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Encyclopedia > Domestication
Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated.

Domestication refers to the process whereby a population of animals or plants becomes accustomed to human provision and control. Humans have brought these populations under their care for a wide range of reasons: to produce food or valuable commodities (such as wool, cotton, or silk), for help with various types of work (such as transportation or protection), and to enjoy as pets or ornamental plants. Shepherd and dog, India. ... Shepherd and dog, India. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Plants domesticated primarily for aesthetic enjoyment in and around the home are usually called house plants or ornamentals, while those domesticated for large-scale food production are generally called crops. Likewise, animals domesticated for home companionship are usually called pets while those domesticated for food or work are called livestock or farm animals. Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...

Contents

Process

There is debate within the scientific community over how the process of domestication works. Some researchers give credit to natural selection, where mutations outside of human control make some members of a species more compatible to human cultivation or companionship. Others have shown that carefully controlled selective breeding is responsible for many of the collective changes associated with domestication. These categories are not mutually exclusive and it is likely that natural selection and selective breeding have both played some role in the processes of domestication throughout history. For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ...


The domestication of wheat provides an example of how natural selection and mutation can play a key role in the process. Wild wheat falls to the ground to reseed itself when it is ripe, but domesticated wheat stays on the stem when it is ripe. There is evidence that this critical change came about as a result of a random mutation near the beginning of wheat's cultivation. Wheat with this mutation was the only wheat harvested and became the seed for the next crop. This wheat was much more useful to farmers and became the basis for the various strains of domesticated wheat that have since been developed. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ...


The example of wheat has led some to speculate that mutations may have been the basis for other early instances of domestication. It is speculated that a mutation made some wolves less wary of humans. This allowed these wolves to start following humans to scavenge for food in their garbage dumps. Presumably something like a symbiotic relationship developed between humans and this population of wolves. The wolves benefited from human food scraps, and humans may have found that the wolves could warn them of approaching enemies, help with hunting, carry loads, provide warmth, or supplement their food supply. As this relationship evolved, humans eventually began to raise the wolves and breed the types of dogs that we have today. Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ...

Early domestication: cow being milked in ancient Egypt.
Early domestication: cow being milked in ancient Egypt.

Nonetheless, some researchers maintain that selective breeding rather than mutation or natural selection best explains how the process of domestication typically worked. Some of the most well-known evidence in support of selective breeding comes from an experiment by Russian scientist, Dmitri Belyaev, in the 1950s. His team spent many years breeding the Silver Fox (Vulpes vulpes) and selecting only those individuals that showed the least fear of humans. Eventually, Belyaev's team selected only those that showed the most positive response to humans. He ended up with a population of grey-coloured foxes whose behavior and appearance was significantly changed. They no longer showed any fear of humans and often wagged their tails and licked their human caretakers to show affection. More importantly, these foxes had floppy ears, smaller skulls, rolled tails and other traits commonly found in dogs. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (3200 × 1800 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (3200 × 1800 pixel, file size: 2. ... Dmitri Belyaev (1917-1985) - a Russian scientist, academician. ... Tame Silver Foxes are the results of an experiment to domesticate the silver fox, started many years ago in Russia. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ...


Despite the success of this experiment, some scientists believe that selective breeding cannot always achieve domestication. They point out that known attempts to domesticate several kinds of wild animals in this way have failed repeatedly. The zebra is one example. It is possible that the historical process of domestication cannot be fully explained by any one principle acting alone. Some combination of natural selection and selective breeding may have played a role in the domestication of the various species that humans have come into close contact with throughout history. For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ...


