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Encyclopedia > Dolphin
Dolphins
Fossil range: Early Miocene - Recent
Bottlenose Dolphin breaching in the bow wave of a boat
Bottlenose Dolphin breaching in the bow wave of a boat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Cetacea
Suborder: Odontoceti
Family: Delphinidae and Platanistoidea
Gray, 1821
Genera

See article below. Dolphin may refer to: Dolphins, several species of aquatic mammal in the order Delphinidae. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Download high resolution version (2587x1709, 1092 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin is the most common and well-known dolphin. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families See text The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) form a suborder of the cetaceans. ... John Edward Gray. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ...

Dolphins are aquatic mammals that are closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in seventeen genera. They vary in size from 1.2 metres (4 ft) and 40 kilograms (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and ten tonnes (the Orca or Killer Whale). They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid. The family Delphinidae is the largest in the Cetacea, and relatively recent: dolphins evolved about ten million years ago, during the Miocene. Dolphins are considered to be amongst the most intelligent of animals and their often friendly appearance and seemingly playful attitude have made them popular in human culture. A Humpback whale, a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal, a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee, a member of Order Sirenia A marine mammal is a mammal that is primarily ocean-dwelling or depends on the ocean for its food. ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kg redirects here. ... The pound (abbreviations: lb or, sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of units of mass that formed part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Binomial name Cephalorhynchus hectori Hectors Dolphin range Hectors Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) is the most well-known of the four dolphins in the genus Cephalorhynchus. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... The continental shelf is an area of relatively shallow sea water that is found on the edge of each continent. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera See text. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). ...

Contents

Origin of the name

The name is originally from Ancient Greek δελφίς (delphís; "dolphin"), which was related to the Greek δελφυς (delphys; "womb"). The animal's name can therefore be interpreted as meaning "a 'fish' with a womb".[1] The name was transmitted via the Latin delphinus, Middle Latin dolfinus and the Old French daulphin, which reintroduced the ph into the word. Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ...


The word is used in a few different ways. It can mean:

  • Any member of the family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins),
  • Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins),
  • Any member of the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales; these include the above families and some others),
  • Used casually as a synonym for Bottlenose Dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin.

In this article, the second definition is used. Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in this sense. Orcas and some closely related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language. A group of dolphins can be called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are called "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called "calves".[2] Genera See text Oceanic dolphins are the members of the Delphinidae family of cetaceans. ... Families See text River dolphins are four species of dolphin which reside in freshwater rivers and estuarys. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoises Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoises The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ...


Taxonomy

Common Dolphin
Bottlenose Dolphin
Spotted Dolphin
Spotted Dolphin
Commerson's Dolphin
Commerson's Dolphin
Dusky Dolphin
Dusky Dolphin
Killer Whales, also known as Orcas
Killer Whales, also known as Orcas
The Boto, or Amazon River Dolphin
The Boto, or Amazon River Dolphin

