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Encyclopedia > Dominion of Newfoundland

The Dominion of Newfoundland existed as a country from 1907 (before which it had the status of a British colony) to 1949. In 1934, Newfoundland voluntarily gave up self-government and reverted to direct control from London — one of the few countries that has ever voluntarily given up direct self-rule. In 1949 it joined Canada to become Canada's tenth province. Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Newfoundland_and_Labrador. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador The flag of Newfoundland and Labrador was introduced in 1980, and was designed by Newfoundland artist Christopher Pratt. ... The Coat of Arms of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada was originally granted by King Charles I of England on January 1, 1637 to David Kirke, Governor of Newfoundland from 1638 to 1651. ... Many countries choose to include the national motto in the coat of arms. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Ode to Newfoundland is the official provincial anthem of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Nickname: The City of Legends Motto: Avancez (Go forward) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Newfoundland and Labrador Established August 5, 1583 by Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I Government  - City Mayor Andy Wells  - Governing body St. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... King of Newfoundland was the title given in Newfoundland to the head of state between the British Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act in 1927 and the end of Newfoundlands independence in 1934. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of the Commonwealth Realms, and the Emperor of India. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 - 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, as a result of his creating it from the British branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor) (14 December 1895 - 6 February 1952) became the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, each of the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, upon the unexpected abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. He reigned from 11 December 1936... This is a list of the premiers and Prime Ministers of Newfoundland and Labrador from the granting of responsible government in 1855 through dominion status, the colony joining Canadian confederation in 1949 and up to the modern day. ... Sir Robert Bond (February 25, 1857 – March 16, 1927) was the Premier of Newfoundland from 1900 to 1909. ... Sir Edward Patrick Morris (May 8, 1859-October 24, 1935) was a lawyer and Prime Minister of Newfoundland. ... Sir William Frederick Lloyd (1864-1937) was a newspaper editor and Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1918 to 1919. ... Sir Michael Patrick Cashin (1864-1926) was a businessman and politician. ... Sir Richard Anderson Squires (January 18, 1880-March 26, 1940) was the Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1919-1923 and from 1928-1932. ... William Robertson Warren (October 9, 1879-December 31, 1927) was a Newfoundland lawyer, politician and judge who served as the dominions Prime Minister from July 1923 to April 1924. ... Albert Edgar Hickman (August 2, 1875_February 9, 1943) was a politician and businessman who served as Prime Minister of Newfoundland for 33 days in 1924 as leader of a caretaker administration after the successive collapses of the Liberal Reform Party governments of Prime Ministers Sir Richard Squires and William Warren. ... Walter Sydney Monroe (May 14, 1871-October 6, 1952) was a businessman and conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1924 to 1928 as leader of the He was born in Ireland in 1871, the first son of John Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe. ... Frederick Charles Alderdice (November 10, 1872-February 26, 1936) was a businessman, politician and the last Prime Minister of Newfoundland. ... A legislature is a type of deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Colonial Building, the House of Assembly of the Dominion of Newfoundland Chamber of the House of Assembly in the Confederation Building. ... Europe between 1929 and 1938 The Interwar period (also interbellum) is understood within Western culture to be the period between the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, specifically 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Commission of Government was established in Newfoundland due to the collapse of democratic institutions during the Great Depression. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Newfoundland Act was an Act of Parliament that confirmed and gave effect to the Terms of Union agreed to between the Dominion of Canada and the British colony of Newfoundland on March 23, 1949. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... ISO 4217 Code NFD User(s) Newfoundland Subunit 1/100 1/50 cent pence Symbol $ or NF$ cent pence ¢ p Coins Freq. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Colonialbuilding. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Colonialbuilding. ... The riot at the Colonial Building in 1932 The Colonial Building was the seat of the Newfoundland government and the House of Assembly from January 28, 1850 to July 28, 1959 and in 1974 declared a Provincial Historic Site. ... The Great Seal of Newfoundland was given royal approval in 1827. ...

Origins of the Dominion

In 1854 the British government granted Newfoundland responsible government. In 1855, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a parliamentary majority over Sir Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... Philip Francis Little (1824 – October 22, 1897) was the Premier of Newfoundland between 1855 and 1858. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hugh Hoyles was the Premier of Newfoundland from 1861 through 1865. ... The Conservative Party of Newfoundland was a political party in Newfoundland and Labrador prior to confederation with Canada in 1949. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


It remained a colony until acquiring dominion status on September 26, 1907[1] along with New Zealand. It successfully negotiated a trade agreement with the United States but the British government blocked this after Canada raised objections. A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Dominion of Newfoundland experienced its golden age under Prime Minister Sir Robert Bond (in power from 1900 to 1909) of the Liberal Party. Sir Robert Bond (February 25, 1857 – March 16, 1927) was the Premier of Newfoundland from 1900 to 1909. ... Several earlier groupings functioned under the name Liberal Party of Newfoundland from the granting of responsible government to the island in the 1850s until its suspension in 1934 when the Commission of Government was instituted. ...


