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Encyclopedia > Dominion (colony)

A Dominion is a wholly self-governing or virtually self-governing state of the British Empire or British Commonwealth, particularly one which reached that stage of constitutional development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries such as Canada and New Zealand. Prior to attaining Dominion status these states had always been Crown colonies, under direct rule from Britain and/or a self-governing colony, or they have been formed from groups of such colonies. (Note however, that the phrase Her Majesty's dominions (small d) is a legal and constitutional term used to refer to all the realms and territories of the Sovereign, whether independent or not.) A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps The British Empire was the worlds first global power and the largest empire in human history, a product of the European Age of Discovery that began with the global maritime empires of... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ...


In the early 20th century, the main differences between a Dominion and a self-governing colony were that a Dominion had attained the status of "nationhood", if not unambiguous political independence, from the United Kingdom. By comparison, a self-governing colony controlled its internal affairs, but did not control foreign affairs, defence or international trade. Initially, Dominions conducted their own trade policy, some limited foreign relations and had autonomous armed forces, although the British government claimed and exercised the exclusive power to declare wars. However the independence of the Dominions in foreign policy, including war, was made clear by the passing and ratification of the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Foreign Affairs is the foremost American journal of international relations. ... The words defense or defence can refer to any of the following: For defense of a doctoral dissertation see thesis committee For the military term see defense (military) Civil defense measures and emergency preparedness In politics, defense may be a euphemism for war For legal defense see defense (legal) For... International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... The Statute of Westminster 1931 was the enactment of the United Kingdom Parliament (December 11, 1931) which established a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominions of the British Empire and the United Kingdom. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The term "Dominion" is now mostly used only in a historical sense. Many of the distinctive characteristics which once pertained only to Dominions are now shared by other states in the Commonwealth, whether they are republics, self-governing colonies or Crown colonies. Even in a historical sense the differences between self-governing colonies and Dominions have often been formal rather than substantial. Nonetheless Dominion remains a correct term for an independent country where the British monarch is represented by a Governor-General as head of state. In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ...

Contents


Historical development

The short-lived Dominion of New England (168689) was not a Dominion in the later, generally-accepted sense of the word. It had an unpopular and autocratic president, appointed by London, Sir Edmund Andros. The Dominion of New England did not have the independence from Britain that the later Dominions were given. The Dominion of New England was the name of a short-lived administrative union The use of the word dominion in the title is unrelated to its use in the later Dominion of Canada. ... Events The League of Augsburg is founded. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714), was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. ...


All the colonies of British North America became self-governing between 1848 and 1855, except the colony of Vancouver Island. Nova Scotia was the first colony to achieve responsible government in January-February 1848 through the efforts of Joseph Howe, followed by the Province of Canada later that year. They were followed by Prince Edward Island in 1851, New Zealand in 1852, New Brunswick and the Cape Colony in 1854, and Newfoundland in 1855 under Philip Francis Little. However, none of these colonies was referred to as a dominion. By 1763, British North America included 19 British colonies and territories on the continent of North America. ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... | TotalArea = 55,283 | LandArea = 53,338 | WaterArea = 1,946 | PercentWater = 3. ... Responsible government is a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1873) was born the son of John Howe and Mary Edes at Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces of Canada. ... Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant-Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th) • Land 5,660 km² • Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004) â... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72 908 km² (8th) • Land 71 450 km² • Water 1 458 km² (2. ... Map of European presence in 1652 The Cape Colony was a part of South Africa under British occupation during the 19th century. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital St. ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Philip Francis Little (1824 – October 22, 1897) was the Premier of Newfoundland between 1855 and 1858. ...


