdom, has often been cited for its theonomy elements; and pluralists were made uncomfortable when, during his presidential campaign, he said he 'would only bring Christians and Jews into the government,' as well as when he later wrote, 'There will never be world peace until God's house and God's people are given their rightful place of leadership at the top of the world.' And Jay Grimstead, who leads the Coalition on Revival, which brings Reconstructionists together with more mainstream evangelicals, has said, 'I don't call myself [a Reconstructionist],' but 'A lot of us are coming to realize that the Bible is God's standard of morality . . . in all points of history . . . and for all societies, Christian and non-Christian alike. . . . It so happens that Rushdoony, Bahnsen, and North understood that sooner.' He added, 'There are a lot of us floating around in Christian leadership James Kennedy is one of them-who don't go all the way with the theonomy thing, but who want to rebuild America based on the Bible.'" (Martin 1996:354)

Political groups and individuals that worry about how, and to what extent, dominionism influences the Christian Right include People for the American Way, Americans United for Separation of Church and State, Interfaith Alliance, and the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Joan Bokaer[3] and Katherine Yurica [4]. Jerry Lamon Falwell (born August 11, 1933) is a fundamentalist pastor and televangelist from the United States. ... Dennis James Kennedy, Ph. ... Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) was the seminal leader of the Christian Reconstructionist theology in the United States. ... The on-air personalities of The 700 Club The 700 Club is the flagship news talk show of the Christian Broadcasting Network, airing on cables ABC Family and in syndication throughout the United States and Canada. ... Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a televangelist from the United States. ... Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an influential Christian philosopher, apologist, and debater. ... Gary North For the bisexual rights activist, see Gary North (journalist) Gary North is a writer and publisher from the Christian Reconstruction movement. ... People for the American Way (PFAW) is a prominent liberal advocacy organization in the United States, founded by television producer Norman Lear in 1980. ... Americans United for Separation of Church and State (Americans United or AU for short) is an advocacy group in the United States which promotes the separation of church and state, a legal doctrine derived from the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. ... The Freedom From Religion Foundation is an American Freethought organization based in Madison, Wisconsin. ...


In their report Funding the Culture Wars[10] the National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy[11] lists the Family Research Council, the Christian Coalition and Focus on the Family as prominent organizations that fund the activities of the Christian Right. TheocracyWatch lists all three as "dominionist" organizations.[12] [13] Based in Washington, D.C., the National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy (NCRP) is a non-profit organization that conducts research on and advocates for accountability, transparency and a focus on social justice in the philanthropic sector. ... The Family Research Council (FRC) is a Christian conservative non-profit lobbying organization, formed in the United States by James Dobson in 1981 and incorporated 1983. ... This article is about the organization presently operating in the United States. ... Focus on the Family (FOTF or FotF), founded in 1977, is a Christian non-profit organization based in the United States. ... TheocracyWatch is a project run by the Center for Religion, Ethics and Social Policy (CRESP), located at Cornell University. ...


Dominionism debated

Frederick Clarkson, the author of Eternal Hostility: The Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy, is fearful that as Dominionism grows, democracy and pluralism will be increasingly under attack. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ...


Former New York Times reporter Chris Hedges[14] and Clarkson, consider dominionism one of the defining issues of the culture wars.[15] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a supposed political conflict based on different idealized cultural values. ...


During the administration of George W. Bush, a few critics of the Dominionist idea have sometimes claimed the trend is representative of all Christians of a Republican or politically conservative orientation. Hedges has equated the sermons of James Dobson to the rhetoric used in the former Yugoslavia to justify the slaughter of Muslims by Serbian Christians, and he has characterized federally-funded Christian charities as "parallel indoctrination systems."[citation needed] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... James Clayton Jim Dobson, Ph. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


According to the conservative Washington Times, some "liberal" critics of dominionism express "hostility toward Christian conservatives." [16] The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ...


Stanley Kurtz, in the conservative forum, National Review online, complained that discussion about Dominionism (at a conference in New York and in articles in Harper's Magazine) often linked average Christian evangelicals with extremism, such as views found at the fringes of the very small movement known as Christian Reconstructionism: National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley Jr. ... An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly general-interest magazine covering literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts from a progressive, moderate left perspective in a fashion often not found in the ordinary news... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ...

