FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Dollarpound
Red Dwarf

Red Dwarf logo
Format Science fiction Sitcom
Created by Grant Naylor
(Rob Grant and Doug Naylor)
Starring Chris Barrie
Craig Charles
Danny John-Jules
Norman Lovett
Hattie Hayridge
Robert Llewellyn
Chloë Annett
Country of origin United Kingdom
No. of series 8
No. of episodes 52 (List of episodes)
Production
Running time 30 mins
Broadcast
Original channel BBC2
Original run 15 February 19885 April 1999
External links
Official website
IMDb profile
TV.com summary

Red Dwarf is a British science fiction comedy franchise, the primary form of which comprises eight series of a television sitcom that ran on BBC2 between 1988 and 1999, and which has achieved a global cult following. It was created and originally written by Grant Naylor (a so-called 'gestalt entity', in reality a collective pseudonym for the writing duo Rob Grant and Doug Naylor). The show had its origins in a recurring sketch, Dave Hollins: Space Cadet, in the mid-1980s BBC Radio 4 comedy show Son Of Cliché, also scripted by Grant and Naylor. In addition to the Red Dwarf television series, there have also been four bestselling novels, two pilot episodes for an American version of the show, and a significant number of tie-in books, magazines and other merchandise. For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... Download high resolution version (1550x1745, 268 KB)Red Dwarf logo This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about a genre of comedy. ... Grant Naylor is a cult leader and an underground artist, who lives in Sydney Australia. ... Rob Grants novel, Colony. ... Doug Naylor is a British comedy writer who was born in Manchester, England. ... Chris Barrie (born March 28, 1960) is an English actor, best known for his roles as Arnold Rimmer in the cult BBC2 comedy Red Dwarf, and as Gordon Brittas in popular BBC1 sitcom The Brittas Empire. ... Craig Charles as Dave Lister Craig Charles (born July 11, 1964 in Liverpool, England) is an English actor, stand up comedian, author, poet, and radio and television presenter, best known for playing Dave Lister in the British cult-favourite sci-fi sitcom Red Dwarf. ... Danny John-Jules as the Cat in Red Dwarf Daniel (Danny) John-Jules (born in London on September 16, 1960) is a British actor and dancer. ... Norman Lovett (born October 31, 1946) is a British stand-up comedian and actor, best known for the role of Holly in Red Dwarf during the first, second, seventh and eighth series. ... Hattie Hayridge (born Carol Bayford on December 17, 1959 in Middlesex, England) is a British stand-up comedian and actor, best known for the role of the female version of Holly in Red Dwarf during the third, fourth and fifth series, along with the role of Hilly in Parallel Universe... Robert Llewellyn Robert Llewellyn (born 10 March 1956 in Northampton, Northamptonshire, England) is a British actor, presenter, and writer. ... Chloë Annett as Kristine Kochanski in the seventh series of Red Dwarf Chloë Victoria Annett is an English actress, born on 25 July 1971. ... This is an episode list for the British science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 2. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A broadcast of the long-running and popular British science-fiction series Doctor Who. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... i eat poop alot A media franchise is an intellectual property involving the characters, setting, and trademarks of an original work of media (usually a work of fiction), such as a film, a work of literature, a television program, or a video game. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 2. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... This article does not discuss cultist groups, personality cults, or cult in its original sense of religious practice. See cult (disambiguation) for more meanings of the term cult. A cult following is a group of fans devoted to a specific area of pop culture. ... Grant Naylor is a cult leader and an underground artist, who lives in Sydney Australia. ... Look up gestalt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... Rob Grants novel, Colony. ... Doug Naylor is a British comedy writer who was born in Manchester, England. ... Dave Hollins: Space Cadet was a sketch on the Radio 4 series Son of Cliche, produced by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... Son Of Cliché was a comedy sketch show broadcast on BBC Radio 4 between 1983 and 1985 The sketches were written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, and were performed by Chris Barrie, Nick Maloney and Nick Wilton. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


Despite the pastiche of science fiction used as a backdrop, Red Dwarf is primarily a character driven comedy, with many off-the-wall science fiction elements used as complementary plot devices. For example, in the early series, a recurring source of comedy was the "odd couple" relationship between Dave Lister and Arnold Rimmer, the two central characters of the show, who have an intense dislike for each other but are trapped together deep in space. The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ... A plot device is a person or an object introduced to a story to affect or advance the plot. ... Walter Matthau and Art Carney in the 1965 Broadway production The Odd Couple was a hit 1965 Broadway play by Neil Simon, followed by a successful film and television series, as well as other derivative works and spinoffs, many featuring one or more of the same actors. ... For the origami historian, see David Lister (Origami Historian). ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ...