Six species in the family Delphinidae are commonly called "whales" but are strictly speaking dolphins. They are sometimes called "blackfish". Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 499 × 277 pixelsFull resolution (499 × 277 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A Bottlenose Dolphin. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 499 × 277 pixelsFull resolution (499 × 277 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)A Bottlenose Dolphin. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Commdolph01. ... Image File history File links Commdolph01. ... Image File history File links Lagenorhynchus_obscurus. ... Image File history File links Lagenorhynchus_obscurus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Killerwhales_jumping. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Killerwhales_jumping. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 1696 KB) Phylum : Chordata - Class : Mammalia - Order : Cetacea - Family : Iniidae - Species : Inia geoffrensis (boto) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boto Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3264x2448, 1696 KB) Phylum : Chordata - Class : Mammalia - Order : Cetacea - Family : Iniidae - Species : Inia geoffrensis (boto) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Boto Metadata This file contains additional... Genera See text. ... Binomial name Delphinus capensis Long-beaked Common Dolphin range Binomial name Delphinus delphis Short-beaked Common Dolphin range The Common Dolphin is the name given to two, or occasionally one species of dolphin, making up the genus Delphinus. ... Binomial name Delphinus capensis Long-beaked Common Dolphin range Binomial name Delphinus delphis Short-beaked Common Dolphin range The Common Dolphin is the name given to two, or occasionally one species of dolphin, making up the genus Delphinus. ... Binomial name Montagu, 1821 Bottlenose Dolphin range (in blue) The Bottlenose Dolphin is the most common and well-known dolphin. ... Binomial name Tursiops truncatus Montagu, 1821 The Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most common and well-known dolphin species. ... Binomial name Lissodelphis borealis Northern Right Whale Dolphin range Binomial name Lissodelphis peronii Southern Right Whale Doplhin range The right whale dolphins, the Northern Right Whale Dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) and the Southern Right Whale Dolphin (Lissodelphis peroni), are two of the easiest cetaceans to identify at sea. ... Binomial name Lissodelphis borealis Northern Right Whale Dolphin range Binomial name Lissodelphis peronii Southern Right Whale Doplhin range The right whale dolphins, the Northern Right Whale Dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) and the Southern Right Whale Dolphin (Lissodelphis peroni), are two of the easiest cetaceans to identify at sea. ... Binomial name Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853) Tucuxi range The Tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis) is a dolphin found both in the rivers of the Amazon Basin and in the coastal waters to the north and east of South America. ... Binomial name Sousa chinensis Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Chinese White Dolphin) range Binomial name Sousa plumbea Indian Humpback Dolphin range Binomial name Sousa teuszi Atlantic Humpback Dolphin range The humpback dolphins are the members of the genus Sousa. ... Trinomial name Sousa chinensis chinensis (Osbeck, 1765) Chinese White Dolphin range (blue area) The Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis chinensis; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), also called Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, is a species of the Humpback dolphin and is one of eighty cetacean species. ... Binomial name Sousa chinensis Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Chinese White Dolphin) range Binomial name Sousa plumbea Indian Humpback Dolphin range Binomial name Sousa teuszi Atlantic Humpback Dolphin range The humpback dolphins are the members of the genus Sousa. ... Binomial name Cuvier, 1829 Atlantic Spotted Dolphin range Synonyms Stenella plagiodon Cope, 1866 The Atlantic Spotted Dolphin (Stenella frontalis) is a dolphin found in the Gulf Stream of the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Binomial name Stenella clymene Clymene Dolphin range The Clymene Dolphin (Stenella clymene), in some texts known as the Short-snouted Spinner Dolphin, is dolphin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. ... Binomial name Stenella attenuata (Gray, 1846) Pantropical Spotted Dolphin range The Pantropical Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata) is a species of dolphin found in all the worlds temperate and tropical oceans. ... Binomial name (Gray, 1828) Spinner Dolphin range The Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a small dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world. ... Binomial name Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833) Striped Dolphin range The Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) is an extensively studied dolphin that is found in temperate and tropical waters of all the worlds oceans. ... Binomial name Steno bredanensis Lesson, 1828 Rough-toothed Dolphin range The Rough-toothed Dolphin (Steno bredanensis) is a fairly large dolphin that can be found in deep warm and tropical waters around the world. ... Binomial name Cephalorhynchus eutropia Gray, 1846 Chilean Dolphin range The Chilean Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus eutropia), also known as the Black Dolphin (although this name has fallen out of favour in scientific circles), is one of four dolphins in the Cephalorhynchus genus. ... Binomial name Cephalorhynchus commersonii Lacépède, 1804 Commersons Dolphin range Commersons Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) is one of four dolphins in the Cephalorhynchus genus. ... Binomial name Cephalorhynchus heavisidii Gray, 1828 Heavisides Dolphin range Heavisides Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii) is a small dolphin that is found off the coast of Namibia and the west coast of South Africa. ... Binomial name Van Beneden, 1881 Hectors Dolphin range Hectors Dolphin or White-headed Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) is the most well-known of the four dolphins in the genus Cephalorhynchus. ... Binomial name (G. Cuvier, 1812) Rissos Dolphin range The Rissos Dolphin (Grampus griseus) is the only species of dolphin in the genus Grampus. ... Binomial name Lagenodelphis hosei Frasers Dolphin range Frasers Dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) is a cetacean in the genus Delphinidae found in deep waters in the Pacific Ocean and to a lesser extent in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. ... Binomial name Lagenorhynchus acutus (Gray, 1828) Atlantic White-sided Dolphin range The Atlantic White-sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) is a distinctively coloured dolphin found in the cool to temperate waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. ... Binomial name Lagenorhynchus obscurus Gray, 1828 Dusky Dolphin range The Dusky Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) is a highly gregarious and acrobatic dolphin found in coastal waters in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) Hourglass Dolphin range by logan gould The Hourglass Dolphin (Lagenorynchus cruciger) is a small dolphin found in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters. ... Binomial name Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Gill, 1865) Pacific White-sided Dolphin range The Pacific White-sided Dolphin (Lagenorynchus obliquidens) is a very active dolphin found in the cool to temperate waters of the North Pacific Ocean. ... Binomial name Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale, 1848) Peales Dolphin range The Peales Dolphin (Lagenorynchus australis) is a small dolphin found in the waters around Tierra del Fuego at the foot of South America. ... Binomial name Lagenorhynchus albirostris (Gray, 1846) White-beaked Dolphin range The White-beaked Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) is a marine mammal belonging to the family Delphinidae (dolphins) in the suborder of the Odontoceti, or toothed whales. ... Binomial name Orcaella heinsohni Beasley, Robertson, Arnold, 2005 The Australian Snubfin Dolphin (Orcaella heinsohni) is a recently recognised species of dolphin first described in 2005. ... Binomial name Orcaella brevirostris Gray, 1866 Irrawaddy Dolphin range The Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is a species of dolphin found near coasts and in estuaries in parts of south-east Asia. ... Binomial name Peponocephala electra (Gray, 1846) Melon-headed Whale range The Melon-headed Whale (Peponocephala electra) is a cetacean of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... Binomial name Feresa attenuata Gray, 1875 Pygmy Killer Whale range The Pygmy Killer Whale (Feresa attenuata) is a small, rarely-seen cetacean of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Binomial name (Owen, 1846) False Killer Whale range The False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens) is a cetacean and one of the larger members of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Binomial name Globicephala macrorhynchus Gray, 1846 Short-finned Pilot Whale range Globicephala melas Traill, 1809 Long-finned Pilot Whale range Calderón redirects here. ... Families See text River dolphins are four species of dolphin which reside in freshwater rivers and estuaries. ... Binomial name Blainville, 1817 Boto range The Boto, Amazon River Dolphin or Pink River Dolphin[1] (Inia geoffrensis) is a freshwater river dolphin endemic to the Amazon River and Orinoco River systems. ... Binomial name Lipotes vexillifer Miller, 1918 Natural range of Lipotes vexillifer The Chinese River Dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer) was a freshwater dolphin found only in the Yangtze River in China. ... Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon, as measured by one of the following: it disappears from the fossil record, or historic reports of its existence cease[1] the population is reduced to an extent that it no longer plays a significant role in ecosystem function... Binomial name Platanista gangetica Subspecies Platanista gangetica gangetica Platanista gangetica minor Ranges of the Ganges River Dolphin and of the Indus River Dolphin The Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) are two sub-species of freshwater or river dolphins found in the Indian... Binomial name Platanista gangetica Subspecies Platanista gangetica gangetica Platanista gangetica minor Ranges of the Ganges River Dolphin and of the Indus River Dolphin The Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) and Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) are two sub-species of freshwater or river dolphins found in the Indian... Binomial name Pontoporia blainvillei Gervais & dOrbigny, 1844 La Plata Dolphin range The La Plata Dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is found in coastal Atlantic waters of southeastern South America. ...

  • Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephala electra
  • Killer Whale, Orcinus orca
  • Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata
    Wolphin Kawili'Kai at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii.
  • False Killer Whale, Psudorca crassidens
  • Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas
  • Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus

Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Hybrid dolphins

In 1933, three abnormal dolphins were beached off the Irish coast; these appeared to be hybrids between Risso's Dolphin and the Bottlenose Dolphin.[3] This mating has since been repeated in captivity and a hybrid calf was born. In captivity, a Bottlenose Dolphin and a Rough-toothed Dolphin produced hybrid offspring.[4] A Common-Bottlenose hybrid lives at SeaWorld California.[5] Various other dolphin hybrids have also been reported in the wild, such as a Bottlenose-Atlantic Spotted hybrid.[6] The best known hybrid however is the Wolphin, a False Killer Whale-Bottlenose Dolphin hybrid. The Wolphin is a fertile hybrid, and two such Wolphins currently live at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii, the first having been born in 1985 from a male False Killer Whale and a female Bottlenose. Wolphins have also been observed in the wild.[7] Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about a biological term. ... For the unrelated theme park with a similar name in Australia, see Sea World. ... Keikaimalu the wholphin (bottom), with her parents: a false killer whale (top) and a bottlenose dolphin (middle) A wholphin or wolphin is a rare hybrid, formed from a cross between a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus (mother), and a false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens (father). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Evolution and anatomy

The Anatomy of a Dolphin showing its skeleton, major organs and body shape.
The Anatomy of a Dolphin showing its skeleton, major organs and body shape.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 1400 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Evolution

See also: Evolution of cetaceans

Dolphins, along with whales and porpoises, are thought to be descendants of terrestrial mammals, most likely of the Artiodactyl order. The ancestors of the modern day dolphins entered the water roughly fifty million years ago, in the Eocene epoch. The cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) are descendants of land-living mammals, and remnants of their terrestrial origins can be found in the fact that they must breathe air from the surface; in the bones of their fins, which look like huge, jointed hands; and in the vertical movement of... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ...

Hind Limb Buds on Dolphins An embryo of a Spotted Dolphin in the fifth week of development. The hind limbs are present as small bumps (hind limb buds) near the base of the tail. The pin is approximately 1 inch (~2,5 cm) long.
Hind Limb Buds on Dolphins An embryo of a Spotted Dolphin in the fifth week of development. The hind limbs are present as small bumps (hind limb buds) near the base of the tail. The pin is approximately 1 inch (~2,5 cm) long.
Bottlenose Dolphin with vestigial hind flippers, captured 2006 in Japan.

Modern dolphin skeletons have two small, rod-shaped pelvic bones thought to be vestigial hind legs. In October 2006 an unusual Bottlenose Dolphin was captured in Japan; it had small fins on each side of its genital slit which scientists believe to be a more pronounced development of these vestigial hind legs.[8] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1097x786, 158 KB) An embryo of a Spotten Dolphin in the fifth week of development. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1097x786, 158 KB) An embryo of a Spotten Dolphin in the fifth week of development. ... Image File history File links Bottlenose_dolphin_hind. ... Image File history File links Bottlenose_dolphin_hind. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. ... October 2006 is the tenth month of that year and has yet to occur. ... A fin is a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. ...


Anatomy

Dolphins have a streamlined fusiform body, adapted for fast swimming. The basic colouration patterns are shades of grey with a light underside and a distinct dark cape on the back. It is often combined with lines and patches of different hue and contrast. Fusiform is a spindle-like shape that tapers at both ends. ...


The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. In many species, the jaws are elongated, forming a distinct beak; for some species like the Bottlenose, there is a curved mouth which looks like a fixed smile. Teeth can be very numerous (up to two hundred and fifty) in several species. The dolphin brain is large and has a highly structured cortex, which often is referred to in discussions about their advanced intelligence. The melon is a oily, fatty lump of tissue found at the centre of the forehead of most dolphins and toothed whales. ... Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ... Knowledge about cognitive capabilities of the dolphin brain (and its related issue: the nature and magnitude of dolphin intelligence) is still limited. ...


Unlike most mammals, dolphins do not have hair, but they are born with a few hairs around the tip of their rostrum which they lose after some time, in some cases even before they are born. The only exception to this is the Boto river dolphin, which does have some small hairs on the rostrum. A rostrum (Latin for beak) is an anatomical structure resembling a birds beak, such as the snout of a crocodile or dolphin or the foremost extension of a crustaceans carapace. ...


Their reproductive organs are located on the underside of the body. Males have two slits, one concealing the penis and one further behind for the anus. The female has one genital slit, housing the vagina and the anus. A mammary slit is positioned on either side of the female's genital slit. The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ...