The notion that conservative Christians want to reinstitute slavery and rule by genocide is not just crazy, it’s downright dangerous. The most disturbing part of the Harper’s cover story (the one by Chris Hedges) was the attempt to link Christian conservatives with Hitler and fascism. Once we acknowledge the similarity between conservative Christians and fascists, Hedges appears to suggest, we can confront Christian evil by setting aside 'the old polite rules of democracy.' So wild conspiracy theories and visions of genocide are really excuses for the Left to disregard the rules of democracy and defeat conservative Christians — by any means necessary. [5]

One conference speaker criticized by Kurtz is Katherine Yurica, who has written about the rise of Dominionism as a theocratic tendency in the Christian Right.[6][7] Yurica responded to Kurtz, saying she has not used the term "Christian Fascism" in her writings.[8] Yurica has noted fascistic tendencies in Christian Right Dominionism, but she does not consider the Christian Right to be "Christian." Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... The term Christian Right is used by scholars and journalists, to refer to a spectrum of right-wing Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of conservative social and political values. ...


Christian conservatives are not the only people who suggest that some criticism of dominionism is hyperbolic and some progressive researchers warns of that tendency. [17] For example, two progressive websites that challenge the Christian Right but urge respectful rhetoric are Talk to Action and Campaign to Defend the Constitution. Campaign to Defend the Constitution (DefCon) is an American online organization founded in September, 2005 to support the constitutional separation of church and state and to oppose what it perceives as the growing influence of the religious right. ...


Sara Diamond warns that while dominionism has influenced the Christian Right, liberals too often use hyperbolic language to describe the activities and goals of the Christian Right.[9] Sara Diamond is a leading authority on the Christian Right and other right-wing movements. ...


Range of Dominionist ideas

Francis Schaeffer is sometimes called one of the founders of the Christian Right movement, which some have labeled a Dominionist movement. Schaeffer was influenced by the writings of R. J. Rushdoony, the intellectual founder of Christian Reconstructionism, a postmillennialist form of Theocratic Dominionism. Schaeffer and Rushdoony read each others' writings, and even met. Schaeffer led a study of Rushdoony's writings at Schaeffer's institute in Switzerland. Schaeffer and other premillennialists picked up themes of dominionism from the postmillennialist Rushdoony, and adapted them to premillennial theology. Some commentators emphasize Schaeffer's differences with Christian Reconstructionism, and with R.J. Rushdoony. A systematic difference was his rejection of theocracy. In the book, A Christian Manifesto, Schaeffer writes, "There is no New Testament basis for a linking of church and state until Christ, the King returns." Critical writers emphasize the similarities and overlapping influence of Schaeffer and the Reconstructionists, on the formation of the Christian Right. Francis A. Schaeffer (January 30, 1912–May 15, 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christs second coming as occurring after or post- the thousand year millennium. Although some postmillennialists hold to a literal millennium of 1,000 years, most postmillennialists see the thousand years more as... This article specifically relates to Premillennialism in Christian eschatology; for political millenarianism and other uses of the word see Millenarianism Premillennialism in Christian eschatology is the belief that Christ will literally reign on the earth for 1,000 years at his second coming. ...


According to Frederick Clarkson the terms "soft" and hard" Dominionism are "used by outside observers to understand a complex yet vitally important trend. So for people trying to figure out if a conservative politician, organization, or religious leader is "dominionist," I notice three characteristics that bridge both the hard and the soft kind".[18] Writes Clarkson:

  • "Dominionists celebrate Christian nationalism, in that they believe that the United States once was, and should once again be, a Christian nation. In this way, they deny the Enlightenment roots of American democracy."
  • "Dominionists promote religious supremacy, insofar as they generally do not respect the equality of other religions, or even other versions of Christianity."
  • "Dominionists endorse theocratic visions, insofar as they believe that the Ten Commandments, or "biblical law," should be the foundation of American law, and that the U.S. Constitution should be seen as a vehicle for implementing Biblical principles."[18]

Generic or "soft" dominionism

Within the various Christian Right social and political movements, there are those that claim that "America is a Christian nation." In her book, Michelle Goldberg called this tendency "Christian Nationalism," and this tendency represents a form of generic or "soft" dominionism.


