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Encyclopedia > Domestic violence

Domestic violence (sometimes referred to as domestic abuse) occurs when a family member, partner or ex-partner attempts to physically or psychologically dominate another. Domestic violence often refers to violence between spouses,or spousal abuse but can also include cohabitants and non-married intimate partners. Domestic violence occurs in all cultures; people of all races, ethnicities, religions, and classes can be perpetrators of domestic violence. Domestic violence is perpetrated by, and on, both men and women, and occurs in same-sex and opposite-sex relationships. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Domestic Disturbance (2001) is a thriller/drama movie, directed by Harold Becker and starring Vince Vaughn and John Travolta. ... Domination is a supreme or preeminate control, rule, or governing; plural dominion. ...


Domestic violence has many forms, including physical violence, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, intimidation, economic deprivation or threats of violence. There are a number of dimensions including mode - physical, psychological, sexual and/or social; frequency - on/off, occasional, chronic; and severity – in terms of both psychological or physical harm and the need for treatment – transitory or permanent injury – mild, moderate, severe up to homicide.


Recent attention to domestic violence began in the women's movement in the 1970s, as concern about wives being beaten by their husbands gained attention. It has remained a major focus of modern feminism, particularly in terms of "violence against women". [1] Popular emphasis has tended to be on women as the victims of domestic violence although with the rise of the men's movement, and particularly men's rights, there is now some advocacy for men as victims, although the statistics concerning the number of male victims given by them are strongly contested by many groups active in research on or working in the field of domestic violence and "violence against men". The mens movement is a social movement that includes a number of philosophies and organizations that seek to support men, change the male gender role and improve mens rights in regard to marriage and child access and victims of domestic violence. ... This box:      Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ...


Awareness and documentation of domestic violence differs from country to country. Estimates are that only about a third of cases of domestic violence are actually reported in the US and UK. In other places with less attention and less support, reported cases would be still lower. According to the Centers for Disease Control, domestic violence is a serious, preventable public health problem affecting more than 32 million Americans, or more than 10% of the U.S. population (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ...

Contents

Definitions

The term "intimate partner violence" (IPV) is often used synonymously. Family violence is a broader definition, often used to include child abuse, elder abuse, and other violent acts between family members.[2] Wife abuse, wife beating, and battering are terms sometimes used, though with acknowledgment that many are not actually married to the abuser, but rather co-habiting or other arrangements.[3] In more recent years, 'battering' or 'battered wife' has become less acceptable terminology, since abuse can take other forms than physical abuse. Other forms of abuse may be constantly occurring, while physical abuse happens occasionally. These other forms of abuse have potential to lead to mental illness, self-harm, and even attempts at suicide.[4][5] Child abuse is the physical or sexual of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... Elder abuse is a single or repeated act or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Self-harm (SH) is deliberate injury to ones own body. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


The U.S. Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) defines domestic violence as a "pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner."[6] Domestic violence can take many forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional, economic, or and/or psychological abuse.[6] The Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), founded in 1995 as the Violence Against Women Office, is a part of the United States Department of Justice that deals with violence against women, specifically implementing the mandates of the Violence Against Women Act and subsequent legislation[1]. Office of Violence Against...


The Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in the United Kingdom in its "Domestic Violence Policy" uses domestic violence to refer to a range of violent and abusive behaviours, defining it as: The Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (CAFCASS) is a national non-departmental public body for England and Wales set up to safeguard and promote the welfare of children involved in family court proceedings. ...

Patterns of behaviour characterised by the misuse of power and control by one person over another who are or have been in an intimate relationship. It can occur in mixed gender relationships and same gender relationships and has profound consequences for the lives of children, individuals, families and communities. It may be physical, sexual, emotional and/or psychological. The latter may include intimidation, harassment, damage to property, threats and financial abuse.[7]

Types

Domestic violence can take the form of physical violence, including direct physical violence ranging from unwanted physical contact to rape and murder. Indirect physical violence may include destruction of objects, striking or throwing objects near the victim, or harm to pets. In addition to physical violence, spousal abuse often includes mental or emotional abuse, including verbal threats of physical violence to the victim, the self, or others including children, ranging from explicit, detailed and impending to implicit and vague as to both content and time frame, and verbal violence, including threats, insults, put-downs, and attacks. Nonverbal threats may include gestures, facial expressions, and body postures. Psychological abuse may also involve economic and/or social control, such as controlling victim's money and other economic resources, preventing victim from seeing friends and relatives, actively sabotaging victim's social relationships and isolating victim from social contacts. Spiritual abuse is another form of abuse that may occur. This article is about the study of touching behaviour in humans. ... A German Thrash metal band formed in Lörrach, Germany in 1983. ... Throwing can have different meanings depending on the context. ... An insult is a statement or action which affronts or demeans someone. ... For gestures in computing, see mouse gesture. ... A facial expression results from one or more motions or positions of the muscles of the face. ... For other uses, see Body (disambiguation). ... While not moving, a human can be in one of the following main positions. ...


The form and characteristics of domestic violence and abuse may vary in other ways. Michael P. Johnson (1995, 2006b) argues for three major types of intimate partner violence. The typology is supported by subsequent research and evaluation by Johnson and his colleagues,[8] as well as independent researchers.[9] Types identified by Johnson include:

  • Intimate terrorism (or "patriarchal terrorism") where one partner uses violence along with emotional and psychological abuse to maintain control over the other. In heterosexual relationships, the perpetrator is most often the male partner. It is more likely than other types to be frequent and to escalate in seriousness. Intimate terrorism is much less common than situational couple violence, but probably dominates samples collected from agencies (police, courts, hospitals).
  • Violent resistance is violence used in resistance to an intimate terrorist. Sometimes it is self-defensive, sometimes more like payback, sometimes the act of an entrapped victim who sees no other way to escape a violently abusive relationship.
  • Situational couple violence arises out of conflicts that escalate to arguments and then to violence. It is not connected to a general pattern of control. Although it occurs less frequently in relationships and is less serious than intimate terrorism, in some cases it can be frequent and/or quite serious, even life-threatening. This is probably the most common type of intimate partner violence and dominates general surveys, student samples, and even marriage counseling samples.

The fourth type identified by Johnson is infrequent and some scholars question its existence:

  • Mutual violent control is when both partners are violent and controlling and they possibly battle for control in the relationship. As with intimate terrorism, violence is one form of control used by each abuser.

Physical violence

Physical violence is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing injury, harm, disability, or death, for example, hitting, shoving, biting, restraint, kicking, or use of a weapon. For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ...


Profile of an abuser

Psychologists have studied certain personality characteristics of individuals who batter their partner. These include:

  • Blames others for problems/feelings
  • Closed-mindedness
  • Cruelty to animals and/or children
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Isolation of victim
  • Jealousy
  • Manipulation through guilt
  • Minimization of violence
  • Objectification of men and women
  • "Playful" use of force during sex
  • Quick Involvement
  • Rigid sex roles
  • Threats of violence
  • Tight control of finances
  • Unrealistic expectations
  • Verbal abuse

Sexual violence and incest

Sexual violence and incest are divided into three categories: For the domesticated crop plant called rape, see rapeseed. ... Incest is defined as sexual intercourse between closely related persons. ...

  1. use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against their will, whether or not the act is completed;
  2. attempted or completed sex act involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, unable to decline participation, or unable to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act, e.g., because of underage immaturity, illness, disability, or the influence of alcohol or other drugs, because of intimidation or pressure, or because of seduction and submission (as in female forms of sexual aggression); and
  3. abusive sexual contact.

Psychological abuse

Psychological/emotional abuse can include, humiliating the victim, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family, and denying the victim access to money or other basic resources.