Senses

Most dolphins have acute eyesight, both in and out of the water, and their sense of hearing is superior to that of humans. Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head, it is believed that hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the sound vibrations to the middle ear via a fat-filled cavity in the lower jaw bone. Hearing is also used for echolocation, which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. Their teeth are arranged in a way that works as an array or antenna to receive the incoming sound and make it easier for them to pinpoint the exact location of an object.[9] The dolphin's sense of touch is also well-developed. However, dolphins lack an olfactory nerve and lobes and thus are believed to have no sense of smell,[10] but they can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. Since dolphins spend most of their time below the surface normally, just tasting the water could act in a manner analogous to a sense of smell. Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... Hearing (or audition) is one of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ... For the social and aesthetic aspects of taste, see taste (sociology). ...


Though most dolphins do not have any hair, they do still have hair follicles and it is believed these might still perform some sensory function, though it is unclear what exactly this may be.[11] The small hairs on the rostrum of the Boto river dolphin are believed to function as a tactile sense however, possibly to compensate for the Boto's poor eyesight.[12] A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ... Somatic sensation consists of the various sensory receptors that trigger the experiences labelled as touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception). ...


Behavior

See also: Whale behaviour
A pod of Spotted dolphins in the Red Sea
A pod of Spotted dolphins in the Red Sea

Dolphins are often regarded as one of Earth's most intelligent animals, though it is hard to say just how intelligent dolphins are, as comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition. Furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with large aquatics means that some tests which could yield meaningful results still have not been carried out, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. Dolphin behaviour has been studied extensively by humans however, both in captivity and in the wild. See the cetacean intelligence article for more details. Whales exhibit various types of behaviour when they surface. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{ Date=08. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixels, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{ Date=08. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Cetacean intelligence denotes the cognitive capabilities of the cetacean order of mammals and especially the various species of dolphin. ...


Social behaviour

Dolphins surfing at Snapper Rocks, Queensland, Australia.
Dolphins surfing at Snapper Rocks, Queensland, Australia.

Dolphins are social, living in pods (also called "schools") of up to a dozen individuals. In places with a high abundance of food, pods can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed a thousand dolphins. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation. Membership in pods is not rigid; interchange is common. However, the cetaceans can establish strong bonds between each other. This leads to them staying with injured or ill individuals. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A crop and resize of Dolphins-surfing. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A crop and resize of Dolphins-surfing. ... Snapper Rocks is a small rocky outcrop on the northern side of Point Danger at the southern end of Queenslands Gold Coast. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...


In May 2005, researchers in Australia discovered a cultural aspect of dolphin behaviour: Some dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) teach their children to use tools. The dolphins break sponges off and cover their snouts with them thus protecting their snouts while foraging. This knowledge of how to use a tool is mostly transferred from mothers to daughters, unlike simian primates, where the knowledge is generally passed on to both sexes. The technology to use sponges as mouth protection is not genetically inherited but a taught behaviour.[13] Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the higher primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ...


They are also occasionally willing to approach humans and playfully interact with them in the water. Dolphins have also been known to seemingly protect swimmers from sharks by swimming circles around them.[14][15]


Dolphins are known to engage in acts of aggression towards each other. The older a male dolphin is, the more likely his body is covered with scars ranging in depth from teeth marks made by other dolphins. It is suggested that male dolphins engage in such acts of aggression for the same reasons as humans: disputes between companions or even competition for other females. Acts of aggression can become so intense that targeted dolphins are known to go into exile, leaving their communities as a result of losing a fight with other dolphins.


Male Bottlenose Dolphins have been known to engage in infanticide. Dolphins have also been known to kill porpoises for reasons which are not fully understood, as porpoises generally do not share the same fish diet as dolphins and are therefore not competitors for food supplies.[16] In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoises Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoises The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ...


Reproduction and sexuality

Dolphin copulation happens belly to belly and though many species engage in lengthy foreplay, the actual act is usually only brief, but may be repeated several times within a short timespan. The gestation period varies per species; for the small Tucuxi dolphin, this period is around 11 to 12 months, while for the Orca the gestation period is around 17 months. They usually become sexually active at a young age, even before reaching sexual maturity. The age at which sexual maturity is reached varies per species and gender. A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Gestation period in a viviparous animal refers to the length of its pregnancy. ...


Dolphins are known to have sex for reasons other than reproduction, sometimes also engaging in acts of a homosexual nature.[17] Various dolphin species have been known to engage in sexual behaviour with other dolphin species,[17] this also having resulted in various hybrid dolphin species as mentioned earlier. Sexual encounters may be violent, with male dolphins sometimes showing aggressive behaviour towards both females and other male dolphins.[17][18] Occasionally, dolphins will also show sexual behaviour towards other animals, including humans.[19] Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


Feeding

Various methods of feeding exist, not just between species but also within a species various methods may be employed, some techniques being used by only a single dolphin population. Fish and squid are the main source of food for most dolphin species, but the False Killer Whale and the Killer Whale also feed on other marine mammals.


One feeding method employed by many species is herding, where a pod will control a school of fish while individual members take turns plowing through the school, feeding. The tightly packed school of fish is commonly known as bait ball. Coralling is a method where fish are chased to shallow water where they are more easily captured. In South Carolina, the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin takes this one step further with what has become known as strand feeding, where the fish are driven onto mud banks and retrieved from there.[20] In some places, Orcas will also come up to the beach to capture sea lions. Some species also whack fish with their fluke, stunning them and sometimes sending fish clear out of the water. Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... For other uses, see Sea Lion (disambiguation). ...