Critics[19] argue the claim that the United States is a Christian nation is of questionable historic validity (often pointing out the deist beliefs of various founding fathers -- Thomas Jefferson's[10] in particular) , is ethnocentric, and reduces secularists and members of other religions (such as Judaism, Islam, and Hinduism) to second-class status. They cite the Treaty with Tripoli (1796) passed by the United States Senate, which stated that the United States government "is not in any sense founded on the Christian religion,"[11] and George Washington's letter to Moses Seixas, in which Washington defended religious freedom for Jews ("For happily, the government of the United States, which gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance"[12]). For other uses, see Ceremonial deism. ... The Treaty of Tripoli (the Treaty of Peace and Friendship) was a 1796 peace treaty between the United States and Tripoli. ...


Religious historians, like Nathan Hatch, Mark Noll and others, also suggest that modern fundamentalists are nostalgic for a time that never really existed as they imagine it: a time in the indefinite past, before the turbulent sixties, when wholesomeness, and sanity, and harmony prevailed under a benevolent religion much as they conceive their own to be.[citation needed]


Theocratic or "hard" dominionism

Main article: Dominion theology

The terms Theocratic Dominionism or Hard Dominionism, are used by some to describe forms of Dominionism which evidently envision, and work toward, a future in which all the institutions of society will be governed by the principles of their form of Christian faith. See Dominion (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word Dominion. ...


Hard Dominionism is primarily associated with certain Calvinists who hold a postmillennialist eschatology. John Calvin's Geneva, and the Puritans are considered antecedents of this strain. Some Christians who speak of America as a Christian Nation are referring to this theocratic ideal, such as Kevin Clauson of the National Reform Association. In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... In Christian eschatology, postmillennialism is an interpretation of chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation which sees Christs second coming as occurring after or post- the thousand year millennium. Although some postmillennialists hold to a literal millennium of 1,000 years, most postmillennialists see the thousand years more as... For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ...

America and other nations can be Christian if they adopt biblical laws in state, church, family, and all other entities and associations. We cannot trust man (individually or collectively); we must trust God and His immutable law. If civil magistrates will not apply the Old Testament law, then what will they apply? The law of man. If we will not be ruled by God, we will be ruled by tyrants. (see p. 67, God and Politics: Four Views on the Reformation of Civil Government, ed. Gary Scott Smith (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1989).

Several small movements fit this description, the influence of one of which began to be noticed in the 1970s, called Christian Reconstructionism. Although the number of ideologically self-conscious advocates is small, this movement, by virtue of the blunt consistency of its rhetoric, has exercised influence far out of proportion to the number of self-identifying adherents. [13] Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ...


In recent years, another type of Dominionism has developed among premillennialist Evangelicals, primarily charismatics. This version is essentially pessimistic concerning general society. Christian activism is seen as a sort of holding action against the inevitable coming of the Antichrist. This group differs from the first in key areas such as support for Israel. (The conservative television personality Pat Robertson is usually considered an example of this second type.[14]) This article specifically relates to Premillennialism in Christian eschatology; for political millenarianism and other uses of the word see Millenarianism Premillennialism in Christian eschatology is the belief that Christ will literally reign on the earth for 1,000 years at his second coming. ... For a description of the personality trait, see Charismatic authority. ... Antichrist is translated from the combination of two ancient Greek words αντί+χριστος (antí+khristos), which can mean anti opposite (of) khristos messiah thereforeopposite of Christ. Anti can also mean for or as. Thus in place of Christ is also a valid understanding of the term. ... Marion Gordon Pat Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is a televangelist from the United States. ...


Christian Reconstructionism

The flag-ship institution of Christian Reconstructionism is the Chalcedon Foundation, founded by R.J. Rushdoony. From their website, Chalcedon answers critics who characterize them as an orchestrator of a clandestine, politically motivated conspiracy: Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ... The Chalcedon Foundation is the name for the Christian Reconstructionist organization founded by Rousas John Rushdoony. ... Rousas John Rushdoony (1916–2001) was the seminal leader of the Christian Reconstructionist theology in the United States. ...

Our critics sometimes imply or state outright that we are engaged in a subtle, covert attempt to capture conservative, right-wing politics in order to gain political power, which we will then use to "spring" Biblical law on our nation. This is flatly false. We do not believe that politics or the state are a chief sphere of dominion.