Animals

According to evolutionary biologist Jared Diamond, animal species must meet six criteria in order to be considered for domestication: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

  1. Flexible diet — Creatures that are willing to consume a wide variety of food sources and can live off less cumulative food from the food pyramid (such as corn or wheat) are less expensive to keep in captivity. Most carnivores can only be fed meat, which requires the expenditure of many herbivores.
  2. Reasonably fast growth rate — Fast maturity rate compared to the human life span allows breeding intervention and makes the animal useful within an acceptable duration of caretaking. Large animals such as elephants require many years before they reach a useful size.
  3. Ability to be bred in captivity — Creatures that are reluctant to breed when kept in captivity do not produce useful offspring, and instead are limited to capture in their wild state. Creatures such as the panda and cheetah are difficult to breed in captivity.
  4. Pleasant disposition — Large creatures that are aggressive toward humans are dangerous to keep in captivity. The African buffalo has an unpredictable nature and is highly dangerous to humans. Although similar to domesticated pigs in many ways, American peccaries and Africa's warthogs and bushpigs are also dangerous in captivity.
  5. Temperament which makes it unlikely to panic — A creature with a nervous disposition is difficult to keep in captivity as they will attempt to flee whenever they are startled. The gazelle is very flighty and it has a powerful leap that allows it to escape an enclosed pen.
  6. Modifiable social hierarchy — Social creatures that recognize a hierarchy of dominance can be raised to recognize a human as its pack leader. Bighorn sheep cannot be herded because they lack a dominance hierarchy, whilst antelopes and giant forest hogs are territorial when breeding and cannot be maintained in crowded enclosures in captivity.

A herding instinct arguably aids in domesticating animals: tame one and others will follow, regardless of chiefdom. In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... An ecological pyramid. ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... The term captivity is used to refer to the following meanings: the state of being confined to a space from which it is hard or impossible to escape; see imprisonment. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... This article is about the food. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... See economic growth Growth rate (group theory) Population growth rate This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Panda may refer to: // Giant Panda Panda (plant), a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae PANDAS or P.A.N.D.A.S. is Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptoccal infections Qinling Panda, a subspecies of the Giant Panda. ... This article is about the animal. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Binomial name Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779) Subspecies The African Buffalo or Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a bovid from the family of the Bovidae. ... Species Tayassu Tayassu tajacu Tayassu pecari Catagonus Catagonus wagneri The peccaries (also known by its Spanish name, javelina or pecarí) are medium-sized mammals of the family Tayassuidae. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1766) This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Potamochoerus larvatus (Cuvier, 1822) The Bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus) is a very hairy member of the pig family that lives in forest thickets, riverine vegetation and reedbeds close to water in Africa. ... For temperament in dog fancy, see conformation point. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Social hierarchy, a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power. ... The word leadership can refer to: The process of leading. ... Binomial name Shaw, 1804 Synonyms Desmarest Cuvier[1] Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)[2] is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep, and the Siberian Snow sheep Ovis nivicola. ... GO SOX ALL THE WAY THIS YEAR WOOOTT =]Taurotragus Tragelaphus and others }} Antelope are herbivorous mammals of the family Bovidae, often noted for their horns. ... Binomial name Hylochoerus meinertzhageni Thomas, 1904 The Giant Forest Hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni) is the largest wild member of the pig family Suidae. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ...


Plants

See agriculture for additional information on early crop use.

The earliest human attempts at plant domestication occurred in Asia. There is early evidence for conscious cultivation and trait selection of plants by pre-Neolithic groups in Syria: grains of rye with domestic traits have been recovered from Epi-Palaeolithic (ca. 11,000 BC) contexts at Abu Hureyra in Syria, but this appears to be a localised phenomenon resulting from cultivation of stands of wild rye, rather than a definitive step towards domestication. Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ... Tell Abu Hureyra (tell is arabic for mound) was a site of an ancient settlement in the northern Levant or western Mesopotamia. ...


By 10,000 BC the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plant, used as a container before the advent of ceramic technology, appears to have been domesticated. The domesticated bottle gourd reached the Americas from Asia by 8000 BC, probably with peoples migrating into the continent from Asia.[1] The calabash (Lagenaria siceraria) is a vine-based plant that produces a fruit that resembles either a bottle, utencil, or pipe. ...