Reports of cooperative human-dolphin fisheries date back to the ancient Roman author and natural philosopher Pliny the Elder.[21] A modern human-dolphin fishery still takes place in Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil.[22] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Laguna is a Brazilian city located in the southern state of Santa Catarina, located 120 kilometers south of the states capital, Florianópolis. ... Capital Florianópolis Largest city Joinville Demonym catarinense or barriga-verde Government  -  Governor Luiz Henrique  -  Vice Governor Leonel Pavan Area  -  Total 95. ...


Vocalizations

Dolphins are capable of making a broad range of sounds using nasal airsacs located just below the blowhole. Roughly three categories of sounds can be identified however; frequency modulated sounds which are usually just called whistles; burst-pulsed sounds and clicks. Whistles are used by dolphins to communicate, though the nature and extent of their ability to communicate in this way is not known. Research has shown however that at least some dolphin species are capable of sending identity information to each other using a signature whistle; a whistle that refers specifically to the identity of a certain dolphin. The burst-pulsed sounds are also used for communication, but again the nature and extent of communication possible this way is not known.[23] The clicks are directional and used by dolphins for echolocation and are often in a short series called a click train, the rate increasing when approaching an object of interest. Dolphin echolocation clicks are amongst the loudest sounds made by animals in the sea.[24] Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ... For the Pearl Jam song, see Whale Song (song). ...

Pacific White-Sided Dolphins breaching
Pacific White-Sided Dolphins breaching

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (1760 × 1092 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (1760 × 1092 pixels, file size: 1. ...

Jumping and playing

Dolphins occasionally leap above the water surface, sometimes performing acrobatic figures (e.g. the spinner dolphin). Scientists are not always quite certain about the purpose of this behavior and the reason for it may vary; it could be to locate schools of fish by looking at above-water signs like feeding birds, they could be communicating to other dolphins to join a hunt, attempting to dislodge parasites, or simply doing it for fun. Binomial name (Gray, 1828) Spinner Dolphin range The Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a small dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world. ...


Play is a fairly important part of dolphins' lives, and they can be observed playing with seaweed or play-fighting with other dolphins. At times they also harass other local creatures, like seabirds and turtles. Dolphins also seem to enjoy riding waves and frequently 'surf' coastal swells and the bow waves of boats. Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ...


Threats to dolphins

Natural threats to dolphins

Except for mankind (discussed below), dolphins have few natural enemies, some species or specific populations having none at all making them apex predators. For most smaller species of dolphins, only a few larger species of shark such as the bull shark, dusky shark, tiger shark and great white shark are a potential risk, especially for calves. Some of the larger dolphin species such as Orcas may also prey on some of the smaller dolphin species, but this seems rare. Dolphins may also suffer from a wide variety of diseases and parasites. Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... Binomial name (Müller and Henle, 1839) Range of bull shark The bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, also known as the bull whaler, Zambezi shark or informally Zambi in Africa and Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is common worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers. ... Binomial name Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur, 1818) Range of dusky shark The dusky shark, Carcharhinus obscurus, is one of the larger species of shark, reaching 350 kg. ... For other uses, see Tiger shark (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Range (in blue) For other uses, see Great White (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ...


Human threats to dolphins

See also: Dolphin drive hunting
Dead Atlantic White-Sided Dolphins in Hvalba on the Faroe Islands, killed in a drive hunt.
Dead Atlantic White-Sided Dolphins in Hvalba on the Faroe Islands, killed in a drive hunt.

Some dolphin species face an uncertain future, especially some of the river dolphin species such as the Amazon River dolphin, and the Ganges and Yangtze River dolphin, all of which are critically or seriously endangered. A 2006 survey found no individuals of the Yangtze River dolphin, leading to the conclusion that the species is now functionally extinct.[25] Dolphin drive hunting is a method of hunting dolphins used by fishermen in several towns in Japan and a few other places around the world. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Hvalba, looking towards Lítla Dímun island Hvalba is one of the larger villages in the Faroe Islands. ... For other uses, see Baiji (disambiguation). ... Functional extinction is the extinction of a species or other taxon, as measured by one of the following: it disappears from the fossil record, or historic reports of its existence cease[1] the population is reduced to an extent that it no longer plays a significant role in ecosystem function...


Contamination of environment - the oceans, seas, and rivers - is an issue of concern, especially pesticides, heavy metals, plastics, and other industrial and agricultural pollutants which do not disintegrate rapidly in the environment are reducing dolphin populations, and resulting in dolphins building up unusually high levels of contaminants. Injuries or deaths due to collisions with boats, especially their propellers, are also common. the plane is spreading pesticide. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ...


Various fishing methods, most notably purse seine fishing for tuna and the use of drift and gill nets, results in a large amounts of dolphins being killed inadvertently.[26] Accidental by-catch in trout nets is common and poses a risk for mainly local dolphin populations. In some parts of the world such as Taiji in Japan and the Faroe Islands, dolphins are traditionally considered as food, and killed in harpoon or drive hunts. Fishermen catching salmon on the Columbia River using a seine. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Biwa trout (or Biwa salmon), Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Trout is the common name given to a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmon family, Salmonidae. ... Taiji (太地町; -cho) is a town located in Higashimuro District, Wakayama, Japan. ... For other uses, see Harpoon (disambiguation) Harpoon gun redirects here. ... Dolphin drive hunting is a method of hunting dolphins used by fishermen in several towns in Japan and a few other places around the world. ...