Red Dwarf's highest accolade came in 1994, when an episode from the sixth series (Gunmen of the Apocalypse) won an International Emmy Award in the Popular Arts category. The show also won Best BBC Comedy series at the British Comedy Awards during the same year, and attracted its highest ratings — of over eight million viewers[1] — by the eighth series in 1999. In a 2004 BBC poll to find Britain's best sitcom the show was voted 18th out of 100 nominations. Gunmen of the Apocalypse was the third epsiode to air in the sixth series of Red Dwarf. ... An Emmy Award. ... The British Comedy Awards is an annual awards ceremony in the United Kingdom celebrating notable comedians and entertainment performances of the previous year. ... Britains Best Sitcom was a poll conducted in 2003 and 2004 by the BBC to identify the United Kingdoms best situation comedy. ...


The current status of the show remains uncertain, as Doug Naylor (now in sole control of the franchise following the departure of Rob Grant in 1995) is committed to writing and producing a feature film version of the sitcom. Naylor has also stated that he hopes one day to tie up the cliffhanger upon which the eighth series ended, perhaps with a one-off, feature-length television special although production of a ninth series has not been ruled out, depending on the success of the feature film. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Cliffhanger (disambiguation). ... A television special is a television program, typically a short film or television movie, which interrupts or temporarily replaces programming normally scheduled for a given time slot. ...

Contents

Plot

See also: List of Red Dwarf episodes

The mining ship Red Dwarf is a spaceship 6 miles (10 km) long, 5 miles (8 km) tall, and 4 miles (6 km) wide belonging to the Jupiter Mining Corporation. In the first episode, an on-board radiation leak of Cadmium II kills everyone except for low-ranking technician Dave Lister, who is in suspended animation at the time, and his pregnant cat, Frankenstein, who is safely sealed in the cargo hold. Following the accident, the ship's computer Holly has to keep Lister in stasis until the background radiation dies down — a process that takes three million years. Lister therefore emerges as the last human being in the universe — but not the only life form on-board the ship. His former bunkmate and immediate superior Arnold Rimmer is resurrected by Holly as a Hologram after the accident to keep Lister sane, while a creature known only as The Cat is the last known surviving member of Felis Sapiens, a race of humanoids that evolved in the ship's hold from Frankenstein and her kittens during the millions of years that Lister was in stasis. This is an episode list for the British science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf. ... The British sci-fi comedy Red Dwarf prominently features many different spaceships. ... For the origami historian, see David Lister (Origami Historian). ... Holly is the ships computer on the science fiction comedy television show Red Dwarf. ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ... A volumetric display device is a graphical display device that forms a visual representation of an object in three physical dimensions, as opposed to the planar image of traditional screens that simulate depth through a number of different visual effects. ... The Cat in Series 5 of Red Dwarf The Cat is a character in the British comedy television series Red Dwarf. ... Felis Sapiens (designated Felix Sapiens by Krytens replacement Hudzen-10 in the episode The Last Day) are a fictional, sentient, humanoid species from the Red Dwarf television series. ...


The main dramatic thrust of the early series is Lister's desire to return home to Earth. Along the way are frequent distractions that usually see the not-so-intrepid Dwarf crew encountering strange races and lifeforms that have developed in the intervening millions of years.


The crew roster changes as the years go by. During the second series, the group encounters the sanitation mechanoid Kryten, rescuing him from a long-since crashed vessel. Initially, Kryten only appears in one episode of series two, but by the beginning of series three he has become a full time character in the series. At the end of series five, Red Dwarf itself is stolen from the crew, forcing them to travel in the smaller Starbug craft for the subsequent two series, with the added side-effect that they lose contact with Holly. And in series seven, Rimmer departs the crew to take up the role of his alter-ego from a parallel universe, Ace Rimmer, whose name has become a long-standing legend and a legacy passed down from dimension to dimension. Shortly afterwards, the crew find a replacement for Rimmer when they encounter another parallel version of themselves from a universe in which Kristine Kochanski, Lister's ex-girlfriend, was the person put into stasis and so the last remaining human. A complicated series of events leaves Kochanski stranded in "our" universe, and she is forced to join the crew. An android is an artificially created robotic being that resembles a human being usually both in appearance and behavior. ... This article is about the Red Dwarf character. ... This article describes the British science fiction comedy television series. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... Clare Grogan as Kristine Kochanski in Series I Kristine Z. Kochanski is the navigation officer of the title ship of the television show Red Dwarf. ...


In the eighth (and, so far, final) series, Red Dwarf itself is reconstructed by the nanobots that had originally stolen it and broken it down into its constituent atoms. In the process, the entire crew of the ship — including a pre-accident Rimmer — are resurrected, but the Starbug crew all find themselves sentenced to two years in the ship's brig on a set of convoluted charges. The series ends, however, with Red Dwarf being eaten away by a virus and all on board evacuated, save for Rimmer who is, in the cliffhanger ending, left stranded alone to face Death. A nanobot is a nanotechnological robot nanomachine, also called a nanite, which is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometres (millionths of a millimetre, or units of 10-9 metrer). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Brigantine. ... Death, personified is an anthropomorphic figure or a fictional character who has existed in mythology and popular culture since the earliest days of storytelling. ...