Cereal crops were first domesticated around 9000 BC in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. The first domesticated crops were generally annuals with large seeds or fruits. These included pulses such as peas and grains such as wheat. (10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Neolithic time period of the Holocene epoch. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...


The Middle East was especially suited to these species; the dry-summer climate was conducive to the evolution of large-seeded annual plants, and the variety of elevations led to a great variety of species. As domestication took place humans began to move from a hunter-gatherer society to a settled agricultural society. This change would eventually lead, some 4000 to 5000 years later, to the first city states and eventually the rise of civilization itself. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Central New York City. ...


Domestication was gradual, a process of trial and error that occurred slowly. Over time perennials and small trees began to be domesticated including apples and olives. Some plants were not domesticated until recently such as the macadamia nut and the pecan. This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Species Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia tetraphylla The macadamia nut is the fruit of a tree native to the east coast of Australia. ... Binomial name Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. ...


In different parts of the world very different species were domesticated. In the Americas squash, maize, beans, and perhaps manioc (also known as cassava) formed the core of the diet. In East Asia millets, rice, and soy were the most important crops. Some areas of the world such as Southern Africa, Australia and California and southern South America never saw local species domesticated. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... This article is on the plant. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta; also yuca in Spanish, and mandioca, aipim, or macaxera in Portuguese) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop for its edible starchy tuberous root. ... “Yuca” redirects here. ... Pearl millet in the field Ripe head of proso millet The millets are a group of small-seeded species of cereal crops, widely grown around the world for food and fodder. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Over the millennia many domesticated species have become utterly unlike their natural ancestors. Corn cobs are now dozens of times the size of their wild ancestors. A similar change occurred between wild strawberries and domesticated strawberries. Species See text The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, and the fruit of these plants. ... Binomial name Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne Garden Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is the most common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide. ...


See also: Cultigen Cultigen is the name for organisms, especially cultivated plants like the edible banana, not known to have a wild or uncultivated counterpart in nature. ...


The results/effects of plant domestication include:[citation needed]

  • Higher germination rates
  • Greater germination predictability
  • More uniform timing of germination
  • Increased size of reproductive organs
  • Reduced complexity of reproductive organs
  • Reduction of toxicity (humans select against self defense mechanisms)
  • Change in biomass allocation (more in fruits, roots, or stems, depending on human preference)
  • Change in life cycle (normally from perennial to annual for seed crops, and from annual to biennial for vegetable crops)

Degrees

The boundaries between surviving wild populations and domestic clades of elephants, for example, can become vague. This is due to their slow growth. Similar problems of definition arise when, for example, domesticated cats go feral. A classification system that can help solve this confusion might be set up on a spectrum of increasing domestication: It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ...

  • Wild: These populations experience their full life cycles without deliberate human intervention.
  • Raised in captivity (in zoos or botanical gardens): These populations are nurtured and sometimes bred under human control, but remain as a group essentially indistinguishable in appearance or behaviour from their wild counterparts. (It should be noted that zoos and botanical gardens sometimes exhibit domesticated or feral animals and plants such as camels, mustangs, and some orchids.)
  • Raised commercially (captive or semidomesticated): These populations are ranched or farmed in large numbers for food, commodities, or the pet trade, but as a group they are not substantially altered in appearance or behavior. Examples include the elephant, ostrich, deer, alligator, cricket, pearl oyster, and ball python. (These species are sometimes referred to as partially domesticated.)
  • Domesticated: These populations are bred and raised under human control for many generations and are substantially altered as a group in appearance or behaviour. Examples include the Canary, Pigeons, the Budgerigar, the peach-faced Lovebird, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, chickens, llamas, guinea pigs and laboratory mice.