Economic abuse

Economic abuse is when the abuser has complete control over the victim's money and other economic resources. Usually, this involves putting the victim on a strict 'allowance', withholding money at will and forcing the victim to beg for the money until the abuser gives them some money. It is common for the victim to receive less money as the abuse continues. This also includes (but is not limited to) preventing the victim from finishing education or obtaining employment.


Stalking

In addition, stalking is often included among the types of Intimate Partner Violence. Stalking generally refers to repeated behaviour that causes victims to feel a high level of fear (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000). However, psychiatrist William Glasser states that fear and all other emotions are self-caused as evidenced by the wide range of emotions two different subjects might have in response to the same incident. For other uses, see Stalking (disambiguation). ... William Glasser, M.D. is an American psychiatrist born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1925, and developer of Reality Therapy and Choice Theory. ...


Spiritual abuse

Spiritual abuse includes: The term Spiritual abuse was coined in the late twentieth century to refer to abusive or aberrational practices identified in the behavior and teachings of some churches, spiritual and religious organizations and groups. ...

  1. using the spouse’s or intimate partner’s religious or spiritual beliefs to manipulate them
  2. preventing the partner from practicing their religious or spiritual beliefs
  3. ridiculing the other person’s religious or spiritual beliefs

Victimization

Lissette Ochoa, a victim of spousal abuse

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Lissette Ochoa domestic violence case was one of the most well-known cases of spousal abuse in Colombia because of the couples elite social status and for the brutality of the battering perpetrated on Lissette Ochoa by her husband Rafael Dangond. ...

Statistics

Domestic violence occurs across the world, in various cultures,[10] and affects people across society, irrespective of economic status.[3] In the United States, women are six times as likely as men to experience intimate partner violence.[11] Percent of women surveyed (national surveys) who were ever physically assaulted by an intimate partner: Barbados (30%), Canada (29%), Egypt (34%), New Zealand (35%), Switzerland (21%), United States (22%).[12] Some surveys in specific places report figures as high as 50-70% of women surveyed who were ever physically assaulted by an intimate partner.[12] Others, including surveys in the Philippines and Paraguay, report figures as low as 10%.[12] The rate of intimate partner violence in the U.S. has declined since 1993.[13] Almost always, surveys will undercount actual numbers. Results will also vary, depending on specific wording of survey questions, how the survey is conducted, the definition of abuse or domestic violence used, and other factors. Domestic violence statistics attempt to provide statistical measures of domestic violence. ...


Violence against women

In the United States, 20 percent of all violent crime experienced by women are cases of intimate partner violence, compared to 3 percent of violent crime experienced by men.[14] Violence against women (VAW) is a term of art used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. ...


During pregnancy

Domestic violence during pregnancy is relatively common, and can be missed by medical professionals because it often presents in non-specific ways. A number of countries have been statistically analyzed to calculate the prevalence of this phenomenon:

  • UK prevalence: 2.5-3.4%[15][16]
  • USA prevalence: 3.2-33.7%[17][18]
  • Ireland prevalence: 12.5%[19]
  • Rates are higher in teenagers[20]
  • Severity and frequency increase postpartum (10% antenatally vs. 19% postnatally[21]; 21% at 3 months post partum[22]

There are a number of presentations that can be related to domestic violence during pregnancy: delay in seeking care for injuries; late booking, non-attenders at appointments, self-discharge; frequent attendance, vague problems; aggressive or over-solicitous partner; burns, pain, tenderness, injuries; vaginal tears, bleeding, STDs; miscarriage For other uses, see Burn. ... STD is a three letter acronym standing for sexually transmitted disease. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined in humans at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ...


Domestic violence can also affect the fetus, the subsequent baby, and existing children:

Prematurity is the condition of being born before a full gestation. ... An intrauterine device (intra meaning within, and uterine meaning of the uterus) is a birth control device also known as an IUD or a coil( this colloquialism is based on the coil-shaped design of early IUDs). ... Eating disorders are a group of mental disorders that interfere with normal food consumption. ... Suicidal ideation is common medical term for the mere thoughts about and of plans of committing suicide, not the actual following through or act itself. ... In the United States, the term child welfare is used to describe a set of government services designed to protect children and encourage family stability. ... Child abuse is the physical or sexual of children by parents, guardians, or others. ...

Violence against men

Violence against men is the term known for violence that is committed against men by the man's intimate partner. The means used to measure domestic violence strongly influence the results found. For example, studies of reported domestic violence and extrapolations of those studies show women preponderantly as victims and men to be more violent, whereas the survey based Conflict Tactics Scale, tends to show men and women equally violent.[23] Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... The Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) is a widely used method of identifying intimate partners maltreatment, with a version for the identifying of child maltreatment. ...


Very little is known about the actual number of men who are in a domestic relationship in which they are abused or treated violently by their male or female partners. Few incidents are reported to police, and data is limited. [24] Dr. Richard J. Gelles contends that while "men's rights groups and some scholars" believe that "battered men are indeed a social problem worthy of attention" and that "there are as many male victims of violence as female", he states that such beliefs are "a significant distortion of well-grounded research data." [25] In addition, researchers Tjaden and Thoennes found that "men living with male intimate partners experience more intimate partner violence than do men who live with female intimate partners. Approximately 23 percent of the men who had lived with a man as a couple reported being raped, physically assaulted, and/or stalked by a male cohabitant, while 7.4 percent of the men who had married or lived with a woman as a couple reported such violence by a wife or female cohabitant." [26]


The available data indicate that:

  • 3.2 million men and nearly 5.3 million women experience mostly "minor" incidents of abuse (such as "pushing, grabbing, shoving, slapping, and hitting") per year.[24]
  • In the United States, approximately 800,000 men per year (3.2%) are raped or physically assaulted by their partner.[24]
  • At least 371,000 men are stalked annually.[24]
  • 3% of nonfatal violence against men stems from domestic violence.[24]
  • In 2002, men comprised 24% of domestic violence homicide victims.[24]
  • Over 20 years, the instances of homicide from domestic violence against men decreased by approximately 67%.[24]
  • Approximately 22% of men have experienced physical, sexual, or psychological intimate partner violence during their life.[24]

There are many reasons why there isn't more information about domestic abuse and violence against men. A major reason is the reluctance of men to report incidents to the police, unless there are substantial injuries.


Violence against children

Main articles: Child abuse, Child welfare, and Child sexual abuse

When it comes to domestic violence towards children involving physical abuse, research in the UK by the NSPCC indicated that "most violence occurred at home (78 per cent) 40- 60% of men and women who abuse other men or women also abuse their children.[27] Girls whose fathers batter their mothers are 6.5 times more likely to be sexually abused by their fathers than are girls from non-violent homes.[28] Child abuse is the physical or sexual of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... In the United States, the term child welfare is used to describe a set of government services designed to protect children and encourage family stability. ... Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. ... The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) is a UK charity working in child protection and the prevention of cruelty to children. ...


Causes

There are many different theories as to the causes of domestic violence. These include psychological theories that consider personality traits and mental characteristics of the offender, as well as social theories which consider external factors in the offender's environment, such as family structure, stress, social learning. As with many phenomena regarding human experience, no single approach appears to cover all cases.


In some relationships, violence arises out of a perceived need for power and control, a form of bullying and social learning of abuse. Abusers' efforts to dominate their partners have been attributed to low self-esteem or feelings of inadequacy, unresolved childhood conflicts, the stress of poverty, hostility and resentment toward women (misogyny), hostility and resentment toward men (misandry), personality disorders, genetic tendencies and sociocultural influences, among other possible causative factors. Most authorities seem to agree that abusive personalities result from a combination of several factors, to varying degrees. Adam Dukes argues that all [domestic] abuse relates to men’s capacity for, and their need to, devalue women and view them in negative ways.[29] This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other factors associated with domestic violence include heavy alcohol consumption,[30] mental illness,[citation needed] classism, various political and legal characteristics such as authoritarianism and dehumanisation.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Dehumanization refers to subvert and overt acts which assert a separation of a particular group as belonging to an inferior class of people. ...