Critics note that politics is the chief sphere in which Reconstructionism's influence is perceived, and consequently feel justified in characterizing it as primarily political, in fact even if not in ideal theory. For instance, some critics go so far as to point to a phrase from Chalcedon's website, "'Proclaiming the Authority of God’s Word Over Every Area of Life and Thought.' Catch the vision. . ." charging that phrases such as this demonstrate nefarious motives on behalf of the Chalcedon Foundation. Critics such as Frederick Clarkson identify it as totalitarian, comparable to other right-wing and political movements inspired by religious fundamentalism. Proponents of Reconstructionism claim that, on the contrary, they stand in opposition to tyranny:

The great problem with modern politics is that it is used as an instrument of social change. We at Chalcedon passionately oppose this. The role of the state is in essence to defend and protect, in the words of the early American Republic, life, liberty, and property. It is to reward the externally obedient by protecting them from the externally disobedient (Romans 13:1-7). Its role is not to make men virtuous; we have a name for civil governments that attempt to create a virtuous society: totalitarian. [15]

Some theocratic Dominionists argue that the United States was originally envisioned as a society based on Biblical law. [16] They also contend that theonomy is not the same thing as Erastianism or Papalism. Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ... Thomas Erastus Thomas Erastus (September 7, 1524 – December 31, 1583) was a Swiss theologian best known for a posthumously published work in which he argued that the sins of Christians should be punished by the state, and not by the church withholding the sacraments. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

The best form [of government] was theocracy. . .which meant separate but parallel civil and ecclesiastical organizations framed on the evidence of the Scriptures. Church and state. . .were of the same genus, "order," with the same author, "God," and the same end, "God's glory." On the level of species the two diverged. Here the end of the church was salvation of souls while that of the state was the preservation of society in justice.[20]

Christianism

In recent years, some authors have used the terms "Christianism" or "Christianist" in place of "Dominionism."


The term "Christianist" is referred to as early as 1992 in a book Europe. La voie romaine by Rémi Brague. In an essay from November, 2004 by Gianni Valente in the English version of the Italy based 30 Days in the Church and the world, Valente credits Professor Brague, Professor of Arabic philosophy at the Sorbonne with the terminology distinction.


"Christianist" was also used by Ruth Walker on May 20, 2005 Christian Science Monitor providing a separate term for political Christians in an article entitled "Onward, Christianist Soldiers?". The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ...