The modern usage of the term Dominion first occurs in connection with the creation of the Dominion of Canada, a term preferred by the Colonial Office instead of the term "kingdom" favoured by some Fathers of Confederation. Canada was called a "Dominion" upon the confederation of the Province of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in 1867. Some Canadians wanted to call their nation the Kingdom of Canada. However, Americans, especially the yellow press in New York, railed against the idea of a monarchy in North America. Since the United States had recently demonstrated its military prowess in the American Civil War and still harboured resentment at what it perceived to be British favouritism towards the Southern cause, the British took these complaints very seriously. To calm the Americans, the British government successfully resorted to a diplomatic ruse. It explained to Americans that their fears had no foundation because Canada was to become a dominion rather than a kingdom. It then told the Canadians that Dominion meant the same as kingdom (see: Dominion: Canada, Canada's name). Canada is the second largest and the northern-most country in the world, occupying most of the North American land mass. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Note: for information about Canadas present-day provinces, see Provinces of Canada. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72 908 km² (8th) • Land 71 450 km² • Water 1 458 km² (2. ... | TotalArea = 55,283 | LandArea = 53,338 | WaterArea = 1,946 | PercentWater = 3. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... Yellow journalism is a term given to any widespread tendencies or practices within media organizations that are detrimental to, or substandard from the point of view of, journalistic integrity. ... State nickname: The Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Rodham Clinton (D) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² or 54,556 square miles (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water... A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... The American Civil War (1861–1865) was fought in North America within the United States of America, between twenty-three mostly northern states of the Union and the Confederate States of America, a coalition of eleven southern states that declared their independence and claimed the right of secession from the... A Dominion is a wholly self-governing or virtually self-governing state of the British Empire or British Commonwealth, particularly one which reached that stage of constitutional development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries such as Canada and New Zealand. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Canada was the first and archetypical Dominion of the Empire; all additional colonies that achieved this status were also eventually called dominions.


Although the term dominion has rarely been used in Australia, it achieved Dominion status with the federation of its six self-governing colonies as the Commonwealth of Australia, in 1901. New Zealand, which chose not to take part in Australian Federation, first became a Dominion on September 26, 1907; the newly-created Union of South Africa in 1910; and the Irish Free State (later the Republic of Ireland) in 1922, after the bitter Anglo-Irish War. All retained the British monarch as head of state, represented locally by a governor-general appointed in consultation with the Dominion government. The Irish Free State, led by W.T. Cosgrave was the first Dominion to appoint a non-British, non-aristocratic Governor-General, when Timothy Michael Healy took the position in 1922. Dominion status was never popular in Ireland, where people saw it as a face-saving measure for a British government unable to countenance a republic in what had previously been the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This compromise was a direct cause of the Irish Civil War. Successive Irish governments undermined the constitutional links with Britain, until they were severed completely in 1949. In 1930, the Australian PM, James Scullin, reinforced the right of the overseas Dominions to appoint native-born Governors-General, when he appointed Sir Isaac Isaacs, against the wishes of the opposition and officials in London. A federation (from the Latin fœdus, covenant) is a state comprised of a number of self-governing regions (often themselves referred to as states) united by a central (federal) government. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament... The President of the Philippines meets with the President of the United States. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... William Thomas Cosgrave, (June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ... Timothy Michael Healy Timothy Michael Healy, KC (May 17, 1855–March 26, 1931) was one of the most brilliant and most controversial of Irish politicians, with a career that spanned the period from Charles Stewart Parnells leadership of the Irish Parliamentary Party in the 1880s to the foundation of... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state whose political organization rests on the principle that the citizens or electorate constitute the ultimate root of legitimacy and sovereignty. ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... The Irish Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Rt Hon James Scullin James Henry Scullin (September 18, 1876 - January 28, 1953), Australian politician and ninth Prime Minister of Australia, was born in the small town of Trawalla, in western Victoria, the son of a railway worker of Irish descent. ... Sir Isaac Isaacs Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs, KBE, PC (6 August 1855 - 12 February 1948) Australian judge and politician, was the ninth Governor-General of Australia, the first Jew, and the first Australian to occupy that post. ...


Newfoundland became a self-governing dominion on September 26, 1907 (same day as New Zealand) by royal proclamation. Until 1931, it was referred to as a colony of the United Kingdom, as for example, in the 1927 reference to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council to delineate the Quebec-Labrador boundary. Full autonomy was granted by the United Kingdom Parliament with the Statute of Westminster in December 1931. However, the government of Newfoundland "requested the United Kingdom not to have sections 2 to 6 [ — ] confirming Dominion status [ — ] apply automatically to it[,] until the Newfoundland Legislature first approved the Statute, approval which the Legislature subsequently never gave." In any event, Newfoundland's letters patent of 1934 suspended self-government and instituted a "Commission of Government", which continued until Newfoundland became a province of Canada in 1949. It is the view of some constitutional lawyers that — although Newfoundland chose not to exercise all of the functions of a dominion like Canada — its status as a dominion was "suspended" in 1934, rather than "revoked" or "abolished". Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital St. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 96 days remaining. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Statute of Westminster 1931 was the enactment of the United Kingdom Parliament (December 11, 1931) which established a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominions of the British Empire and the United Kingdom. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal document which is an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as a corporation. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Commission of Government was established in Newfoundland due to the collapse of democratic institutions during the Great Depression. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ...


Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland and South Africa (prior to becoming a republic and leaving the Commonwealth in 1961), with their large populations of European descent, were sometimes collectively referred to as the "White Dominions". Today Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom are sometimes referred to collectively as the White Commonwealth. 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom as part of the British Empire, and are its former colonies. ...


Later members of the Commonwealth gained independence, not under the Statute of Westminster but by their own respective independence acts. When British decolonization in Africa began it was hoped the dominion model would again be followed. Ghana, the first new nation was created as a Dominion in 1957, but declared itself a republic three years later. The other British possessions in Africa also agitated for republic status, and upon independence they seldom remained Dominions. Nigeria became a Dominion in 1960 and a republic in 1963, Tanganyika a Dominion in 1961 and a republic in 1962, Uganda a Dominion in 1962 and republic in 1963, Kenya a Dominion in 1963 and a republic in 1964, Malawi a Dominion in 1964 and republic in 1966. Only Gambia (five years), Sierra Leone (ten years), and Mauritius (24 years) stayed Dominions longer than three years. 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Flag of Tanganyika Tanganyika was an East African republic within the British Commonwealth, named after Lake Tanganyika, which formed its western border. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ...


The United Kingdom and its component parts never aspired to the title of Dominion, remaining anomalies within the network of free and independent equal members of the Empire and Commonwealth. However the idea has on occasions been floated by some in Northern Ireland as an alternative to a United Ireland if they felt uncomfortable within the United Kingdom. Royal motto: Quis separabit (Latin: Who will separate?) Northern Irelands location within the UK Official languages English, Irish, Ulster Scots Capital and largest city Belfast First Minister Office suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 4th 1,685,267 122/km² NUTS 1... A United Ireland is the common demand of Irish nationalists, envisaging that the island of Ireland (currently divided into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland) be reunited as a single political entity. ...


Foreign relations

Initially the Foreign Office of the United Kingdom conducted the foreign relations of the Dominions. A Dominions section was created within the Colonial Office for this purpose in 1907. Canada set up its own Department of External Affairs in June 1909, but diplomatic relations with other governments continued to operate through the governors-general, through Dominion high commissioners in London (first appointed by Canada in 1880; Australia followed only in 1910) and through British legations abroad. Britain deemed her declaration of war against Germany in August 1914 to extend without the need for consultation to all territories of the Empire, occasioning some displeasure in Canadian official circles and contributing to a brief anti-British insurrection by Afrikaner militants in South Africa later that year. A Canadian War Mission in Washington, D.C., dealt with supply matters from February 1918 to March 1921. 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1914 (MCMXIV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Although the Dominions had had no formal voice in declaring war, each became a separate signatory of the June 1919 peace Treaty of Versailles, which had been negotiated by a British-led united Empire delegation. In September 1922 Dominion reluctance to support British military action against Turkey influenced Britain's decision to seek a compromise settlement. Diplomatic autonomy soon followed, with the U.S.-Canadian Halibut Fisheries Agreement (March 1923) marking the first international treaty negotiated and concluded entirely independently by a Dominion. The Dominions section of the Colonial Office was upgraded in June 1926 to a separate Dominions Office. However, initially the same person was appointed as the Secretary of State for the Colonies. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The treaty was an International affair The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allies and Germany. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ...


The principle of Dominion equality with Britain and independence in foreign relations was formally recognized by the Balfour Declaration adopted at the Imperial Conference of November 1926. Canada's first permanent diplomatic mission to a foreign country opened in Washington, DC in 1927. In 1928 Canada obtained the appointment of a British high commissioner in Ottawa, separating the administrative and diplomatic functions of the governor-general and ending the latter's anomalous role as the representative of the British government in relations between the two countries. The Dominions Office was given a separate secretary of state in June 1930, though this was entirely for domestic political reasons given the need to relieve the burden on one ill minister whilst moving another away from unemployment policy. The Balfour Declaration was enshrined in the Statute of Westminster 1931 when it was adopted by the British Parliament and subsequently ratified by the Dominion legislatures. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a statement of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A High Commissioner is a person serving in a special executive capacity. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Statute of Westminster 1931 was the enactment of the United Kingdom Parliament (December 11, 1931) which established a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominions of the British Empire and the United Kingdom. ...