This classification system does not account for several complicating factors: genetically modified organisms, feral populations, and hybridization. Many species that are farmed or ranched are now being genetically modified. This creates a unique category because it alters the organisms as a group but in ways unlike traditional domestication. Feral organisms are members of a population that was once raised under human control, but is now living and multiplying outside of human control. Examples include mustangs. Hybrids can be wild, domesticated, or both: a liger is a hybrid of two wild animals, a mule is a hybrid of two domesticated animals, and a beefalo is a cross between a wild and a domestic animal. Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Inside the Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden (Brazil), 1890 Botanical gardens (in Latin, hortus botanicus) grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes, but also for the enjoyment and education of visitors, a consideration that has become essential to... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the feral horse of the American west. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... // Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies See Taxonomy section Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (family Tettigoniidae). ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1802) The Ball python (Python regius), also known as the Royal python, is a ground-dwelling, nonvenomous snake native to the savannahs and rain forests of western and central Africa, ball pythons can be found from Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia on the west... Binomial name Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary, is a small bird in the finch family. ... Pigeon redirects here. ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae). ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot, 1818) Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} {{{subdivision_ranks}}} {{{subdivision}}} [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The Rosy-faced Lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) also known as the Peach-faced Lovebird is a species of Love Bird which is often kept as a pet. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Species See text. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... This article is about the species Cavia porcellus. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... This article is about the feral horse of the American west. ... For other uses, see Liger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... Beefalo are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle, Bos taurus, and the American Bison, Bison bison (generally called buffalo). ...


A great difference exists between a tame animal and a domesticated animal. The term "domesticated" refers to an entire species or variety while the term "tame" can refer to just one individual within a species or variety. Humans have tamed many thousands of animals that have never been truly domesticated. These include the elephant, giraffes, and bears. There is debate over whether some species have been domesticated or just tamed. Some state that the elephant has been domesticated, while others argue the cat has never been. One dividing line is whether a specimen born to wild parents would differ in behavior from one born to domesticated parents. For instance a dog is certainly domesticated because even a wolf (genetically the origin of all dogs) raised from a pup would be very different from a dog. Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... PUP is a TLA that can stand for: PARC Universal Packet, one of the two earliest internetworking communications protocols Potentially unwanted programs, a term used for software you probably dont want installed, but isnt as annoying as adware, one example of PUP is spyware. ...


Limits

Despite long enthusiasm about revolutionary progress in farming, few crops and probably even fewer animals ever became domesticated.


Domesticated species, when bred for tractability, companionship or ornamentation rather than for survival, can often fall prey to disease: several sub-species of apples or cattle, for example, face extinction; and many dogs with very respectable pedigrees appear prone to genetic problems. A pedigree is a list of ancestors (usually implying distinguished), a list of ancestors of the same breed (usually in the case of animals), the purity of a breed, individual, or strain, or a document proving any of these things. ... A genetic disorder is a disease caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ...


One side effect of domestication has been disease. For example, cattle have given humanity various viral poxes, measles, and tuberculosis; pigs gave influenza; and horses the rhinoviruses. Humans share over sixty diseases with dogs. Many parasites also have their origins in domestic animals. Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Species Human rhinovirus A (HRV-A) Human rhinovirus B (HRV-B) Rhinovirus (from the Greek rhin-, which means nose) is a genus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ...


Dates and places

See the table by species below

Hereford cattle, domesticated for beef production.

Since the process of domestication inherently takes many generations over a long period of time, and the spread of breed and husbandry techniques is also slow, it is not meaningful to give a single "date of domestication". The methods available to estimate domestication dates introduce further uncertainty, especially when domestication has occurred in the distant past. So the dates given here should be treated with caution; in some cases evidence is scanty and future discoveries may alter the dating significantly. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x1248, 1182 KB) Cows in a beautiful green field File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Cattle Farm Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 05 Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/January-2006 Wikipedia:Featured... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3200x1248, 1182 KB) Cows in a beautiful green field File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Cattle Farm Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured pictures thumbs 05 Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/January-2006 Wikipedia:Featured...