Human-dolphin relationships

Mythology

A sketch of the goddess Ganga on her Vahana (mount) Makara
A sketch of the goddess Ganga on her Vahana (mount) Makara
See also: Dolphins in mythology

Dolphins have long played a role in human culture. Dolphins are common in Greek mythology and there are many coins from the time which feature a man or boy riding on the back of a dolphin. The Ancient Greeks treated them with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage. Dolphins also seem to have been important to the Minoans, judging by artistic evidence from the ruined palace at Knossos. In Hindu mythology, the Ganges River Dolphin is associated with Ganga, the deity of the Ganges river. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 471 KB)Satellite image of the Ganges plain, showing haze and pollution over Bangladesh and north-eastern India. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 471 KB)Satellite image of the Ganges plain, showing haze and pollution over Bangladesh and north-eastern India. ... In Indian mythology, the vahana is the object or vehicle that serves a divinity. ... According to Hindu mythology, Makara, a mythical creature, is the vahana of Ganga and Varuna. ... Dolphins appear in a number of Greek myths, invariably as helpers of humankind. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Ganga may refer to: Ganges River, a river in India Ganga, the Hindu goddess that personifies the Ganges River The Gangas, an ancient southern Indian dynasty Ganga (music), a type of rural folk singing from Croatia and Herzegovina Daren Ganga, a West Indian cricketer Ganga, an alternate spelling of ganja... “Ganga” redirects here. ...


Therapy

Dolphins are an increasingly popular choice of animal-assisted therapy for psychological problems and developmental disabilities. For example, a 2005 study with 30 participants found it was an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression.[27] However, this study was criticized on several grounds; for example, it is not known whether dolphins are more effective than common pets.[28] Reviews of this and other published dolphin-assisted therapy (DAT) studies have found important methodological flaws and have concluded that there is no compelling scientific evidence that DAT is a legitimate therapy or that it affords any more than fleeting improvements in mood.[29] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Look up Review in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Entertainment

See also: Dolphinarium
The famous Orca Keiko from the Free Willy movies being prepared for transport.
The famous Orca Keiko from the Free Willy movies being prepared for transport.

In more recent times, the 1963 Flipper movie and the subsequent popular Flipper television series, contributed to the popularity of dolphins in Western society. The series, created by Ivan Tors, portrayed a dolphin in a friendly relationship with two boys, Sandy and Bud; a kind of seagoing Lassie. Flipper, a Bottlenose Dolphin, understood English unusually well and was a marked hero. A second Flipper movie was made in 1996, which was based on the story of the original movie. A Bottlenose Dolphin also played a prominent role in the 1990s science fiction television series seaQuest DSV in which the animal, named Darwin, could communicate with English speakers using a vocoder, a fictional invention which translated the clicks and whistles to English and back. Dolphinarium is a great aquarium for dolphins. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1012x1524, 237 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dolphin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1012x1524, 237 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dolphin ... Flipper is an American feature film (1963) written by Ricou Browning and Jack Cowden, and directed by James B. Clark. ... Flipper was a television series that ran from 1964 till 1967 on NBC. A television adaptation or spin-off from the 1963 movie Flipper, the show focused on widowed, young Everglades National Park ranger Porter Ricks (Brian Kelly, 1932-2005, playing the role Chuck Connors played in the film), his... Occident redirects here. ... Ivan Tors (born Budapest, Hungary June 12, 1916 - June 4, 1983) was in his life an animal trainer, playwright, screenwriter, radio writer and film and television producer. ... Lassie was a American television series which originally aired from 1954 to 1974. ... Flipper is a 1996 remake of the 1963 Flipper, starring Elijah Wood. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... A broadcast of the long-running and popular British science-fiction series Doctor Who. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ...

A young couple being entertained by a trained Bottlenose Dolphin in Puerto Plata, Dominican republic.
A young couple being entertained by a trained Bottlenose Dolphin in Puerto Plata, Dominican republic.

More well known from this time period is probably the movie Free Willy however, which made famous the Orca playing Willy, Keiko. The 1977 horror movie Orca paints a less friendly picture of the animal. Here, a male Orca takes revenge on fishermen after the killing of his mate. In the 1973 movie The Day of the Dolphin trained dolphins are kidnapped and made to perform a naval military assassination using explosives. Image File history File links OceanWorld_DolphinPhoto. ... Image File history File links OceanWorld_DolphinPhoto. ... Puerto Plata is one the northern provinces of the Dominican Republic. ... Free Willy is a 1993 Warner Bros. ... Keiko (1976 - December 12, 2003) was an orca (or killer whale) who starred in the first of three Free Willy movies. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... Orca is a 1977 horror film directed by Michael Anderson and produced by Dino De Laurentiis and starring Richard Harris and Charlotte Rampling. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Day of the Dolphin is a science fiction, thriller film released in 1973. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...

