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Encyclopedia > Domenico Scarlatti

Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in Spain and Portugal. He is classified as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ...

Domenico Scarlatti, portrayed by Domingo Antonio Velasco in 1738.
Domenico Scarlatti, portrayed by Domingo Antonio Velasco in 1738.

Contents

Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ...

Life and career

Domenico Scarlatti was born in Naples, Italy, in 1685.[1] He was the sixth of ten children and a younger brother to Pietro Filippo Scarlatti, also a musician. Most probably he first studied under his father, the composer and teacher Alessandro Scarlatti; other composers who may have been his early teachers include Gaetano Greco, Francesco Gasparini, and Bernardo Pasquini, all of whom seem to have influenced his musical style. Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Pietro Filippo Scarlatti (born January 5, 1679 in Rome; died February 22, 1750 in Naples) was an Italian composer, organist and choirmaster. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... Gaetano Greco (ca. ... Francesco Gasparini (1661 - February 22, 1727) was an Italian Baroque composer and teacher. ... Bernardo Pasquini Bernardo Pasquini (December 7, 1637 - November 22, 1710), was an Italian composer of opera and church music. ...


He became a composer and organist at the royal chapel in Naples in 1701. In 1704, he revised Carlo Francesco Pollarolo's opera Irene for performance at Naples. Soon after this his father sent him to Venice; no record exists of his next four years. In 1709 he went to Rome in the service of the exiled Polish queen Marie Casimire, where he met Thomas Roseingrave who later led the enthusiastic reception of the composer's sonatas in London. Scarlatti was already an eminent harpsichordist: there is a story that in a trial of skill with George Frideric Handel at the palace of Cardinal Ottoboni in Rome where he was judged possibly superior to Handel on that instrument, although inferior on the organ. Later in life, he was known to cross himself in veneration when speaking of Handel's skill. Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Parents Henrik de la Grange dArquien Francis de la Charte Consorts Jan Sobiepan Zamoyski Jan III Sobieski Children with Jan III Sobieski Jakub Ludwik Sobieski Teresa Teofila Sobieska Berbelune Sobieska La Mannone Sobieska Teresa Kunegunda Sobieska Aleksander Benedykt... Thomas Roseingrave (b. ... Sonata (From Latin and Italian sonare, to sound), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to cantata (Latin cantare, to sing), a piece sung. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... Pietro, Cardinal Ottoboni, the Cardinal Ottoboni (1667–February 29, 1740), was a member of the noble Venetian family and the grand-nephew of the Venetian Pope Alexander VIII(1689–1691). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ...


In Rome, Scarlatti composed several operas for Queen Casimira's private theatre. He was maestro di cappella at St Peter's from 1715 to 1719, and in the latter year came to London to direct his opera Narciso at the King's Theatre. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A performance at Opera House, Haymarket, predecessor of Her Majestys Theatre in circa 1808. ...


According to Vicente Bicchi (Papal Nuncio at the time), Domenico Scarlatti arrived in Lisbon on November 29, 1719. There he taught music to the Portuguese princess Maria Magdalena Barbara. He left Lisbon on January 28, 1727 for Rome, where he married Maria Caterina Gentili on May 6, 1728. In 1729 he moved to Sevilla, staying for four years and gaining a knowledge of Flamenco. In 1733 he went to Madrid as music master to Princess Maria Barbara, who had married into the Spanish royal house. When the Princess became Queen of Spain Scarlatti remained in the country for twenty-five years, where he had five children. After the death of his wife in 1742 he married a Spaniard, Anastasia Maxarti Ximenes. Among his compositions during his time in Madrid were a number of the five hundred keyboard sonatas for which he is best known. For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Maria Bárbara of Bragança, queen of Spain Barbara of Braganza, Princess of Portugal and Queen of Spain (1711-1758). ... Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. ...


Scarlatti befriended the castrato singer Farinelli, a fellow Neapolitan also enjoying royal patronage in Madrid. The musicologist Ralph Kirkpatrick acknowledges that Farinelli's correspondence provides "most of the direct information about Scarlatti that has transmitted itself to our day." A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ... Farinelli, by Wagner after Amigoni 1735 Farinelli (January 24, 1705 – September 16, 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Broschi, one of the most famous Italian soprano castrato singers of the 18th century. ... Ralph Kirkpatrick (June 10, 1911–April 13, 1984) was a musician, musicologist and harpsichordist, born in Leominster, Massachusetts. ... Farinelli, by Wagner after Amigoni 1735 Farinelli (January 24, 1705 – September 16, 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Broschi, one of the most famous Italian soprano castrato singers of the 18th century. ...