Research has shown that alcohol-related violence is related to higher levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testosterone (and therefore could theoretically benefit from treatment with anti-androgenic agents). On the other hand, non-alcohol related domestic violence is related to significantly reduced levels of spinal 5-HIAA - a serotonin metabolite,[31] suggesting that non-alcohol related domestic violence may benefit from treatment with medications like selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs)[32]


Classism

Lundy Bancroft and Dr. Susan Weitzman, psychotherapist and author of "Not to People Like Us: Hidden Abuse in Upscale Marriages," contend that abuse in poor families is more likely to be reported to ER staff, police and social services by victims and bystanders.


Power and control

A causalist view of domestic violence is that it is a strategy to gain or maintain power and control over the victim. This view is in alignment with Bancroft's "cost-benefit" theory that abuse rewards the perpetrator in ways other than, or in addition to, simply exercising power over his or her target(s). He cites evidence in support of his argument that, in most cases, abusers are quite capable of exercising control over themselves, but choose not to do so for various reasons. [citation needed] Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ...


An alternative view is that abuse arises from powerlessness and externalizing/projecting this and attempting to exercise control of the victim. It is an attempt to 'gain or maintain power and control over the victim' but even in achieving this it cannot resolve the powerlessness driving it. Such behaviours have addictive aspects leading to a cycle of abuse or violence. Mutual cycles develop when each party attempts to resolve their own powerlessness in attempting to assert control. Externalization means to put something outside of its original borders, especially to put a human function outside of the human body. ... In psychology, psychological projection (or projection bias) is a defense mechanism in which one attributes to others one’s own unacceptable or unwanted thoughts or/and emotions. ... The cycle of abuse, or cycle of violence is a cycle typical of an abusive relationship, in which battered person syndrome may appear. ... The term cycle of violence refers to repeated acts of violence between groups as a cyclical pattern, associated with low emotions and doctrines retribution, revenge, such as an eye for an eye. ...


Questions of power and control are integral to the widely accepted Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project. They developed "Power and Control Wheel" to illustrate this: it has power and control at the center, surrounded by spokes (techniques used), the titles of which include: The Duluth Model or Domestic Abuse Intervention Project was developed by Minnesota Program Development, Inc. ...

  • Coercion and threats
  • Intimidation
  • Emotional abuse
  • Isolation
  • Minimizing, denying and blaming
  • Using children
  • Economic abuse
  • Male privilege

The model attempts to address abuse by one-sidedly challenging the misuse of power by the 'perpetrator'.


Critics of this model suggest that the one-sided focus is problematic as resolution can only be achieved when all participants acknowledge their responsibilities, and identify and respect mutual purpose.[33]


The power wheel model is not intended to assign personal responsibility, enhance respect for mutual purpose or assist victims and perpetrators in resolving their differences. It is an informational tool designed to help individuals understand the dynamics of power operating in abusive situations and identify various methods of abuse.


Social stress

Stress may be increased when a person is living in a family situation, with increased pressures. Social stresses, due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions. Violence is not always caused by stress, but may be one way that some (but not all) people respond to stress.[34][35]


Dependency

Women are most dependent on the spouse for economic well being. Having children to take care of, should she leave the marriage, increases the financial burden and makes it all the more difficult for women to leave. Dependency means that women have fewer options and few resources to help them cope with or change their spouse's behavior.[36]


Sex and gender

Modes of abuse are thought by some to be gendered, females tending to use more psychological and men more physical forms. [citation needed] The visibility of these differs markedly. However, experts who work with victims of domestic violence have noted that physical abuse is almost invariably preceded by psychological abuse. Police and hospital admission records indicate that a higher percentage of females than males seek treatment and report such crimes.


Unless or until more men identify themselves and go on record as having been abused by female partners, and in a manner whereby the nature and extent of their injuries can be clinically assessed, men will continue to be identified as the most frequent perpetrators of physical and emotional violence.


See also the section "Gender Differences" in this article, and some of the statistics in the subsection "U.S." in the "Statistics" section.


The cycle of violence

Frequently, domestic violence is used to describe specific violent and overtly abusive incidents, and legal definitions will tend to take this perspective. However, when violent and abusive behaviours happen within a relationship, the effects of those behaviours continue after these overt incidents are over. Advocates and counsellors will refer to domestic violence as a pattern of behaviours, including those listed above. The term cycle of violence refers to repeated acts of violence between groups as a cyclical pattern, associated with low emotions and doctrines retribution, revenge, such as an eye for an eye. ... The cycle of abuse, or cycle of violence is a cycle typical of an abusive relationship, in which battered person syndrome may appear. ...


Lenore Walker presented the model of a Cycle of Violence which consists of three basic phases: The term cycle of violence refers to repeated acts of violence between groups as a cyclical pattern, associated with low emotions and doctrines retribution, revenge, such as an eye for an eye. ...

Honeymoon Phase
Characterized by affection, apology, and apparent end of violence. During this stage the batterer feels overwhelming feelings of remorse and sadness. Some batterers walk away from the situtation, while others shower their victims with love and affection.
Tension Building Phase
Characterized by poor communication, tension, fear of causing outbursts. During this stage the victims try to calm the batterer down, to avoid any major violent confrontations.
Acting-out Phase
Characterized by outbursts of violent, abusive incidents. During this stage the batterer attempts to dominate his/her partner(victim), with the use of domestic violence.

Although it is easy to see the outbursts of the Acting-out Phase as abuse, even the more pleasant behaviours of the Honeymoon Phase serve to perpetuate the abuse. See also the cycle of abuse article. The cycle of abuse, or cycle of violence is a cycle typical of an abusive relationship, in which battered person syndrome may appear. ...


Many domestic violence advocates believe that the cycle of violence is somewhat outdated and that it does not reflect the realities of many men and women experiencing domestic violence.


Gender differences

The role of gender is a controversial topic related to the discussion of domestic violence.


Erin Pizzey, the founder of an early women's shelter in Chiswick, London, has expressed her dismay at how she believes the issue has become a gender-political football, and expressed an unpopular view in her book Prone to Violence that some women in the refuge system had a predisposition to seek abusive relationships. She also expressed the view that domestic violence can occur against any vulnerable intimates, regardless of their gender. Erin Pizzey (born February 19, 1939 in China, daughter of a diplomat) became internationally famous for having started the first Womens Refuge (called womens shelter in the US) in the modern world during the 1971. ... For other uses, see Chiswick (disambiguation). ... President Harrison political cartoon: What can I do when both parties insist on kicking? Political Football was also the name of a documentary about the rugby union 1971 Springbok tour to Australia. ...


A Freudian concept, repetition compulsion, has also come up in modern psychology as a possible cause of a woman who was abused in childhood seeking an abusive man (or vice versa), theoretically as a misguided way to "master" their traumatic experience.[37] Repetition compulsion is psychological phenomenon in which a person repeats a traumatic event or its circumstances over and over again. ...


Gender aspects of abuse

There continues to be discussion about whether men are more abusive than women, whether men's abuse of women is worse than women's abuse of men, and whether abused men should be provided the same resources and shelters that years of advocacy, money-rasing, and funding has gained for women victims[38] sekä Carney (2007)[39][citation needed].