Dates and places of domestication are mainly estimated by archaeological methods, more precisely archaeozoology. These methods consist of excavating or studying the results of excavation in human prehistorical occupation sites. Animal remains are dated with archaeological methods, the species they belong to is determined, the age at death is also estimated, and if possible the form they had, that is to say a possible domestic form. Various other clues are taken advantage of, such as slaughter or cutting marks. The aim is to determine if they are game or raised animal, and more globally the nature of their relationship with humans. For example the skeleton of a cat found buried close to humans is a clue that it may have been a pet cat. The age structure of animal remains can also be a clue of husbandry, in which animals were killed at the optimal age. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Zooarchaeology is the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. ...


New technologies and especially mitochondrial DNA provide an alternative angle of investigation, and make it possible to reestimate the dates of domestication based on research into the genealogical tree of modern domestic animals. Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...


It is admitted for several species that domestication occurred in several places distinctly. However, this does not rule out later crossing inside a species; therefore it appears useless to look for a separate wild ancestor for each domestic breed.


The first animal to be domesticated appears to have been the dog, in the Upper Paleolithic era; this preceded the domestication of other species by several millennia. In the Neolithic a number of important species (such as the goat, sheep, pig and cow) were domesticated, as part of the spread of farming which characterizes this period. The goat, sheep and pig in particular were domesticated independently in the Levant and Asia. The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


There is early evidence of beekeeping, in the form of rock paintings, dating to 13,000 BC. Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... {Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ...


Recent archaeological evidence from Cyprus indicates domestication of a type of cat by perhaps 7500 BC. Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ...


The earliest secure evidence of horse domestication, bit wear on horse molars at Dereivka in Ukraine, dates to around 4000BC. The unequivocal date of domestication and use as a means of transport is at the Sintashta chariot burials in the southern Urals, ca 2000 BC. Local equivalents and smaller species were domesticated from the 2500s BC. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Dereivka is a site associated with the Sredny Stog culture dating ca. ... The Sintashta fortified settlement in the southern Urals is dated to ca. ...


The availability of both domesticated vegetable and animal species increased suddenly following the voyages of Christopher Columbus and the contact between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. This is part of what is referred to as the Columbian Exchange. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ...


Approximate dates and locations

Conservation status
the risk of extinction
Extinction

Extinct
Extinct in the Wild
The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Diagram of Extinct in the Wild in relation to other IUCN categories. ...

Threatened

Critically Endangered
Endangered
Vulnerable
Threatened
. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ...

Lower risk

Conservation Dependent
Near Threatened
Least Concern
Domesticated
Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) was an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which were dependent on conservation efforts to prevent the taxon becoming threatened with extinction. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ...

See also

World Conservation Union
IUCN Red List
The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ...

Species Date Location
Dog 15000 BC [2] Africa and other locations
Goat 10000 BC [3] Iran
Cat 9500 BC [4] Near East
Sheep 9000 BC[5] Middle East
Pig 8000 BC[6] Turkey, Çayönü
Cow 8000 BC[7], [8] India, Middle East, and Sub-sahara
Chicken 6000 BC[9] India and Southeast Asia
Guinea pig 5000 BC[10] Peru
Donkey 5000 BC[11], [12] Egypt
Water buffalo 4000 BC India, China
Horse 4000 BC[13] Central Asia
Dromedary (Arabian camel) 4000 BC Arabia
Llama 3500 BC Peru
Silkworm 3000 BC China
Rock Pigeon 3000 BC Egypt, Mediterranean Basin
Goose 3000 BC[14] Egypt
Bactrian camel 2500 BC Central Asia
Yak 2500 BC Tibet
Banteng Unknown Southeast Asia, Java Island
Gayal Unknown Southeast Asia
Alpaca 1500 BC Peru
Domesticated duck 1000 BC China
Muscovy Duck Unknown South America
Guineafowl Unknown Africa
Common carp Unknown East Asia
Ferret 1500 BC-500 BC Europe
Domesticated turkey 500 BC Mexico
Goldfish Unknown China
European Rabbit 1600 Europe