Domenico Scarlatti died in Madrid, aged 71. His residence on Calle Leganitos is designated with an historical plaque, and his descendants still live in Madrid. This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


Music

See also: List of Solo Keyboard Sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti

Only a small fraction of Scarlatti's compositions were published during his lifetime; Scarlatti himself seems to have overseen the publication in 1738 of the most famous collection, his 30 Essercizi ("Exercises"). These were rapturously received throughout Europe, and were championed by the foremost English writer on music of the eighteenth century, Dr. Charles Burney. These are the sonatas for solo keyboard by Domenico Scarlatti, listed in Kirkpatrick number order: Kk. ... Charles Burney by Sir Joshua Reynolds in 1781 Charles Burney (April 12, 1726 – April 12, 1814) was an English music historian and father of author Fanny Burney. ...


The many sonatas which were unpublished during Scarlatti's lifetime have appeared in print irregularly in the two and a half centuries since. Scarlatti has, however, attracted notable admirers, including Frédéric Chopin, Johannes Brahms, Béla Bartók, Dmitri Shostakovich, Heinrich Schenker and Vladimir Horowitz. The Russian school of pianism has particularly championed the sonatas. Chopin redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Bartok redirects here. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Heinrich Schenker Heinrich Schenker (June 19, 1868 - January 13, 1935) was a music theorist, best known for his approach to musical analysis, now usually called Schenkerian analysis. ... Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (1 October 1903 – 5 November 1989) was a Russian-American[1][2] pianist. ...


Scarlatti's 555 keyboard sonatas are single movements, mostly in binary form, and are almost all intended for the harpsichord (there are four for organ, and a few where Scarlatti suggests a small instrumental group). Modern pianoforte technique owes much to their influence.[citation needed] Some of them display harmonic audacity, for in their use of discords, and also unconventional modulations to remote keys. In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. ... For other uses, see key. ...


Other distinctive attributes of Scarlatti's style are the following:

  • The influence of Iberian (Portuguese and Spanish) folk music. An example is Scarlatti's use of the Phrygian mode and other tonal inflections more or less alien to European art music. Also some of Scarlatti's figurations and dissonances are guitar-like.
  • A formal device in which each half of a sonata leads to a pivotal point, which the Scarlatti scholar Ralph Kirkpatrick termed "the crux", and which is sometimes underlined by a pause or fermata. Before the crux Scarlatti sonatas often contain their main thematic variety, and after the crux the music makes more use of repetitive figurations as it modulates away from the home key (in the first half) or back to the home key (in the second half).

Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Ralph Kirkpatrick (June 10, 1911–April 13, 1984) was a musician, musicologist and harpsichordist, born in Leominster, Massachusetts. ...

Recordings

Scott Ross recorded all 555 Scarlatti sonatas in a 34-CD set, nearly all on harpsichord, excepting the three for organ and the instrumental suites, for which he provided the continuo. In 2007 the Dutch harpsichordist Pieter-Jan Belder finished his recording of all the keyboard sonatas in sequential order for the label Brilliant Classics. Ditto Richard Lester, for the Nimbus label. The Naxos label is currently working on a project to record all of Scarlattis' sonatas on the piano - with each disc taken by a different pianist. The Italian Stradivarius label's Scarlatti sonata project, mostly recorded with harpsichordist Ottavio Dantone, currently stands at volume 10. According to an official at the label, there are talks to continue with the project[2]. Scott Ross (March 1, 1951–June 13, 1989) was a United States harpsichordist who lived in France for many years. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ...


The name of Ralph Kirkpatrick, the harpsichordist, has become closely associated with the sonatas; he was also a renowned Scarlatti scholar, and the numbering of the sonatas from his edition is nearly always used (the Kk. or K. number). Ralph Kirkpatrick (June 10, 1911–April 13, 1984) was a musician, musicologist and harpsichordist, born in Leominster, Massachusetts. ...