Martin S. Fiebert of the Department of Psychology at California State University, Long Beach, provides an analysis of 195 scholarly investigations: 152 empirical studies and 43 analyses, which he believes demonstrate women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men. Fiebert also argues that women are more likely to be injured, but not a lot more.[40] Also Dutton, and Nicholls (2005)[38] state that Results show that the gender disparity in injuries from domestic violence is less than originally portrayed by feminist theory. Studies are also reviewed indicating high levels of unilateral intimate violence by females to both males and females. Males appear to report their own victimization less than females do and to not view female violence against them as a crime. Hence, they differentially under-report being victimized by partners on crime victim surveys. It is concluded that feminist theory is contradicted by these findings and that the call for bqualitativeQ studies by feminists is really a means of avoiding this conclusion. Archer's (2000, 2002) meta-analysis of 82 couple-conflict studies found that women were more likely to use physical aggression than men, and to resort to violence more often than men[41][42][43][44][45].In the most serious violence the men do dominate for example in 1999 in the US, 1,218 women and 424 men were killed by an intimate partner, regardless of which partner started the violence and of the gender of the partner.[46] On the other hand, Michael Kimmel of the State University of New York at Stony Brook found that men are more violent inside and outside of the home than women.[47] Theories that women are as violent as men have been dubbed "Gender Symmetry" theories. The Walter Pyramid, the Universitys most prominent sporting complex and most recognizable landmark. ... Michael S. Kimmel is an american sociologist. ... The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNYSB), also known as Stony Brook University (SBU) is a public research university located in Stony Brook, New York (on the north side of Long Island, about 55 miles east of Manhattan, New York). ...


A problem in conducting studies that seek to describe violence in terms of gender is the amount of silence, fear and shame that results from abuse within families and relationships. Another is that abusive patterns can tend to seem normal to those who have lived in them for a length of time. Similarly, subtle forms of abuse can be quite transparent even as they set the stage for further abuse seeming normal. Finally, inconsistent definition of what domestic violence is makes definite conclusions difficult to reach when compiling the available studies.[48]


Both men and women have been arrested and convicted of assaulting their partners in both heterosexual and homosexual relationships. The bulk of these arrests have been men being arrested for assaulting women. Determining how many instances of domestic violence actually involve male victims is difficult. Male domestic violence victims may be reluctant to get help for a number of reasons.[48]


The belief that men are less likely to report domestic violence to the police than women may be a common myth, as 75% of all incidents still go unreported in the UK.[49]


Another study has demonstrated a high degree of acceptance by women of aggression against men. Unfortunately, the researcher does not provide a sample of the test questions used to gather this evidence.[50] (POV-check)

(although I have argued elsewhere (Bell 1999) that practitioners should also avoid assumptions about homogeneity of motive among male perpetrators). Male victims are likely to face some verbal abuse and occasional, isolated incidents of physical aggression but are rarely exposed to a fear-inducing regime involving sustained emotional and physical abuse. After research into aggression in 393 married couples, O’Leary and colleagues (1994) concluded that violence in (heterosexual) marriage does not arise from the same causes for women as for men.[51]

Murders of female intimate partners by men have dropped, but not nearly as dramatically.[52] Men kill their female intimate partners at about four times the rate that women kill their male intimate partners. Research by Jacquelyn Campbell, PhD RN FAAN has found that at least two thirds of women killed by their intimate partners were battered by those men prior to the murder. She also found that when males are killed by female intimates, the women in those relationships had been abused by their male partner about 75% of the time (see battered person syndrome and battered woman defence)[citation needed] Battered person syndrome is a physical and psychological condition that is classified as ICD-9 code 995. ... The battered woman defense is a legal defense representing that the person accused of an assault or murder was suffering from battered person syndrome at the material time. ...


Some researchers have found a relationship between the availability of domestic violence services, improved laws and enforcement regarding domestic violence and increased access to divorce, and higher earnings for women with declines in intimate partner homicide.[53]


Gender roles and expectations can and do play a role in abusive situations, and exploring these roles and expectations can be helpful in addressing abusive situations, as do factors like race, class, religion, sexuality and philosophy. None of these factors cause one to abuse or another to be abused.[citation needed] A bagpiper in military uniform. ...


Domestic violence in same-sex relationships

Domestic violence also occurs in same-sex relationships. In an effort to be more inclusive, many organizations have made an effort to use gender-neutral terms when referring to perpetratorship and victimhood.


Historically domestic violence has been seen as a family issue and little interest has been directed at violence in same-sex relationships. It has not been until recently, as the gay rights movement has brought the issues of gay and lesbian people into public attention, when research has been started to conduct on same-sex relationships. Several studies have indicated that partner abuse among same-sex couples (both female and male) is relatively similar in both prevalence and dynamics to that among opposite-sex couples.[54] Gays and lesbians, however, face special obstacles in dealing with the issues that some researchers have labeled "the double closet". A recent Canadian study by Mark W. Lehman [2] suggests similarities include frequency (approximately one in every four couples); manifestations (emotional, physical, financial, etc.); co-existent situations (unemployment, substance abuse, low self-esteem); victims' reactions (fear, feelings of helplessness, hypervigilance); and reasons for staying (love, can work it out, things will change, denial). At the same time, significant differences, unique issues and deceptive myths are typically present. Gays and lesbians can face discrimination and fear, dismissal by police and social services, and/or find a lack of support from their peers who would rather keep quiet about the problem in order not to attract negative attention toward the gay community. HIV status or AIDS can also play a role in keeping partners together, due to health care insurance/access, or guilt; outing can be used as a weapon; and supportive services are typically for the needs of heterosexual women and do not always meet the needs of other groups. The sociological construct of a gay community is complex among those that classify themselves as homosexual, ranging from full-embracement to complete and utter rejection of the concept. ...


Response to domestic violence

The response to domestic violence is typically a combined effort between law enforcement agencies, the courts, social service agencies and corrections/probation agencies. The role of each has evolved as domestic violence has been brought more into public view.


Domestic violence historically has been viewed as a private family matter that need not involve government or criminal justice intervention.[55] Police officers were often reluctant to intervene by making an arrest, and often chose instead to simply counsel the couple and/or ask one of the parties to leave the residence for a period of time. The courts were reluctant to impose any significant sanctions on those convicted of domestic violence, largely because it was viewed as a misdemeanor offense. United States criminal justice system flowchart. ... Police officers in South Australia A police officer (or policeman/policewoman) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... For other uses, see Arrest (disambiguation). ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ...


Activism, initiated by victim advocacy groups and feminist groups, has led to a better understanding of the scope and effect of domestic violence on victims and families, and has brought about changes in the criminal justice system's response.


Trainer and municipal court judge Richard Russell quoted in New Jersey Law Journal. April 24, 1995: "when you say to me, am I doing something wrong telling these judges they have to ignore the constitutional protections most people have, I don't think so. The Legislature described the problem and how to address it, [and] I am doing my job properly by teaching other judges to follow the legislative mandate.....Your job is not to become concerned about all the constitutional rights of the man that you're violating as you grant a restraining order. Throw him out on the street, give him the clothes on his back and tell him, 'See ya' around.' " Moreover, Russell says there is nothing wrong with the teaching approach. Abuse victims, he says, may apply and relinquish TROs repeatedly before they finally do something about breaking away. Once they do so, he says, the Legislature's prevention goal has been met. New Jersey Law Journal April 24, 1995


Several projects have aided in filling the voids in the justice system as it pertains to the protection of victims. One such initiative, The Hope Card Project, makes an attempt to remedy several problems through the issuance of an ID card to victims of abuse. The card is used to identify both parties in a domestic violence protection order and provides additional resources to the victim through a voucher program for services. "There is no photograph on a protection order, so a photograph is a bonus, not a necessity. There are several methods used to obtain the photograph. Some jurisdictions have a photograph taken of the offender during the first hearing while both parties are present. Another method is for officers to take a photograph in the field or retrieve a booking photograph from their local jail. In a lot of cases the victim brings a photograph and it is scanned. Lastly, the new online site has some state motor vehicle department photograph databases connected for that purpose. This is the ideal method." The Hope Card Project


Medical response

Many cases of spousal abuse are handled solely by medical professionals and do not involved the police. Sometimes cases of spousal abuse are brought into the emergency room,[56] while many other cases are handled by family physician or other primary care provider.[57] There has been some reluctance on part of physicians to discuss the issue and ask patients about possible battering.[58] As well, there is substantial reluctance for victims to come forward and broach the issue with their physicians. On average, women experience 35 incidents of domestic violence before seeking treatment.[59] The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ...