Second circle Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses of the term, see goat (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 10000 BC) (Pleistocene, Paleolithic – 10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Mesolithic, or Epipaleolithic time period, which is the first part of the Holocene epoch. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... “Sheep” redirects here. ... (10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Neolithic time period of the Holocene epoch. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Trinomial name Sus scrofa domestica Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Sus domestica The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) is normally given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some taxonomists use the term , reserving for the wild boar. ... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... Çayönü is a Neolithic settlement in southern Turkey, forty kiloemtres north-west of Diyabarkir, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about the species Cavia porcellus. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Binomial name Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758 Dromedary range The Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) (often referred to simply as the Dromedary) is a large even-toed ungulate native to northern Africa, Greater Middle East area and western India, also the land of east Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... “Rock pigeon” redirects here. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Domesticated geese are descendants of wild geese now kept as poultry. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bactrian Camel range The Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of eastern Asia. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Binomial name Bos javanicus dAlton, 1823 The Banteng (Bos javanicus) is an ox that is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, and Bali. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 The Gaur (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of the hilly areas of India and Southeast Asia, which may be found wild or domesticated. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... // Domesticated ducks Domesticated ducks are raised for meat, eggs and down. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Muscovy Duck, Cairina moschata, is a large duck which is native to Mexico, Central and South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Genera Agelastes Numida Guttera Acryllium The guineafowl are a family of birds in the same order as the pheasants, turkeys and other game birds. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish distantly related to the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), with which it is capable of interbreeding[1]. It gives its name to the carp family Cyprinidae. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... This article is about the mammal. ... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Species Meleagris gallopavo (modern) Meleagris ocellata (historical) The domesticated turkey is a large poultry bird raised for food. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Trinomial name Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) For the baked snack crackers, please see Goldfish (snack). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range map The European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a species of rabbit native to southern Europe. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Species Date Location
Zebu 8000 BC India
Honey bee 4000 BC Multiple places
Asian Elephant 2000 BC Indus Valley civilization
Fallow Deer 1000 BC Mediterranean Basin
Indian Peafowl 500 BC India
Barbary Dove 500 BC North Africa
Japanese Quail (see Quail) 11001900 Japan
Canary 1600 Canary Islands, Europe
Mandarin Duck Unknown China
Mute Swan 10001500 Europe

Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Image:Elephant The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... Binomial name Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758) The Fallow Deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Binomial name Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 The Indian Peafowl, Pavo cristatus also known as the Common Peafowl or the Blue Peafowl is one of the species of bird in the genus Pavo of the Phasianidae family known as peafowl. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Binomial name Streptopelia risoria The Barbary Dove, Ring Dove, or Ring-necked Dove, Streptopelia risoria, is a small domestic dove. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name Coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 The Japanese Quail, Coturnix japonica is a species of quail found in East Asia. ... Genera Coturnix Anurophasis Perdicula Ophrysia † See also Pheasant, Partridge, Grouse Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Binomial name Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) The Canary (Serinus canaria) sometimes called the Island Canary, Wild Canary or Atlantic Canary, is a small bird in the finch family. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aix galericulata (Linnaeus, 1758) The Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata), or just Mandarin, is a medium-sized perching duck, closely related to the North American Wood Duck. ... Binomial name (Gmelin, 1789) Synonyms Anas olor Gmelin, 1789 Cygnus olor immutabilis var. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Modern instances

Species Date Location
Rat 1800s England
Fox 1800s Europe
Mink 1800s Europe
Budgerigar 1850s Europe
Zebra Finch 1900s Australia
Hamster 1930s United States
Muskox 1960s United States
Deer 1970s New Zealand
Hedgehog 1980s United States