Pianist Vladimir Horowitz made several recordings of Scarlatti sonatas, performed on a modern piano. While these recordings have been the subject of critical debate and discussion (Horowitz was a pianist of the Romantic tradition), they caused a huge surge in popularity for Scarlatti's sonatas, which pianists had rarely played in public. Horowitz prepared meticulously for his Scarlatti recordings, calling on guidance from Ralph Kirkpatrick.[citation needed] Other recordings of historical importance include those of some of the sonatas by Béla Bartók. Numerous critics (Jed Distler, Jens F. Laurson, and others) extol the virtues of a two-CD recording made on the piano by Mikhail Pletnev (Virgin Classics). A recording by Yevgeni Sudbin on the Swedish BIS label has been met with similar acclaim. Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (1 October 1903 – 5 November 1989) was a Russian-American[1][2] pianist. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Ralph Kirkpatrick (June 10, 1911–April 13, 1984) was a musician, musicologist and harpsichordist, born in Leominster, Massachusetts. ... Bartok redirects here. ... BIS is an acronym standing for: Bank for International Settlements Barratt Impulsivity Scale, a self administered test to measure impulsivity Benevolent Irish Society Bispectral index Bislama language (ISO 639 alpha-3, bis) Bohemia Interactive Studio Bezpecnostni informacni sluzba, the Czech intelligence agency Best in Show, the highest placing in a...


Media

  • Sonata in D minor K.9, Allegretto
    performed on a harpsichord by Martha Goldstein
    Sonata in E major k.20, Presto
    performed on a harpsichord by Martha Goldstein
    Sonata in B minor K.27, Allegro
    Performed on a piano by Raymond Smullyan
    Sonata in B minor K.377
    Image:Domenico Scarlatti -- Sonata (L 263).mid
    Played on harpsichord; includes ornaments (MIDI file).
    Sonata in E major K.380, Andante comodo
    Performed on a piano by Raymond Smullyan
    Sonata in E major K.531, Allegro
    Performed on a piano by Raymond Smullyan
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Domenico_Scarlatti_-_Allegretto_-_D_minor. ... Image File history File links Domenico_Scarlatti_-_Presto_-_E_Major. ... Raymond Merrill Smullyan (born 1919) is a mathematician, logician, philosopher, and magician. ... Image File history File links Domenico_Scarlatti_--_Sonata_(L_263). ... Image File history File links Domenico_Scarlatti_--_Sonata_(L_263). ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... Raymond Merrill Smullyan (born 1919) is a mathematician, logician, philosopher, and magician. ... Raymond Merrill Smullyan (born 1919) is a mathematician, logician, philosopher, and magician. ...

References

  • Kirkpatrick, Ralph (1953). Domenico Scarlatti. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02708-0. 

Ralph Kirkpatrick (June 10, 1911–April 13, 1984) was a musician, musicologist and harpsichordist, born in Leominster, Massachusetts. ...

Notes

  1. ^ This is coincidentally the same year in which two other Baroque masters, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel were also born.
  2. ^ Phone interview, February 11, 2008

“Bach” redirects here. ... “Handel” redirects here. ...

External links

The Werner Icking Music Archive, often abbreviated WIMA, is a web archive of public domain sheet music. ... The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) is a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Domenico Scarlatti - definition of Domenico Scarlatti in Encyclopedia (756 words)
Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 – July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer of the Baroque era.
Domenico Scarlatti, portrayed by Domingo Antonio Velasco in 1738
Domenico was already a harpsichord-player of eminence, and there is a story that at a trial of skill with George Friderich Handel at the palace of Cardinal Ottoboni in Rome he was adjudged perhaps superior to Handel on that instrument, although inferior on the organ.
Domenico Scarlatti - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1174 words)
Domenico Scarlatti (October 26, 1685 – July 23, 1757) was an Italian composer of the Baroque era.
(Giuseppe) Domenico Scarlatti was born in Naples, Italy, the sixth of ten children and a younger brother to Pietro Filippo Scarlatti, also a musician.
Domenico was already a harpsichord-player of eminence, and there is a story that at a trial of skill with George Frideric Handel at the palace of Cardinal Ottoboni in Rome he was adjudged perhaps superior to Handel on that instrument, although inferior on the organ.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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