According to Andrew Sullivan, "The term 'people of faith' has been co-opted almost entirely in our (political) discourse by those who see Christianity as compatible with only one political party, the Republicans, and believe that their religious doctrines should determine public policy for everyone. So let me suggest that we take back the word Christian while giving the religious right a new adjective: Christianist." [21] The word Christianism evolved in western media outlets, particularly liberal-oriented blogs, [22][23][24] as a counterpoint to the term "Islamist." As Andrew Sullivan said, "Christianism is an ideology, politics, an ism. The distinction between Christian and Christianist echoes the distinction we make between Muslim and Islamist. Muslims are those who follow Islam. Islamists are those who want to wield Islam as a political force and conflate state and mosque." [25] Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Barron, Bruce. 1992. Heaven on Earth? The Social & Political Agendas of Dominion Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-53611-1.
  2. ^ Diamond, Sara. 1995. Roads to Dominion: Right-Wing Movements and Political Power in the United States. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 0-89862-864-4.
  3. ^ Clarkson, Frederick. 1997. Eternal Hostility: The Struggle Between Theocracy and Democracy. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage. ISBN 1-56751-088-4
  4. ^ Stanley Kurtz (2005-05-02). "Dominionist Domination: The Left runs with a wild theory". National Review Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-27. 
  5. ^ Hexham, Irving, "The Evangelical Response to the New Age," in Perspectives on the New Age, edited by James R. Lewis & J. Gordon Melton, State University of New York Press, Albany, New York, 1992, pp. 152-163, especially p. 322 Note 16.
  6. ^ "The Rise of the Religious Right in the Republican Party", TheocracyWatch, Last updated: December 2005; URL accessed May 8, 2006.
  7. ^ Chip Berlet, "Following the Threads," in Ansell, Amy E. Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and Politics, pp. 24, Westview Press, 1998, ISBN 0-813-33147-1
    A more aggressive form of evangelicalism emerged in the 1970s, typified by Francis A. Schaeffer, author of How Should We Then Live?, which challenged Christians to take control of a sinful secular society. Schaeffer (and his son Franky) influenced many of today's Religious Right activists, including Jerry Falwell, Timothy LaHaye, and John W. Whitehead, who have gone off in several theological and political directions, though they all adhere to the notion that the Old Testament scriptures reveal that man has been given dominion over the earth and that if the New Testament transfers God's covenant to Christians, then Christians owe it to God to seize the reins of secular society to exercise this dominion.
  8. ^ The Institutes of Biblical Law, p. 3-4.
  9. ^ Foreword to Greg Bahnsen's Theonomy in Christian Ethics, 3rd edition, xii.
  10. ^ Funding the Culture Wars: Philanthropy, Church and State By John Russell January 2005
  11. ^ the National Committee for Responsive Philanthropy
  12. ^ "The Rise of the Religious Right in the Republican Party: Introduction", TheocracyWatch, Last updated: March 2006; URL accessed May 8, 2006.
  13. ^ "The Rise of the Religious Right in the Republican Party: Taking Over the Republican Party", TheocracyWatch, Last updated: February 2005; URL accessed May 8, 2006.
  14. ^ The Christian Right and the Rise of American Fascism By Chris Hedges, TheocracyWatch.
  15. ^ For evangelicals, a bid to 'reclaim America' By Jane Lampman. March 16, 2005 The Christian Science Monitor.
  16. ^ Jon Ward, "Liberals gather to plumb depths of Christian Right" (May 3, 2005 issue).
  17. ^ Ellis Henican, "A spiritual olive branch for the far-right faithful," Newsday, May 1, 2005. Reposted at YuricaReport.com. Retrieved 23 September 2006
  18. ^ a b Clarkson, Frederick. 2005. "The Rise of Dominionism: Remaking America as a Christian Nation." The Public Eye magazine, Vol. 19, No. 3, (Winter) [1]
  19. ^ John Lofton Interviews Roy Moore Ed Brayton. Dispatches from the Culture Wars, July 24, 2006.
  20. ^ Larzer Ziff, The Career of John Cotton: Puritanism and the American Experience (Princeton University Press, 1962), pp. 97-98.
  21. ^ "My Problem with Christianism" by Andrew Sullivan, Time Magazine, May 15, 2006, accessed May 9, 2006. Reprinted at John Mark Ministries.
  22. ^ When Semantic Differences Are Not: Part Two Tristero, June 1, 2003, accessed May 16, 2006.
  23. ^ How about Christianism? David Neiwert, June 8, 2003, accessed May 16, 2006.
  24. ^ Christianism vs. Christianity Daily Kos, November 8, 2004, accessed May 9, 2006.
  25. ^ "My Problem with Christianism" by Andrew Sullivan, Time Magazine, May 15, 2006, accessed May 9, 2006.

National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley Jr. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... TheocracyWatch is a project run by the Center for Religion, Ethics and Social Policy (CRESP), located at Cornell University. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Greg L. Bahnsen (September 17, 1948 – December 11, 1995) was an influential Christian philosopher, apologist, and debater. ... TheocracyWatch is a project run by the Center for Religion, Ethics and Social Policy (CRESP), located at Cornell University. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... TheocracyWatch is a project run by the Center for Religion, Ethics and Social Policy (CRESP), located at Cornell University. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... TheocracyWatch is a project run by the Center for Religion, Ethics and Social Policy (CRESP), located at Cornell University. ...

Additional references

  • Clarkson, Frederick. "Theocratic Dominionism Gains Influence" from PublicEye.org, March/June 1994.
  • Douthat, Ross. 2006. "Theocracy, Theocracy, Theocracy" from First Things 165 (August/September 2006): pp. 23-30.
  • Goldberg, Michelle. 2006. Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-06094-2
  • Leslie, Sarah. "Dominionism and the Rise of Christian Imperialism" from Discernment-Ministries.org. Retrieved September 17, 2006.
  • Morgan, Edmund S., (ed.). 1965. Puritan Political Ideas. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill.
  • Rudin, James. 2006. The Baptizing of America: The Religious Right's Plans for the Rest of Us. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press.
  • Schaeffer, Francis A. 1970. Pollution and the Death of Man. Tyndale House Publishers. ISBN 0-89107-686-7

Francis A. Schaeffer (January 30, 1912–May 15, 1984), an American Evangelical theologian, philosopher, and Presbyterian pastor, is most famous for his writings and his establishment of the LAbri community in Switzerland. ... Pollution and the Death of Man is a philosophical work by presuppositionalist theologian Francis A. Schaeffer, published in 1970. ...