Bottlenose Dolphin with a fish at The Mirage
Bottlenose Dolphin with a fish at The Mirage

The renewed popularity of dolphins in the 1960s resulted in the appearance of many dolphinariums around the world, which have made dolphins accessible to the public. Though criticism and more strict animal welfare laws have forced many dolphinariums to close their doors, hundreds still exist around the world attracting a large amount of visitors. In the United States, best known are the SeaWorld marine mammal parks, and their common Orca stage name Shamu, which they have trademarked, has become well known. Southwest Airlines, an American airline, has even painted three of their Boeing 737 aircraft in Shamu colours as an advertisement for the parks and have been flying with such a livery on various aircraft since 1988. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 592 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2090 × 2115 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 592 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2090 × 2115 pixel, file size: 2. ... For the band, see The Mirage (band) The Mirage is a 3,044 room hotel and casino resort located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada (though like most hotels on the Strip, it uses a Las Vegas mailing address). ... Dolphinarium is a great aquarium for dolphins. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer unnecessarily, including where the animals are used for food, work, companionship, or research. ... Marineland of Florida, USA — dolphin show, 1964. ... A stage name, also called a screen name, is a pseudonym used by performers and entertainers such as actors, comedians, musicians, djs, clowns, and professional wrestlers. ... Shamu is the name of SeaWorlds iconic orca (killer whale) show. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ... This article is about the American airline. ... The Boeing 737 is an American short to medium range, single aisle, narrow body jet airliner. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Occasionally, dolphins make an appearance in computer games. Best known is the Ecco the Dolphin game series. The games are named after their main character, Ecco, a young Bottlenose Dolphin. The Ecco the Dolphin games hinge on the idea that cetaceans are sapient beings and have their own underwater society. This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


A well known American National Football League (NFL) team is named the Miami Dolphins. Their logo depicts an aqua-coloured Bottlenose Dolphin wearing an American football helmet and jumping in front of a coral-coloured sunburst. NFL redirects here. ... City Miami Gardens, Florida Other nicknames The Fins Team colors Aqua, Coral, White and Navy Head Coach liljimjim Owner Wayne Huizenga General manager Randy Mueller Mascot T.D. League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1966-1969) Eastern Division (1966-1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970-present... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...


Military

A number of militaries have employed dolphins for various purposes from finding mines to rescuing lost or trapped humans. Such military dolphins, however, drew scrutiny during the Vietnam War when rumors circulated that dolphins were being trained to kill Vietnamese skin divers. Best known today is the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program. The United States and Russian militaries train and employ dolphins for several reasons. ... ... The U.S. Navy Marine Mammal Program (NMMP) is a program administered by the U.S. Navy which studies the military use of marine mammals  — principally Bottlenose Dolphins and California Sea Lions  — and trains circus animals to perform tasks such as ship and harbor protection, mine detection and clearance, and...


Literature

Dolphins are also common in contemporary literature, especially science fiction novels. A military role for dolphins is found in William Gibson's short story Johnny Mnemonic, in which cyborg dolphins are used in war-time by the military to find submarines and, after the war, by a group of revolutionaries to decode encrypted information. Dolphins play a role as sentient patrollers of the sea enhanced with a deeper empathy toward humans in Anne McCaffrey's The Dragonriders of Pern series. In the Known Space universe of author Larry Niven, dolphins also play a significant role as fully-recognised "legal entities". More humorous is The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, in which dolphins are the second most intelligent creatures on Earth (after mice, and followed by humans) and tried in vain to warn humans of the impending destruction of the planet. However, their behaviour was misinterpreted as playful acrobatics. Their story is told in So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish. Much more serious is their major role (along with chimpanzees) in David Brin's Uplift series. A talking Dolphin called "Howard" helps Hagbard Celine and his submarine crew fight the evil Illuminati in Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson's Illuminatus Trilogy. Some notable science fiction novels, in alphabetical order by title: 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea by Jules Verne 2001: A Space Odyssey by Arthur C. Clarke 334 by Thomas M. Disch An Age by Brian Aldiss The Andromeda Strain by Michael Crichton The Atrocity Exhibition by J.G. Ballard... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... Johnny Mnemonic is a short story by William Gibson, and a movie loosely based on the short story. ... For other uses, see Cyborg (disambiguation). ... Anne Inez McCaffrey (born April 1, 1926) is an American science fiction author best known for her Dragonriders of Pern series. ... The Dragonriders of Pern is an extensive fantasy/science fiction series of novels and short stories primarily written by Anne McCaffrey. ... Known Space is the fictional setting of several science fiction novels and short stories written by author Larry Niven. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The cover of the first novel in the Hitchhikers series, from a late 1990s printing. ... High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ... So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish (1984, ISBN 0-345-39183-7) is the fourth book of the Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy series written by Douglas Adams. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Glen David Brin, Ph. ... The Uplift Universe is a fictional universe created by science fiction writer David Brin. ... Captain Hagbard Celine is a fictional character from the Illuminatus trilogy of books by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson, named after the legendary Viking hero Hagbard who died for love. ... For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... 23 The Illuminatus! Trilogy is a series of three novels written by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson. ...


Dolphins also appear frequently in non-science fiction literature however. In the book The Music of Dolphins by author Karen Hesse, a girl is raised by dolphins from the age of four until she is discovered by the coast guard. Fantasy author Ken Grimwood wrote dolphins into his 1995 novel Into the Deep about a marine biologist struggling to crack the code of dolphin intelligence, including entire chapters written from the viewpoint of his dolphin characters. In this book, humans and dolphins are capable of communicating via telepathy. Young adult to childrens book that follows the story of Mila (spanish for miracle), who was raised by a pod of dolphins around the Florida Keys and Caribbean. ... Karen Hesse, born August 29, 1952 in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, is an author of childrens literature and literature for young adults. ... A coast guard is a national organization responsible for various services at sea. ... Kenneth Milton Grimwood (February 27, 1944 - June 6, 2003) was an American author of fantasy fiction combining themes of life-affirmation and hope with metaphysical concepts, themes found in his best-known novel, the highly popular Replay. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Cetacean intelligence denotes the cognitive capabilities of the cetacean order of mammals and especially the various species of dolphin. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ...