Britain's declaration of hostilities against Germany in September 1939 tested the issue. Most took the view that the declaration did not commit the Dominions. Ireland chose to remain neutral. At the other extreme, the conservative Australian government of the day, led by Robert Menzies, took the view that it was legally bound by the UK declaration of war — which had also been the view at the outbreak of World War I — although this was contentious within Australia. Between these two extremes, New Zealand declared that as Britain was or would be at war, so it was too. Canada issued its own declaration of war after a recall of Parliament, as did South Africa after a delay of several weeks. Ireland, which had negotiated the removal of British forces from its territory the year before, chose to remain neutral throughout the war. There were soon signs of growing independence from the other Dominions: Australia opened a diplomatic mission in the US in 1940 and Canada's mission in Washington gained Embassy status in 1943). 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (20 December 1894 – 14 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia serving eighteen and a half years. ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ...


From Dominions to Commonwealth realms

World War II, which fatally undermined Britain's already weakened commercial and financial leadership and heightened the importance of the United States as a source of military assistance, further loosened the political ties between Britain and the Dominions. Australian Prime Minister John Curtin's unprecedented action (February 1942) in successfully demanding the recall for home service of Australian troops earmarked for the defence of British-held Burma demonstrated that Dominion governments might no longer subordinate their own national interests to British strategic perspectives. To ensure that Australia had full legal power to act independently, particularly in relation to defence, Australia formally adopted the Statute of Westminster in October 1942 and backdated the adoption to the start of the war in September 1939. World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ... John Curtin (January 8, 1885 – July 5, 1945), Australian politician and 14th Prime Minister of Australia, led Australia through the darkest period of its history: when the Australian mainland came under direct military threat during the Japanese advance in World War II. Many Australians regard him as the countrys... This article is about the year. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Dominions Office merged with the India Office as the Commonwealth Relations Office upon the independence of India and Pakistan in August 1947, and the term Dominion fell out of general use as India's adoption of republican status in January, 1950 signalled the end of the former dependencies' common constitutional connection to the British crown (although Ireland had already dropped its oath of allegiance in 1932): henceforth continuing willing members of what was subsequently styled the Commonwealth agreed to accept the British monarch as head of that association of independent states. Ireland had formally ceased to be a member seven months on the declaration that it was to be described officially as the Republic of Ireland. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ...


Recently, when referring to a nation that has the British Monarch as its head of state the term Commonwealth realm has come into common usage instead of Dominion to differentiate the Commonwealth nations that continue to recognize the Crown (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Jamaica, etc.) from those which do not (India, Pakistan, South Africa, etc.). The term Dominion is still to be found in the Canadian constitution where the term is mentioned four times, most notably the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick shall form and be One Dominion under the Name of Canada. However, the Canadian government does not use it. The term "realm" does not appear in the Canadian constitution. Present-day usage prefers the term realm because it includes the United Kingdom as well, emphasising that they are equal to and not subordinate to the United Kingdom. The President of the Philippines meets with the President of the United States. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ...


For example, in a move that emphasised the independence of the separate realms, after the accession of Queen Elizabeth II in 1952, she was proclaimed not just as Queen of the U.K., but also Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, Queen of New Zealand, and of all her other "realms and territories" etc. Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor), born 21 April 1926, is the Queen regnant of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and... 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a Commonwealth Realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its reigning monarch and head of state. ... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ... New Zealands Head of State is currently Queen Elizabeth II, and is given the title Queen of New Zealand. ...


The Queen now functions as the independent monarch of sixteen different countries, and any changes to the laws governing the succession to the Crown must be approved by all of these nations' parliaments.


Canada

See also: Canada's name

Dominion is the legal title conferred on Canada in the Constitution of Canada, namely the Constitution Act, 1867 (British North America Acts), and describes the resulting political union. Specifically, the preamble of the BNA Act indicates: This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... The Constitution Act, 1867, formerly known as the British North America Act, 1867, comprises a major part of the Constitution of Canada. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ...

Whereas the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick have expressed their Desire to be federally united into One Dominion under the Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with a Constitution similar in Principle to that of the United Kingdom...

and, furthermore, sections 3 and 4 indicate that the provinces:

... shall form and be One Dominion under the Name of Canada; and on and after that Day those Three Provinces shall form and be One Dominion under that Name accordingly.
Unless it is otherwise expressed or implied, the Name Canada shall be taken to mean Canada as constituted under this Act.