Treatment and support

Publicly available resources for dealing with domestic violence have tended to be almost exclusively geared towards supporting women and children who are in relationships with or who are leaving violent men, rather than for survivors of domestic violence per se. This has been due to the purported numeric preponderance of female victims and the perception that domestic violence only affected women. Resources to help men who have been using violence take responsibility for and stop their use of violence, such as Men's Behaviour Change Programs or anger management training, are available, though attendees are ordered to pay for their own course in order that they should remain accountable for their actions.[citation needed] This article is about the psychotherapy technique. ...


Men's organizations, such as ManKind in the UK, often see this approach as one-sided; as Report 191 by the British Home Office shows that men and women are equally culpable, they believe that there should be anger management courses for women also. They accuse organisations such as Women's Aid of bias in this respect saying that they spend millions of pounds on helping female victims of domestic violence and yet nothing on female perpetrators. These same men's organisations claim that before such help is given to female perpetrators, Women's Aid would have to admit that women are violent in the home. This they seem reluctant to do.[citation needed] (POV-check)


One of the challenges for lay observers, victims, perpetrators and treatment providers is demonstrated by the tendency to describe perpetrator treatment as men's "anger management" groups.


Comprehensive and accountable behaviour change programs are seen as far more appropriate and effective interventions in male violence in the home than anger management groups.[citation needed]


Inherent in anger management only approaches is the assumption that the violence is a result of a loss of control over one's anger. While there is little doubt that some domestic violence is about the loss of control, the choice of the target of that violence may be of greater significance. Anger management might be appropriate for the individual who lashes out indiscriminately when angry towards co-workers, supervisors or family. In most cases, however, the domestic violence perpetrator lashes out only at their intimate partner or relatively defenseless child, which suggests an element of choice or selection that, in turn, suggests a different or additional motivation beyond simple anger. Most experienced treatment providers have probably observed that for various reasons, many of which may be cultural, the perpetrator has a sense of entitlement, sometimes conscious, sometimes not, that leads directly to their choice of target.[citation needed]


Men's behaviour change programs, although differing throughout the world, tend to focus on the prevention of further violence within the family and the safety of women and children. Often they abide by various standards of practise that includes 'partner contact' where the participants female partner is contacted by the program and informed about the course, checked about her level of safety and support and offered support services for herself if she requires them. Many of these programs have both a male and female facilitator and follow a program designed to highlight the impact of his behaviour, examine the attitudes, values and behaviours that lead to his choice to use violence and aim to support and challenge the man to take responsibility for his use of violence.[citation needed]


Medical Treatment for Offenders'''


A number of medications have been used for control of aggression. Good evidence exists on the efficacy of clozapine. Evidence also exists for SSRIs ( selective serotonin re-uptake ihibitors), like "Prozac", hormonal antiandrogenic agents, beta-blockers, quetiapine and ariipiprazole. Lithium and anticonvulsants are widely used but their efficacy is not strongly supported. [60]


Law enforcement

See also: Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment

The London Metropolitan Police has compiled a list of the crimes [3] which typically can occur when domestic violence occurs. They are: The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (MDVE) was a study done in 1981-1982, led by Lawrence W. Sherman, to evaluate the effectiveness of various police responses to domestic violence calls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ...

The UK Crown Prosecution Service publishes guidance for prosecution in cases of alleged domestic violence. [4] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... In English law, murder is considered the most serious form of homicide where one person kills another either intending to cause death or intending to cause serious injury in a situation where death is virtually certain (originally termed malice aforethought even though it requires neither malice nor premeditation). ... For a discussion of the law in other countries, see manslaughter In the English law of homicide, manslaughter is a less serious offence than murder with the the law differentiating between levels of fault based on the mens rea (Latin for a guilty mind). Manslaughter may be either: Voluntary where... Indecent assault is a form of sex crime in many jurisdictions. ... Grievous bodily harm or GBH is a phrase used in English criminal law which was introduced in ss18 and 20 Offences Against The Person Act 1861. ... Actual Bodily Harm (often abbreviated to ABH) is a type of criminal assault defined under English law. ... In law, the affray is the fighting of two or more persons in a public place to the terror (in French: à leffroi) of the lieges. ... Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ... False imprisonment is a tort, and possibly a crime, wherein a person is intentionally confined without legal authority. ... Under English law, the Criminal Damage Act 1971 is the main statute covering damage to property. ... Witness intimidation involves witnesses crucial to court proceedings being threatened in order to pressure or extort them not to testify. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... In British law, perversion of the course of justice is a criminal offence in which someone acts in a manner that in some way prevents justice being served on themselves or other parties. ...


Intervention

The Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project

In 1981, the Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project became the first multi-disciplinary program designed to address the issue of domestic violence. This experiment, conducted in Duluth, MN, frequently referred to as the "Duluth Project." The Duluth Model or Domestic Abuse Intervention Project was developed by Minnesota Program Development, Inc. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Duluth is the county seat of St. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ...


It coordinated agencies dealing with domestic situations, drawing together diverse elements of the system, from police officers on the street, to shelters for battered women and probation officers supervising offenders. Probation Officers badge from the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania Probation officers and parole officers function as agents or officers of the courts. ...


This program has become a model for other jurisdictions seeking to deal more effectively with domestic violence. Corrections/probation agencies in many areas are supervising domestic violence offenders more closely, and are also paying closer attention to the victim's needs and safety issues.


There has been controversy as the Duluth framework depends on a strict "patriarchal violence" model and presumes that all violence in the home and elsewhere has a male perpetrator and female victim. Also evidence of success of the model is limited, with scholarly analysis and critique [5]. Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Research

2005 World Health Organization Multi-country Study

The World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna in 1993, and the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women in the same year, concluded that civil society and governments have acknowledged that violence against women is a public health and human rights concern. Work in this area has resulted in the establishment of international standards, but the task of documenting the magnitude of violence against women and producing reliable, comparative data to guide policy and monitor implementation has been exceedingly difficult. The World Health Organisation Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women 2005is a response to this difficulty. Published in 2005 it is a groundbreaking study which analysed data from 10 countries and sheds new light on the prevalence of violence against women. It seeks to look at violence against women from a public health policy perspective. The findings will be used to inform a more effective response from government, including the health, justice and social service sectors, as a step towards fulfilling the state’s obligation to eliminate violence against women under international human rights laws. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Public opinion and perception

A survey [6] in July and August 2006 of 2500 adults, males and females, 18 years of age or older, in the continental United States produced finding as per below. This survey was conducted by Opinion Research Corporation and Ruder Finn and funded by Redbook Magazine and Liz Claiborne Opinion Research Corporation, based in Princeton, New Jersey, is a demographic, health, and market research company. ... Ruder Finn is an United States public relations firm. ... For other uses, see Red Book. ... Liz Claiborne (born Elisabeth Claiborne Ortenberg March 31, 1929) is a Belgian-born fashion designer. ...