World War I and after

Newfoundland produced its own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment to fight in the First World War. On July 1, 1916, most of that regiment was wiped out at Beaumont Hamel on the first day on the Somme. The war debt sustained because of the regiment led to increased borrowing in the post-war era. Newfoundland Regiment, No. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Newfoundland Memorial at Beaumont Hamel Beaumont-Hamel is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... Combatants United Kingdom Canada Australia New Zealand South Africa Newfoundland India France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Henry Rawlinson Ferdinand Foch Fritz von Below Strength 13 British divisions 6 French divisions 6 divisions Casualties British: 57,470 French: 7,000 10,000 - 12,000 The first day on the Somme...


In the 1920s, political scandals wracked the dominion. In 1923, Prime Minister Sir Richard Squires was arrested on charges of corruption. He was released soon after on bail, but the British-led Hollis Walker commission reviewed the scandal. Soon after, the Squires government fell. Squires returned to power in 1928 due to the unpopularity of his successors, the pro-business Walter Stanley Monroe and (briefly) Frederick C. Alderdice (Monroe's cousin), but found himself governing a country suffering from the Great Depression. {{year nav|1939 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir Richard Anderson Squires (January 18, 1880-March 26, 1940) was the Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1919-1923 and from 1928-1932. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Walter Sydney Monroe (May 14, 1871-October 6, 1952) was a businessman and conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1924 to 1928 as leader of the He was born in Ireland in 1871, the first son of John Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe. ... Frederick Charles Alderdice (November 10, 1872-February 26, 1936) was a businessman, politician and the last Prime Minister of Newfoundland. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the Stock Market Crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ...


The Imperial Privy Council resolved Newfoundland's long-standing Labrador boundary dispute with Canada to the satisfaction of Newfoundland and Canada (but not Quebec, the province that bordered Labrador) with a ruling on April 1, 1927. Prior to 1867, the Quebec North Shore portion of the "Labrador coast" had been shuttled back and forth between the colonies of Lower Canada and Newfoundland. Maps up to 1927 showed the coastal region as part of Newfoundland, with an undefined boundary. The Privy Council ruling established a boundary along the drainage divide separating waters that flowed through the territory to the Labrador coast, although following two straight lines from the Romaine River along the 52nd Parallel, then south near 57 degrees west longitude to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Quebec has long rejected the settlement on the grounds it was not a party to the agreement, and provincially-issued maps do not mark the boundary the same way as boundaries with Ontario and New Brunswick. Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... | April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar). ... Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Official languages English, French (the only constitutionally bilingual province in the country) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson - Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 10 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st...

Newfoundland House of Assembly, ca. 1914
Newfoundland House of Assembly, ca. 1914

Image File history File links NFLDHouseofAssembly1914. ... Image File history File links NFLDHouseofAssembly1914. ...

The end of responsible government

On April 5, 1932, a mob of 10,000 people marched on the Colonial Building (seat of the House of Assembly) and forced Squires to flee. Squires lost the election held later in 1932. The next government, led once more by Alderdice, called upon the British government to take direct control until Newfoundland could be self-sustaining. The United Kingdom, concerned over Newfoundland's likelihood of defaulting on its war-debt payments, established the Newfoundland Royal Commission, headed by a Scottish peer, Baron Amulree. Its report, released in 1933, assessed Newfoundland's political culture as intrinsically corrupt and its economic prospects as bleak, and advocated the abolition of responsible government on the island, and its replacement by a Commission of the British Government. Acting on the report's recommendations, Alderdice's government voted itself out of existence in December 1933. April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... The riot at the Colonial Building in 1932 The Colonial Building was the seat of the Newfoundland government and the House of Assembly from January 28, 1850 to July 28, 1959 and in 1974 declared a Provincial Historic Site. ... Colonial Building, the House of Assembly of the Dominion of Newfoundland Chamber of the House of Assembly in the Confederation Building. ... The Newfoundland Royal Commission or Amulree Commission (as it came to be known) was a royal commission established on February 17, 1933 by the Government of the United Kingdom to to examine into the future of Newfoundland and in particular to report on the financial situation and prospects therein. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


In 1934, the Dominion suspended its self-governing status as the Commission of Government took its place. A severe depression persisted until World War II broke out in 1939. 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Commission of Government was established in Newfoundland due to the collapse of democratic institutions during the Great Depression. ...


World War II

Given Newfoundland's strategic location in the Battle of the Atlantic, the Allies (especially the United States) built many military bases there. Large numbers of unskilled men gained the first pay-cheques they had seen in years by working on construction and dockside crews. National income doubled overnight as an economic boom took place in the Avalon Peninsula and to a lesser degree in Gander, Botwood, and Stephenville. The United States became the main supplier, and American money and influence diffused rapidly from the military, naval, and air bases. Prosperity returned to the fishing industry by 1943. Government revenues, aided by inflation and new income, quadrupled, even though Newfoundland had tax-rates much lower than those in Canada, Britain, or the United States. To the astonishment of all, Newfoundland started financing loans to London. Wartime prosperity ended the long depression and reopened the question of political status. Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina (until 1943) Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W. Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors... The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula (9,270 km²) that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland. ...