Usage of the term Dominion of Canada was sanctioned as the country's formal political name, and some still read the BNA Act passage as specifying this phrase – rather than Canada alone – as the name.


References to the Dominion of Canada in later acts, such as the Statute of Westminster, do not clarify the point because all nouns were formerly capitalized in British legislative style. Indeed, in the original text of the BNA Act, "One" and "Name" were also capitalized. ... A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality. ... For any word written in a language with whose alphabet or alphabet equivalent has two cases, such as those using the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, or Armenian alphabet, capitalization is the writing of that word with its first letter in majuscules (uppercase) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lowercase). ...


Starting in the 1950s, the federal government began to phase out the use of dominion, which had been used largely as a synonym of "federal" or "national" such as "Dominion building" for a post office, "Dominion-provincial relations", and so on. The last major change was renaming the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day in 1982, itself brought about by the earlier Canada Act 1982 (which mentions Canada and is ambivalent regarding the title). Official bilingualism also contributed to disuse of dominion, as it has no acceptable equivalent in French. // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the the baby boom from returning GIs who... Dominion Day is a commemoration day of the granting of national status in various Commonwealth countries. ... Canada Day in Ottawa. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Elizabeth II signs the Canada Act into law in Ottawa on April 17, 1982 Wikisource has original text related to this article: Canada Act 1982 The Canada Act 1982 is an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament that severed virtually all remaining constitutional and legislative ties between... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


While the term may be found in older official documents, and the Dominion Carilloneur still tolls at Parliament Hill, it is rarely used anymore to distinguish the federal government from the provinces or (historically) Canada before and after 1867. Centre Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada Parliament Hill, officially known in French as Colline du Parlement, is a scenic location on the banks of the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa, Canada. ...


Defenders of the title dominion – including monarchists who see signs of creeping republicanism in Canada – take comfort in the fact that the Constitution Act, 1982 does not remove the title (by not mentioning it), and contend that a constitutional amendment is required to change it. The Queens Personal Canadian Flag. ... William Lyon Mackenzie advocated the creation of a Canadian republic during the 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion and, after the defeat of his uprising in Toronto, established a provisional government for the Republic of Canada on Navy Island. ... // Overview The Constitution Act, 1982 is Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982. ...


See also

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony. ...

Sources

  • Choudry, Sujit. 2001(?). "Constitution Acts" (based on looseleaf by Hogg, Peter W.). Constitutional Keywords. University of Alberta, Centre for Constitutional Studies: Edmonton.
  • Holland, R.F., Britain and the Commonwealth Alliance 1918-1939, MacMillan, 1981
  • Forsey, Eugene A. 2005. How Canadians Govern Themselves, 6th ed. (ISBN 0-662-39689-8) Canada: Ottawa.
  • Hallowell, Gerald, ed. 2004. The Oxford Companion to Canadian History. (ISBN 0-19-541559-0) Oxford University Press: Toronto; p. 183-4.
  • Marsh, James H., ed. 1988. "Dominion" et al. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Hurtig Publishers: Toronto.
  • Martin, Robert. 1993(?). 1993 Eugene Forsey Memorial Lecture: A Lament for British North America. The Machray Review. Prayer Book Society of Canada. — A summative piece about nomenclature and pertinent history with abundant references.
  • Rayburn, Alan. 2001. Naming Canada: stories about Canadian place names, 2nd ed. (ISBN 0-8020-8293-9) University of Toronto Press: Toronto.


Peter Wardell Hogg, C.C., Q.C., Ph. ... The Honourable Senator Eugene Alfred Forsey, P.C., C.C., B.A., M.A., Ph. ... The Canadian Encyclopedia is the most authoritative resource on Canada. ...

Subnational entity
Banner | Borough | Canton | Circuit | City | Commune | Community | County | Council | Croft | Department | District | Division | Dominion | Duchy | Governorate | Hamlet | Municipality | Neighbourhood | Parish | Prefecture | Province | Region | Republic | State | Subdistrict | Territory | Town | Township | Village | Voivodship | Ward
Autonomous: banner | city | community | county | prefecture | province | region | republic | ward
Civil: parish | township
Federal: capital | district | capital district | capital territory
Local: council
Metropolitan: borough | county
National: capital district | capital territory
Rural: council | district | municipality
Residential: community
Urban: district
edit See also: List of terms for subnational entities, List of subnational entities, Matrix of subnational entities

 
 

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