"When asked to define what actions comprise domestic violence and abuse, 2 in 5 Americans (40%) did not even mention hitting, slapping and punching. Over 90% of Americans failed to define repeated emotional, verbal, sexual abuse and controlling behaviors as patterns of domestic violence and abuse. The survey concluded: "When they can identify domestic abuse, Americans will act". [61]


A survey says that one in eight Brits are victims of domestic violence.[62]


Allegations of feminist misrepresentation

Some authors critical of mainstream feminism in the U.S., such as Christina Hoff Sommers, Wendy McElroy, Nathanson and Young and others have claimed that these feminists have misrepresented male-perpetrated domestic violence for pejorative political purposes. For instance, in a chapter of Who Stole Feminism entitled Noble Lies, Hoff Sommers wrote that mainstream feminist women's groups were responsible for spreading the falsehood that men commit more domestic violence on Super Bowl Sunday than on any other day of the year. She also alleged that feminist advocates mis-state, misinterpret, and otherwise manipulate domestic violence statistics to inflate overall levels of male-perpetrated domestic violence, to exaggerate dangerous domestic violence and to show that domestic violence is increasing despite evidence of its decline. [63] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... It has been suggested that Equity feminism be merged into this article or section. ... Wendy McElroy is a Canadian individualist anarchist and individualist feminist. ... Authors Paul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young are collaborators on a series of books on the subject of misandry, which they consider to be a form of prejudice and discrimination that has become institutionalized in North American society. ...


Domestic violence in popular culture

Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...

Abusive men in the news media

Illustration from the Norwegian children's picture book Sinna Mann (Angry Man) with text by Gro Dahle and illustrations by Svein Nyhus.
Illustration from the Norwegian children's picture book Sinna Mann (Angry Man) with text by Gro Dahle and illustrations by Svein Nyhus.

The news media finds it difficult to maintain neutrality in reporting or editorialising on violence.[citation needed]. Indeed, since many are "for profit" organizations, the selection of material to report and the prominence accorded to the coverage frames the readership's response and is intended to increase sales or advertising revenues rather than perform an altruistic social education function (see Scheufele: 1999 and 2000). The central organizing idea or narrative of story lines provides meaning to the events described and clusters ideas that guide the individuals as they process the information. Murnen (2002) points to the patriarchal structure of the management of commercial publishing, both fiction and non-fiction, television and cinema production, and the music, games, and advertising industries, all of which are reinforced by the continuing male dominance of political, economic, and legal resources. Men control the content and masculine ideology infuses the communication process, pandering to the relevant market niches and their prejudices to maximise sales revenues. Thus, themes of violent behavior are often portrayed in an uncritical style which reinforces stereotypes and may appear to condone the use of violence in certain specific situations. Sexual relationships are characteristically depicted in terms of the power disparities arising from physical strength: disparities that contribute to women's vulnerability to male authority (Dixon-Mueller: 1993). Social scientists now argue that aggression in the real world is socially learned behavior and results from cultural influences. For example, Reiss (1986) found that in rape-prone societies there was more endorsement of a "macho personality" (e.g. acceptance of physical aggression and of high risk-taking, casual attitudes toward sex) and more agreement with belief in the inferiority of females. Gerbner and Gross (1976) hypothesize that heavy viewers of media will begin to perceive the world as reflective of the worlds they view on television and in the media. Cultivation theory (see Gerbner et al: 1973) examines "the continual, dynamic, ongoing process of interaction among messages and contexts" and identifies the most recurrent, stable, and overarching patterns in media content. In repetitively viewing these recurrent patterns and images, the reader/viewer begins to accept the images as reality. Thus, media coverage frames the debate about the social acceptability of domestic violence in general and of the behavior of some individuals in particular, and may directly influence the real-world behavior in "ordinary" relationships. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 424 pixelsFull resolution (985 × 522 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Spread from Norwegian childrens picture book Sinna Mann (Angry Man) with text by Gro Dahle and illustrations by Svein Nyhus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 424 pixelsFull resolution (985 × 522 pixel, file size: 92 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Spread from Norwegian childrens picture book Sinna Mann (Angry Man) with text by Gro Dahle and illustrations by Svein Nyhus. ... Gro Dahle (born May 15, 1962 in Oslo, Norway) is a Norwegian poet and writer. ... Svein Nyhus (born 23 January 1962, in Tønsberg, Norway) is a Norwegian illustrator and writer of childrens books. ... In media studies, sociology and psychology, framing is a process of selective control over the individuals perception of the meanings attributed to words or phrases. ...


In film

Gaslight is a 1940 film based on the Patrick Hamilton play Angel Street, in which a man marries a woman and tries to convince her she is crazy so that he can steal the jewels stored in her attic. ... Gaslight is a 1944 film, considered film noir, directed by George Cukor starring Ingrid Bergman and Charles Boyer. ... The Burning Bed is a non-fiction book by Faith McNulty about a battered [[Dansville, Michigan|Dansville]], Michigan housewife, Francine Hughes. ... This article is about about the novel. ... Once Were Warriors, published in 1990, was New Zealand author Alan Duffs bestselling first novel. ... Once Were Warriors is 1994 film based New Zealand author Alan Duffs bestselling 1990 first novel of the same name. ... Sleeping with the Enemy is a 1991 psychological thriller film starring Julia Roberts, who escapes from her abusive, anal-rententive husband, played by Patrick Bergin. ... Julia Fiona Roberts (born October 28, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress and former fashion model. ... Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe is a 1987 bestselling novel by Fannie Flagg. ... Fried Green Tomatoes is a 1991 drama film based on the novel Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe by Fannie Flagg. ... Whats Love Got to Do with It was a #1 hit album in America that saw US singer Tina Turner regain massive international success. ... This article is about the film. ... For the film, see The Joy Luck Club (film). ... For the novel, see The Joy Luck Club The Joy Luck Club is a 1993 American movie about the relationships between Chinese-American women and their Chinese mothers. ... To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar is a 1995 Hollywood film, starring Wesley Snipes, Patrick Swayze, and John Leguizamo. ... East is East is a BAFTA award-winning British comedy film released in 1999. ... For other uses, see Enough (disambiguation). ... Poster for Te doy mis ojos Te doy mis ojos (Take My Eyes) is a 2003 Spanish film directed by Icíar Bollaín, starring Laia Marull and Luis Tosar. ... Madeas Family Reunion is a film adaptation of the acclaimed stage production written by Tyler Perry and sequel to Diary of a Mad Black Woman. ... Provoked is a 2007 UK based English language film, directed by Jag Mundhra. ...