2007: Year of the Dolphin

The year 2007 has been declared as (International) Year of the Dolphin by the United Nations and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in an effort to promote dolphin conservation.[30] The idea was launched by the UN's Convention on Migratory Species and the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS). Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The year 2007 has been declared as (International) Year of the Dolphin by the United Nations and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or the Bonn Convention ) aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range. ... The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS) is the most prominent environmental organization that dedicates itself to conservation and welfare of all whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...


References

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  10. ^ SeaWorld, Bottlenose Dolphins - Senses, article retrieved December 17, 2006.
  11. ^ Bjorn Mauck, Ulf Eysel and Guide Dehnhardt (2000), Selective heating of vibrissal follicles in seals (Phoca Vitulina) and dolphins (Sotalia Fluviatilis Guianensis), article retrieved March 11, 2007.
  12. ^ Laurie Stepanek (1998), Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), article retrieved March 11, 2007.
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  14. ^ CBC News (2004), Dolphins save swimmers from shark, article retrieved March 11, 2007.
  15. ^ Celizic, Mike (2007-11-08). Dolphins save surfer from becoming shark’s bait. MSNBC. Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  16. ^ Dr. George Johnson (date unknown), Is Flipper A Senseless Killer?, article retrieved December 17, 2006.
  17. ^ a b c Herzing D.L., Rogers C.A., for the Wild Dolphin Project, Directionality of sexual aggression in mixed-species encounters between Atlantic Spotted dolphins and Bottlenose dolphins in the Bahamas (2005), article retrieved September 18, 2007.
  18. ^ Scott et. al,Aggression in bottlenose dolphins: evidence for sexual coercion, male-male competition, and female tolerance through analysis of tooth-rake marks and behaviour (2005), article retrieved September 18, 2007.
  19. ^ Amy Samuels, Lars Bejder, Rochelle Constantine and Sonja Heinrich (2003), Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, chapter 15, pages 266 to 268, Cetaceans that are typically lonely and seek human company. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  20. ^ "Coastal Stock(s) of Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin: Status Review and Management," Proceedings and Recommendations from a Workshop held in Beaufort, North Carolina, 13-14 September 1993. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. pp. 56-57.
  21. ^ M.B. Santos, R. Fernández, A. López, J.A. Martínez and G.J. Pierce (2007), Variability in the diet of bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, in Galician waters, north-western Spain, 1990 – 2005 (.pdf), article retrieved April 3, 2007.
  22. ^ The Telegraph (2006), Brazil's sexiest secret, article retrieved March 11, 2007.
  23. ^ Atlantic Spotted Dolphin vocalizations, chapter Delphinid vocalizations., the dolphin communication project, article retrieved August 7, 2007.
  24. ^ W. W. L. Au, The Sonar of Dolphins (Springer, NY, 1993).
  25. ^ Douglas Williams for Shanghai Daily (2006), Yangtze dolphin may be extinct. Article retrieved December 9, 2006.
  26. ^ Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  27. ^ Christian Antonioli and Michael A. Reveley, (2005), Randomised controlled trial of animal facilitated therapy with dolphins in the treatment of depression.
  28. ^ Biju Basil, Maju Mathews (2005). "Methodological concerns about animal facilitated therapy with dolphins". BMJ 331 (7529): 1407. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7529.1407. PMID 16339258. 
  29. ^ Lori Marino, Scott O. Lilienfeld (2007). "Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: more flawed data and more flawed conclusions". Anthrozoos 20 (3): 239 – 49. doi:10.2752/089279307X224782. 
  30. ^ 2007: (International) Year of the Dolphin - Official website, website retrieved on January 14, 2007.

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Dolphin
Wikispecies has information related to:
Delphinidae
Cetaceans Portal

Further information: Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... This image shows the fluke of Sperm Whale as it begins a dive into the Gulf of Mexico. ...

  • OM Place - pictorial comparative chart of various dolphin species.
  • Dolphins and their significance in world mythology.
  • Tursi's dolphin page

Dolphin conservation and research:

  • The Whale & Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS)
  • Charityguide.com - Save Bottlenose dolphins
  • The Dolphin Institute
  • The Dolphin research center
  • Digital Library of Dolphin Development, Cetacean origins, Thewissen Lab

Dolphin news:

  • Tursiops.org: Current Cetacean-related news

Dolphin photos:

  • Red Sea Spinner Dolphin - Photo gallery
  • PBS NOVA: Dolphins: Close Encounters
  • David's Dolphin Images
  • Images of Wild Dolphins in the Red Sea
  • National Geographic


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dolphin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2322 words)
Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises, famous for their intelligence, apparent compassion, and joy.
Dolphins are widely believed to be amongst the most intelligent of all animals, though it is hard to say just how intelligent dolphins are as straightforward comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition.
Most dolphins have acute eyesight, both in and out of the water, and their sense of hearing is superior to that of humans.
Welcome to The Dolphin Place - Facts about Dolphins/Whales (1493 words)
The dolphin fish, is neither a dolphin nor a porpoise.
Dolphins once were hunted commercially, especially for the small quantity of valuable oil extracted from parts of the head and used to lubricated delicate watch mechanisms.
Because of the ability of dolphins to learn and perform complex tasks in captivity, their continuous communications with one another, and their ability, through training, to approximate the sounds of a few human words, some investigators have suggested that the animals might be capable of learning a true language and communicating with humans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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