A project is underway to that is attempting to find the genetic basis for taming. Researchers at the Max Planck institute have reared two sets of rats. One set has been selected for aggressive traits and another for more tame traits. The researcher hope to mimic the process by which neolithic farmers first domesticated animals[15]. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mink (disambiguation). ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae). ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Taeniopygia guttata Vieillot, 1817 The Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata is the most common and familiar estrildid finch of Central Australia and ranges over most of the continent, avoiding only the cool moist south and the tropical far north. ... // Public flight demonstration of an airplane by Alberto Santos-Dumont in Paris, November 12, 1906. ... Genera Mesocricetus Phodopus Cricetus Cricetulus Allocricetulus Cansumys Tscherskia Hamsters are rodents belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... This article is about the ruminant animal. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Genera Atelerix Erinaceus Hemiechinus Mesechinus Paraechinus A hedgehog is any of the small spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


Former instances

Some species are said to have been domesticated, but are not any more, either because they have totally disappeared, or since only their domestic form no longer exists. An example would be the African and Asian elephants (See War elephant) and Bos aegyptiacus. Distribution of Loxodonta africana (2007) Species Loxodonta adaurora (extinct) Loxodonta africana Loxodonta cyclotis African elephants are the two species of elephants in the genus Loxodonta, one of the two existing genera in Elephantidae. ... Image:Elephant The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Binomial name Bos aegyptiacus Urbain, 1937 The Ancient Egyptian cattle Bos Aegyptiacus (name not recognized by ITIS) was a domesticated form of ox of uncertain origin. ...


Hybrid domestic animals

Beefalo are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle, Bos taurus, and the American Bison, Bison bison (generally called buffalo). ... The Bengal cat is a relatively new breed of domestic housecat (Felis silvestris catus) developed to have a gentle and friendly temperament, while exhibiting the markings (such as spots, rosettes, and a light/white belly), and body structure reminiscent of the wild Asian Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). ... A Cama is a hybrid between a camel and a llama. ... A Chausie is a hybrid of the domestic cat Felis catus and Felis chaus, the Jungle Cat. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A coydog is the hybrid offspring of a male coyote (Canis latrans) and a female dog (Canis lupus familiaris). ... A Dzo is a male hybrid of a yak and a domesticated cow. ... A sheep–goat hybrid is the hybrid offspring of a sheep and a goat. ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... A huarizo is a cross between a male llama and a female alpaca. ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... The Savannah is a hybrid domestic cat breed. ... Adult Tigon A tigon is the artificially bred hybrid of a male tiger and a female lion. ... This Czechoslovakian Wolfdog shows a strongly wolf-like appearance A wolfdog (also called a wolf hybrid or wolf-dog hybrid) is a canid hybrid resulting from the mating of a female wolf (Canis lupus) and a male dog (Canis lupus familiaris). ... Keikaimalu the wholphin (bottom), with her parents: a false killer whale (top) and a bottlenose dolphin (middle) A wholphin or wolphin is a rare hybrid, formed from a cross between a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (mother), and a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens (father). ... A yakalo is a hybrid of a yak and a buffalo. ... Binomial name A zeedonk (also spelled zedonk) (also known as zebrass, zebronkey, zonkey, zebadonk, zenkey, zebrinny, or deebra) is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. ... A zobo is an animal which is a cross between a yak and a zebu. ... It has been suggested that Zebrula be merged into this article or section. ... A zony is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. ... Żubroń (pronounce: ) is a species of mammals, a hybrid of domestic cattle and Wisent. ...

Genetic pollution

Main article: Genetic pollution

Animals of domestic origin and feral ones sometimes can produce fertile hybrids with native, wild animals which leads to genetic pollution in the naturally evolved wild gene pools, many a times threatening rare species with extinction. Cases include the mallard duck, wild boar, the rock dove or pigeon, the Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) (ancestor of all chickens), carp, and more recently salmon [citation needed]. Another example is the dingo, itself an early feral dog, which hybridizes with dogs of European origin. On the other hand, genetic pollution seems not to be noticed for rabbit. There is much debate over the degree to which feral hybridization compromises the purity of a wild species. In the case of the mallard, for example, some claim there are no populations which are completely free of any domestic ancestor. [citation needed] Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 The Rock Dove (Columba livia), or feral pigeon, is a member of the bird family Columbidae, doves and pigeons. ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ...