See also

Abuser redirects here. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Child abuse is the physical or sexual of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Emotional abuse refers to a long-term situation in which one person uses his or her power or influence to adversely affect the mental well-being of another. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Parental alienation is any behavior by a parent, a childs mother or father, whether conscious or unconscious, that could create alienation in the relationship between a child and the other parent. ... Relational aggression is psychological (social/emotional) aggression between people in relationships. ... Violence against women (VAW) is a term of art used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. ... Violence against men is the term used for an act of Domestic violence that is carried out my the mans girlfriend, wife or partner of whom he is in a romantic-relationship with. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Daniel Z. Epstein http://ssrn.com/abstract=959534 "Romance is Dead"] 2007
  2. ^ Wallace, Harvey (2004). Family Violence: Legal, Medical, and Social Perspectives. Allyn & Bacon, p. 2. ISBN 0205418228. 
  3. ^ a b Waits, Kathleen (1984-1985). "The Criminal Justice System's Response to Battering: Understanding the Problem, Forging the Solutions". Washington Law Review 60: pp. 267-330. 
  4. ^ Shipway (2004), p. 3
  5. ^ Mayhew, P., Mirlees-Black, C. and Percy, A. (1996). "The 1996 British Crime Survey England & Wales". Home Office.
  6. ^ a b About Domestic Violence. Office on Violence Against Women. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  7. ^ Domestic Violence Assessment Policy (PDF). Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  8. ^ Johnson, 2006a; Leone et al. 2003, 2004
  9. ^ Graham-Kevan & Archer, 2003a, 2003b; Rosen et al. 2005
  10. ^ Watts, C. and C. Zimmerman. "Violence against women: global scope and magnitude". The Lancet 359(9313): pp. 1232-1237. PMID 11955557. 
  11. ^ Bachman, Ronet and Linda E. Saltzman (August 1995). "Violence against Women: Estimates from the Redesigned Survey". Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 154348
  12. ^ a b c Ending Violence Against Women - Population Reports. Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE) (December 1999).
  13. ^ Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. - Overview. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved on 2007-06-15.
  14. ^ Rennison, Callie Marie (February 2003). "Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2001". Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 197838
  15. ^ Bacchus L, Mezey G, Bewley S, Haworth A. Prevalence of domestic violence when midwives routinely enquire in pregnancy. BJOG. 2004 May;111(5):441-5. PMID 15104607
  16. ^ Johnson JK, Haider F, Ellis K, Hay DM, Lindow SW. The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women. BJOG. 2003 Mar;110(3):272-5. PMID 12628266
  17. ^ Huth-Bocks AC, Levendosky AA, Bogat GA. The effects of domestic violence during pregnancy on maternal and infant health. Violence Vict. 2002 Apr;17(2):169-85. PMID 12033553
  18. ^ Torres S, Campbell J, Campbell DW, Ryan J, King C, Price P, Stallings RY, Fuchs SC, Laude M. Abuse during and before pregnancy: prevalence and cultural correlates. Violence Vict. 2000 Fall;15(3):303-21. PMID 11200104
  19. ^ O'Donnell S, Fitzpatrick M, McKenna P. Abuse in pregnancy - the experience of women. Ir Med J. 2000 Nov;93(8):229-30. PMID 11133053
  20. ^ Parker B, McFarlane J, Soeken K, Torres S, Campbell D. Physical and emotional abuse in pregnancy: a comparison of adult and teenage women. Nurs Res. 1993 May-Jun;42(3):173-8. PMID 8506167
  21. ^ Gielen AC, O'Campo PJ, Faden RR, Kass NE, Xue X. Interpersonal conflict and physical violence during the childbearing year. Soc Sci Med. 1994 Sep;39(6):781-7. PMID 7802853
  22. ^ Harrykissoon SD, Rickert VI, Wiemann CM. Prevalence and patterns of intimate partner violence among adolescent mothers during the postpartum period. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Apr;156(4):325-30. PMID 11929364
  23. ^ i.e. Douglas, E. M., & Straus, M. A. (2006). Assault and Injury of Dating Partners by University Students in 19 Countries and its Relation to Corporal Punishment Experienced as a Child. European Journal of Criminology, 3, 293–318.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h "Intimate Partner Violence: Fact Sheet", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 22 September, 2006.
  25. ^ http://thesafetyzone.org/everyone/gelles.html
  26. ^ http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/181867.txt
  27. ^ American Psychology Association. Violence and the Family: Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family. 1996
  28. ^ Bowker, L.H., Arbitell, M.,& Mcferron, J.R., “On the Relationship Between Wife Beating and Child Abuse.” In K. Yllo & M. Bograd, Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse, Sage, 1988
  29. ^ Women's Aid Federation Northern Ireland
  30. ^ Jewkes, Rachel (April 20, 2002). "Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention". The Lancet 359: pp. 1423-1429. 
  31. ^ George DT, Umhau JC et al Serotonin, testosterone and alcohol in the etiology of domestic violence. Psychiatry Res. 2001 Oct 10;104(1):27-37
  32. ^ Sánchez C, Meier E. Behavioral profiles of SSRIs in animal models of depression, anxiety and aggression. Are they all alike? Psychopharmacology 1997 Feb;129(3):197-205.
  33. ^ http://www.nuancejournal.com.au/documents/one/graves-duluth.pdf
  34. ^ Seltzer, Judith A., Debra Kalmuss (December 1988). "Socialization and Stress Explanations for Spouse Abuse". Social Forces 67(2): pp. 473-491. 
  35. ^ Aneshensel, Carol S. (1992). "Social Stress: Theory and Research". Annual Review of Sociology 18: pp. 15-38. 
  36. ^ Kalmuss, D.S. and M.A. Straus. "Physical Violence in American Families". 
  37. ^ Chu, James A. "The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse." Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1: 259-269, 1992
  38. ^ a b Dutton, D.G. & T.L. Nicholls, The gender paradigm in domestic violence research and theory: Part 1—The conflict of theory and data [Review article]. Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal, 2005. 10(6): p. 680-714.
  39. ^ Carney, M., F. Buttell, and D. Dutton, Women who perpetrate intimate partner violence: A review of the literature with recommendations for treatment [Review article]. Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal, 2007. 12(1): p. 108-115.
  40. ^ http://www.csulb.edu/~mfiebert/latimes.htm
  41. ^ Archer, J., Sex Differences in Aggression Between Heterosexual Partners: [A Meta-Analytic Review]. Psychological Bulletin, 2000. 126(5), 651-680.
  42. ^ O'Leary, K.D., Are Women Really More Aggressive Than Men in Intimate Relationships? [Comment on Archer (2000)]. Psychological Bulletin, 2000. 126(5): p. 685-689.
  43. ^ Johnson, M.P., Domestic Violence: It’s Not About Gender—Or Is It? Journal of Marriage and Family, 2005. 67, 1126–1130.
  44. ^ Hanson Frieze, I., Violence in Close Relationships Development of a Research Area [Comment on Archer (2000)]. Psychological Bulletin, 2000. 126(5), 681-684.
  45. ^ Jacquelyn W~ White, et al., Intimate Partner Aggression What Have We Learned? [Comment on Archer (2000)]. Psychological Bulletin, 2000. 126(5), 690-696.
  46. ^ http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/ipv01.pdf
  47. ^ http://www.xyonline.net/downloads/malevictims.pdf
  48. ^ a b http://www.batteredmen.com/bathelpwhymen.htm
  49. ^ "Common Myths About Domestic Violence", Men's Advice Line, supported by the Home Office
  50. ^ http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mas2/ID41H3a.pdf
  51. ^ http://www.mensadviceline.org.uk/Articles/are-women-as-violent-as-men.htm
  52. ^ Violence by Intimates from the US Bureau of Justice Statistics
  53. ^ Laura Dugan, Daniel S. Nagin, and Richard Rosenfeld. Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources in Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, 187-214, 1999
  54. ^ Prevalence of DV in Same-Sex Couples comparable to Heterosexual Couples (circa 1998)
  55. ^ Fagan, Jeffrey (1995). "Criminalization of Domestic Violence: Promises and Limits" in Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation. Research Report, National Institute of Justice. 
  56. ^ Boyle, A., S. Robinson and P. Atkinson (January 2004). "Domestic Violence in Emergency Medicine Patients". Emergency Medicine Journal 21(1): pp. 9-13. 
  57. ^ Gerbert, Barbara, Nona Caspers, et al (October 1999). "A Qualitative Analysis of How Physicians with Expertise in Domestic Violence Approach the Identification of Victims". Annals of Internal Medicine 131(8): pp. 578-584. 
  58. ^ Sugg, N.K. and T. Inui (June 17, 1992). "Primary Care Physicians' Response to Domestic Violence. Opening Pandora's Box". Journal of the American Medical Association 267(23): pp. 3157-3160. 
  59. ^ Bowwn, Erica, Len Brown and Elizabeth Gilchrist (July 2002). "Evaluating Probation Based Offender Programmes for Domestic Violence Perpetrators: A Pro-Feminist Approach". The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice 41(3): pp. 221-236. 
  60. ^ [1]
  61. ^ New Poll Reveals Two In Three Americans Say It Is Hard To Recognize Domestic Violence
  62. ^ "One-in-ten Brit women are victims of domestic violence". 
  63. ^ Hoff-Sommers, C. "Who Stole Feminism: How Women Have Betrayed Women", Touchstone, 1994, p 188-208.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading and resources