Further reading

  • Hedges, Chris, American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America, Free Press, 2006.
  • Goldberg, Michelle, Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism, W.W. Norton, 2007.
  • Weinstein, Michael, With God on Our Side: One Man's War Against an Evangelical Coup in America's Military, Thomas Dunne Books, 2006.
  • Maddox, Marion, God under Howard: The Rise of the Religious Right in Australian Politics, Allen & Unwin, 2005.
  • Davis, Derek H. & Hankins, Barry New Religious Movements and Religious Liberty in America, Baylor University Press, 2003.
  • Mccarraher, Eugene , Empire Falls', Commonweal. Volume: 133. Issue: 9. May 5, 2006
  • Steinfels, Peter, Be Not Afraid The American Prospect. Volume: 17. Issue: 9, September 2006
  • Quarles, Chester L., Christian Identity: The Aryan American Bloodline Religion, (2004) McFarland & Company, ISBN 0-786-41892-3
  • Diamond, Sara, Roads to Dominion: Right-wing Movements and Political Power in the United States, (1995) Guilford Press, ISBN 0-898-62864-4
  • Clarkson, Frederick, Christian Reconstructionism: Theocratic Dominionism Gains Influence, The Public Eye 8, Nos. 1—2 (March, June 1994).

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Theonomy The word theonomy derives from the Greek words “theos” God, and “nomos” law. ... See Dominion (disambiguation) for other meanings of the word Dominion. ... for Christians who belong to Zionist denominations in southern Africa, see Zionist Churches Christian Zionism is a belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, is in accordance with Biblical prophecy. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates the governance of Canada according to the inspired, inerrant written Word of God. [1] This socially and fiscally conservative party held its founding convention in Hamilton, Ontario in November 1987, where Ed Vanwoudenberg was elected its first... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and theological movement within Protestant Christianity. ... Christian supremacy refers to two different but related ideas During the era of Western imperialism, the belief that Christians had a right and duty to rule over non-Christian peoples The belief that Christianity (or one particular interpretation of it) must be the supreme rule of society. ... Jesus Camp is a 2006 documentary about a charismatic Christian summer camp for children who spend their summers learning and practicing their prophetic gifts and being taught that they can take back America for Christ. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Look up Evangelical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Christian Right is used by scholars and journalists, to refer to a spectrum of right-wing Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of conservative social and political values. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about political Islamism. ... Reconstructionist Postmillennialism or Theonomic Postmillennialism is a form of Christian millennial eschatology which applies Christian Reconstructionism to the advancement of the Kingdom of God through out the millennium spoken of in chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation. ... Revivalist Postmillenialism or Pietistic Postmillennialism is a distinct categoary of Postmillennialism that sees that the millennium or Golden age or era of Christian prosperity and dominance spoken of in chapter 20 of the Book of Revelation will come about not from Christians changing society from the top down (ie it... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Christianism may refer to: Christianity, or its theory and practice The term Christianist is referred to as early as 1992 in a book by Rémi Brague. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pakistan - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Pakistan (5713 words)
Fear of domination by the Hindu majority in India led in 1940 to a serious demand by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League, for a separate Muslim state.
This contributed to the delay in Britain granting independence for some years, but in 1947 British India was divided into two dominions, India and Pakistan.
The Islamic state of Pakistan was created, on Indian independence in 1947, out of the Northwest Frontier Region, the northwestern region of Punjab, Baluchistan, and Sind (making up West Pakistan), and the eastern region of East Bengal (making up East Pakistan).
David (WebBible Encyclopedia) - ChristianAnswers.Net (3122 words)
Israel at his accession had reached the lowest point of national depression; its new-born unity rudely dissolved; its territory assailed by the Philistines.
But he had left it an imperial power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria.
The sceptre of Solomon was already, before his father's death, owned from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, and from the Orontes to the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours etc., iii.
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