The National Convention and the referenda

Following World War II, in 1946, an election was held for the Newfoundland National Convention to decide the future of Newfoundland. The Convention voted to hold a referendum to decide between continuing the Commission of Government or restoring responsible government. Joseph R. Smallwood, the leader of the confederates, moved the inclusion of a third option — that of confederation with Canada. The Convention defeated his motion, but he did not give up, instead gathering more than 5000 petitions from the people within a fortnight, which he sent to London through the Governor. The United Kingdom, insisting that it would not give Newfoundland any further financial assistance, added a third option of having Newfoundland join Canada to the ballot. After much debate, an initial referendum took place on June 3, 1948 to decide between continuing with the Commission of Government, reverting to dominion status, or joining the Canadian Confederation. Three parties participated in the referendum campaign: Smallwood's Confederate Association campaigned for the Confederation option while in the anti-Confederation campaign Peter Cashin's Responsible Government League and Chesley Crosbie's Economic Union Party (both of which called for a vote for responsible government) took part. No party advocated continuing the Commission of Government. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Newfoundland Referendums of 1948 were a series of two referendums to decide the future of the British Colony of Newfoundland. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... Joey Smallwood (center) Joseph Roberts Joey Smallwood (December 24, 1900 - December 18, 1991) was the last Father of Confederation in Canada, bringing Newfoundland into Confederation in 1949. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... The Confederate Association was a political party formed and led by Joey Smallwood and Gordon Bradley to advocate that the Dominion of Newfoundland join Canadian Confederation. ... Major Peter John Cashin (March 8, 1890 - May 21, 1977) was a Newfoundland politician, businessman and soldier. ... The Responsible Government League was a political movement in the history of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Chesley A. (Ches) Crosbie (1905-1962) was a Newfoundland businessman and politician. ... The Economic Union Party (formally the Party for Economic Union with the United States) was a political party formed in the Dominion of Newfoundland on March 20, 1948 at the beginning of the first referendum campaign on the future of the country. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ...

The Newfoundland dollar bill issued in 1920
The Newfoundland dollar bill issued in 1920

The result proved inconclusive, with 44.6% supporting the restoration of Dominion status, 41.1% for confederation with Canada, and 14.3% for continuing the Commission of Government. Between the first and second referendums, rumours had it that Catholic bishops were using their religious influence to alter the outcome of the votes. The Orange Order, incensed, called on all its members to vote for confederation, as the Catholics voted for responsible government. The Protestants of Newfoundland outnumbered the Catholics by a ratio of 2:1. Some commentators believe that this sectarian divide greatly influenced the outcome of the second referendum. A second referendum on July 22, 1948, which asked Newfoundlanders to choose between confederation and Dominion status, produced a vote of 52% to 48% for confederation with Canada. Newfoundland joined Canada on March 31, 1949. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (803x374, 344 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George V of the United Kingdom Dominion of Newfoundland Newfoundland dollar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (803x374, 344 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): George V of the United Kingdom Dominion of Newfoundland Newfoundland dollar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... ISO 4217 Code NFD User(s) Newfoundland Subunit 1/100 1/50 cent pence Symbol $ or NF$ cent pence ¢ p Coins Freq. ... Orangemen in traditional dress preparing to march The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in the United States. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


Not everyone accepted the results, however. Peter Cashin, an outspoken anti-Confederate, questioned the validity of the votes. He claimed that an "unholy union between London and Ottawa" brought about confederation.[citation needed] Major Peter John Cashin (March 8, 1890 - May 21, 1977) was a Newfoundland politician, businessman and soldier. ...


References

  • C. R. Fay; Life and Labour in Newfoundland University of Toronto Press, 1956
  • R. A. MacKay; Newfoundland; Economic, Diplomatic, and Strategic Studies Oxford University Press, 1946

See also

  • Newfoundland Act -- an Act of Parliament that confirmed and gave effect to the Terms of Union agreed to between the Dominion of Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland on March 23, 1949.
  • List of Prime Ministers of the Dominion of Newfoundland
  • Charles Jost Burchell, Canada's High Commissioner to Newfoundland, involved in negotiating union with Canada.

The Newfoundland Act was an Act of Parliament that confirmed and gave effect to the Terms of Union agreed to between the Dominion of Canada and the British colony of Newfoundland on March 23, 1949. ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... This is a list of the premiers and Prime Ministers of Newfoundland and Labrador from the granting of responsible government in 1855 through dominion status, the colony joining Canadian confederation in 1949 and up to the modern day. ... Charles Jost Burchell, P.C., was a Canadian diplomat. ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ...

External links

  • The Dominion of Newfoundland: From Oldest Colony to Newest Province by Richard Doody.

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