Books

  • Bancroft, Lundy (2002). Why Does He Do That? Inside the Minds of Angry and Controlling Men, Putnam.
  • Doris Van Stone, (1990). No Place to Cry: The Hurt and Healing of Sexual Abuse. Moody Publishers.
  • Dutton, Donald (1997). The Batterer: A Psychological Profile, Basic Books.
  • Dutton, Donald (2006). Rethinking Domestic Violence, UBC Press. ISBN 07748-1015-7
  • Gerbner, George, et al. (1973). Communications Technology and Social Policy: Understanding the New "Cultural Revolution. New York: Interscience Publication.
  • Ghiglieri, Micheal, P. (1999). The Dark Side of Man: Tracing the Origins of Male Violence, Perseus Books.
  • Haugen, David (2005). Domestic Violence: Opposing Viewpoints, Greenhaven. ISBN 0-7377-2225-8 Also in series: ISBN 0-7377-0345-8
  • James, Thomas B. (2003). Domestic Violence: The 12 Things You Aren't Supposed to Know, Aventine.
  • McElroy, Wendy (2001). Sexual Correctness: The Gender-Feminist Attack on Women, McFarland.
  • Pearson, Patricia (1997). When She Was Bad: Violent Women and the Myth of Innocence, Viking Adult.
  • Reiss, Ira. L. (1986). Journey into Sexuality: An Exploratory Voyage. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • Wishart, G.D. (2003) The Sexual Abuse of People with Learning Difficulties: Do We Need A Social Model Approach To Vulnerability?, Journal of Adult Protection, Volume 5 (Issue 3)

Articles

  • Dixon-Mueller, R. (1993). "The Sexuality Connection in Reproductive Health". Studies in Family Planning, 24, 269-282.
  • Dugan, L., Nagin, D.S. and Rosenfeld, R,, (1999), Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources in Homicide Studies, 3:3, pp. 187-214
  • Gerbner, George & Larry Gross. (1976). "Living With Television: The Violence Profile". Journal of Communication.
  • Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2003a). Intimate terrorism and common couple violence: A test of Johnson's predictions in four British samples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(11), 1247-1270.
  • Graham-Kevan, N., & Archer, J. (2003b). Physical aggression and control in heterosexual relationships: The effect of sampling. Violence and Victims, 18(2), 181-196.
  • Johnson, M.P. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, May, pp. 283-294.
  • Johnson, M. P. (2006a). Conflict and control: Gender symmetry and asymmetry in domestic violence. Violence Against Women, 12(11), 1-16.
  • Johnson, M. P. (2006b). Violence and abuse in personal relationships: Conflict, terror, and resistance in intimate partnerships. In A. L. Vangelisti & D. Perlman (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (pp. 557-576). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kierski, Werner [7], Female Violence: Can We Therapists Face Up to It?, CPJ, 12/2002. (ISSN 1474-5372)(Google PDF file)
  • Kimmel, Michael Gender Symmetry in Domestic Violence - A Substantive and Methodological Research Review Stony Brook, Violence Against Women, Vol. 8, No. 11, 1332-1363 (2002), SAGE Publications Synopsis, whole article
  • Leone, J. M., Johnson, M. P., & Cohan, C. L. (2003, November). Help-seeking among women in violent relationships: Factors associated with formal and informal help utilization. Paper presented at the National Council on Family Relations annual meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Leone, J. M., Johnson, M. P., Cohan, C. M., & Lloyd, S. (2004). Consequences of male partner violence for low-income, ethnic women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 471-489.
  • Mildorf, Jarmila (2007). Storying Domestic Violence. Constructions and Stereotypes of Abuse in the Discourse of General Practitioners. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-3259-4.
  • Murnen, Sarah K.; Wright, Sarah K. & Gretchen Kaluzny. (2002). "If "boys will be boys," then girls will be victims? A meta-analytic review of the research that relates masculine ideology to sexual aggression". Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. June.
  • Peters, J., Shackelford, T. K., & Buss, D. M. (2002). Understanding domestic violence against women: Using evolutionary psychology to extend the feminist functional analysis. Violence and Victims, 17, 255-264. Full text
  • Rosen, K. H., Stith, S. M., Few, A. L., Daly, K. L., & Tritt, D. R. (2005). A qualitative investigation of Johnson's typology. Violence and Victims. Special Issue: Women's and Men's Use of Interpersonal Violence, 20(3), 319-334.
  • Scheufele, Dietram A. (1999). "Framing as a Theory of Media Effects". Journal of Communication. Vol. 49 (Winter), 102-22.
  • Scheufele, Dietram A. (2000). "Agenda Setting, Priming, and Framing Revisited: Another Look at Cognitive Effects of Political Communication". Mass Communication and Society Vol. 3, 297-316.
  • Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the national violence against women survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2000. Publication No. NCJ183781. Available from: http://www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/nij/183781.txt
  • Tjaden, P,. Thoennes, N., Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington (DC): U,S. Department of Justice, 2000a. Publication No. NCJ 181867. Available from: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/181867.htm.

Michael S. Kimmel is an american sociologist. ...

External links

The California State University (CSU) is one of three public higher education systems in the state of California, the other two being the University of California system and the California Community College System. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag Parliament House is the name given to two purpose-built buildings in Australia, where the Parliament of Australia has met since 1927. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag Parliament House is the name given to two purpose-built buildings in Australia, where the Parliament of Australia has met since 1927. ...

DVDs

  • Haines, Staci Healing Sex (DVD) A diverse cast of men and women led by educator Haines use mind/body recovery exercises as a holistic approach to intimacy issues post-abuse.

Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ...

External links

Governments:

International:

Organizations: Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...

  • Center Against Domestic Violence
  • Services for Domestic Violence Victims and Their Families
  • Research on Domestic Violence Against Males
  • Respecting Accuracy in Domestic Abuse Reporting (RADAR)
  • National Network to End Domestic Violence
  • National Coalition to End Domestic Violence
  • Family Violence Prevention Fund
  • University of Minnesota Center Against Violence And Abuse
  • DeafHope - Deaf Survivors of Domestic Violence & Sexual Assault
  • National Domestic Violence Hotline (US)
  • Mankind(helping male victims in the UK)
  • Resources on Children Exposed to Domestic Violence
  • Domestic Violence laws and expungement
  • Gay Men's Domestic Violence Project
  • Canadian Domestic Abuse Community & Blog Network
  • Jennifer Ann's Group, Jennifer Ann's Group (focus on violence specifically in teenage relationships)
  • Website with further information about Domestic Violence Against Men
  • Men as Victims Website about Male Victims of Domestic Abuse
  • The New York City Alliance Against Sexual Assault
  • The Marjaree Mason Center Shelter-based Domestic Violence Program
  • WomensLaw.org US based legal resources for survivors
  • A list of organizations for women whose lives have been affected by abuse

Articles and information: The Jennifer Ann Crecente Memorial Group, Inc. ...

  • Helpguide: Domestic Violence and Abuse
  • Family Violence in Canada: A Statistical Profile
  • No Safe Haven, a special report on domestic violence by Mother Jones magazine
  • Domestic violence online articles

 
 

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