See also

This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of plants that have been domesticated by humans. ... List of domesticated organisms from other kingdoms (Fungi, Protista, and Monera) Food (and cooking) mushrooms yeast (baking, winemaking and brewing) moulds (for making cheese, tempeh, Quorn, Pu-erh and some sausages) bacteria (for cheese, yogurt, kephir, buttermilk, sour cream) Research, medicine and science viruses (for vaccines and research) bacteria (for... Timeline of agriculture and food technology 12000 BC - Natufians in the Levant begin cultivating wild grasses. ... Shepherd with his sheep in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Genetic pollution, genetic contamination or genetic swamping happens when original set of naturally evolved (wild) region specific genes / gene pool of wild animals and plants become hybridized with domesticated and feral varieties or with the genes of other nonnative wild species or subspecies from neighboring or far away regions. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ... Horticulture (Latin: hortus (garden plant) + cultura (culture)) are classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... 19th century etching of a lion tamer Lion taming is the practice of taming lions, either for protection, whereby the practice was probably created, or, more commonly, entertainment, particularly in the circus. ... Military animals are creatures that have been employed by humankind for use in warfare. ... In developmental biology, pedomorphosis (also spelled paedomorphosis) or juvenification is a phenotypic and/or genotypic change in which the adults of a species retain traits previously seen only in juveniles. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Species  Meleagris gallopavo  Meleagris ocellata The domesticated turkey is descended from the North American Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Domestication theory tries to describe the processes by which new technology is tamed or appropriated by its users. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...

References

  1. ^ pnas.org
  2. ^ See Origin of the domestic dog
  3. ^ Melinda A. Zeder, Goat busters track domestication (Physiologic changes and evolution of goats into a domesticated animal), April 2000, (English).
  4. ^ [1], domestication of the cat on Cyprus, National Geographic.
  5. ^ Michaël Lallemand, Courte synthèse sur l'histoire du mouton, de la domestication à nos jours, 2002, (French). See also Pre-Historic Zawi Chemi Shanidar, (English).
  6. ^ Giuffra E, Kijas JM, Amarger V, Carlborg O, Jeon JT, Andersson L. The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression., April 2000, (English).
  7. ^ Late Neolithic megalithic structures at Nabta Playa (Sahara), southwestern Egypt.
  8. ^ Source : Laboratoire de Préhistoire et Protohistoire de l'Ouest de la France [2], (French).
  9. ^ West B. and Zhou, B-X., Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication, World’s Poultry Science Journal, 45, 205-218, 1989, quotationPDF (26.3 KiB), 8 p. (English).
  10. ^ History of the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) in South America, a summary of the current state of knowledge
  11. ^ Beja-Pereira, Albano et al., African Origins of the Domestic Donkey, Science 304:1781, 18 June 2004, cited in New Scientist, (English).
  12. ^ Roger Blench, The history and spread of donkeys in AfricaPDF (235 KiB) (English).
  13. ^ The Domestication of the Horse; see also Domestication of the horse
  14. ^ [3]
  15. ^ Nice Rats, Nasty Rats: Maybe It’s All in the Genes

It has been suggested that Dog#Ancestry and history of domestication, Dog#Neoteny in the rapid evolution of diverse dog breeds be merged into this article or section. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Domestication - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2006 words)
Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations.
Hybrids can be wild, domesticated, or both: a liger is a hybrid of two wild animals, a mule is a hybrid of two domesticated animals, and a beefalo is a cross between a wild and a domestic animal.
The first domestic animal was probably the dog, possibly as early as 10000 BC in the Natufian culture of the Levant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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