Characters and actors

Main article: Red Dwarf characters

Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ...

Regular characters

  • Dave Lister played by Craig Charles. A genial Liverpudlian (and self-described bum) and the lowest-ranking crew member on the ship (chicken soup machine engineer) before the accident. He has a long-standing desire to return to Earth and start a farm on Fiji, but is left impossibly far away by the accident that renders him the last surviving member of the human race.
  • Arnold Judas Rimmer played by Chris Barrie. Born on the moon Io, Rimmer is a fussy, bureaucratic, neurotic coward, who is nevertheless judged to have the highest chance of keeping Lister sane when chosen to be the ship's one available hologram.
  • The Cat played by Danny John-Jules. A humanoid creature who evolved from Lister's smuggled pet cat. In the early series the Cat is concerned with little other than sleeping, eating and fawning over his appearance, and tends not to socialise with other members of the crew. As the series go by, however, he becomes more influenced by his human company, and so begins to resemble a stylish yet dimwitted human.
  • Holly in series I, II, VII and VIII played by Norman Lovett. Hattie Hayridge takes over the role for series III to V. The character makes no appearance in series VI. The ship's on-board computer has an IQ of 6,000, although this is severely depleted by the three million years he/she is left alone after the accident, having developed "computer senility". The change in actor for series III is explained by Holly changing his face to resemble that of a computer from a parallel universe with whom he'd fallen in love.
  • Kryten played by Robert Llewellyn from series III onwards. Full name Kryten 2X4B-523P. In his original one-off appearance in series II, Kryten was played by David Ross. Salvaged by the crew from a crashed spaceship (upon which he had continued to serve the ship's crew despite their having been dead for thousands or even millions of years), and rebuilt by Lister, Kryten is a sanitation mechanoid with an overactive guilt chip. When first encountered by the crew, he is bound by his "behavioural protocols", but Lister gradually encourages him to break his programming and think for himself.
  • Kristine Kochanski in series VII and VIII played by Chloë Annett. Kochanski was originally, in series I, II and VI, a supporting character played by Altered Images vocalist Clare Grogan (credited as CP Grogan). In the first two series, Kochanski was introduced as a longtime crush of Lister's whom he had never managed to pluck up the courage to ask out on a date. In the first novel, however, she was described as having actually dated him for a month, and this development was retroactively introduced into the later series.

For the origami historian, see David Lister (Origami Historian). ... Craig Charles as Dave Lister Craig Charles (born July 11, 1964 in Liverpool, England) is an English actor, stand up comedian, author, poet, and radio and television presenter, best known for playing Dave Lister in the British cult-favourite sci-fi sitcom Red Dwarf. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Arnold Rimmer in Red Dwarf Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming Certificate, Silver Swimming Certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ... Chris Barrie (born March 28, 1960) is an English actor, best known for his roles as Arnold Rimmer in the cult BBC2 comedy Red Dwarf, and as Gordon Brittas in popular BBC1 sitcom The Brittas Empire. ... Atmosphere Surface pressure: trace Composition: 90% sulfur dioxide Io (eye-oe, IPA: , Greek Ῑώ) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter and, with a diameter of 3,642 kilometers, is the fourth largest moon in the Solar System. ... The Cat in Series 5 of Red Dwarf The Cat is a character in the British comedy television series Red Dwarf. ... Danny John-Jules as the Cat in Red Dwarf Daniel (Danny) John-Jules (born in London on September 16, 1960) is a British actor and dancer. ... Holly is the ships computer on the science fiction comedy television show Red Dwarf. ... Norman Lovett (born October 31, 1946) is a British stand-up comedian and actor, best known for the role of Holly in Red Dwarf during the first, second, seventh and eighth series. ... Hattie Hayridge (born Carol Bayford on December 17, 1959 in Middlesex, England) is a British stand-up comedian and actor, best known for the role of the female version of Holly in Red Dwarf during the third, fourth and fifth series, along with the role of Hilly in Parallel Universe... IQ redirects here; for other uses of that term, see IQ (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Red Dwarf character. ... Robert Llewellyn Robert Llewellyn (born 10 March 1956 in Northampton, Northamptonshire, England) is a British actor, presenter, and writer. ... David Ross is a British actor who has worked in drama, cinema, and television. ... Clare Grogan as Kristine Kochanski in Series I Kristine Z. Kochanski is the navigation officer of the title ship of the television show Red Dwarf. ... Chloë Annett as Kristine Kochanski in the seventh series of Red Dwarf Chloë Victoria Annett is an English actress, born on 25 July 1971. ... Altered Images were a popular band who formed in Glasgow, Scotland in 1980. ... Clare Grogan as Kristine Kochanski in Red Dwarf Clare Grogan (born March 17, 1962, Glasgow) is a Scottish actress (often credited as C. P. Grogan) and singer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Recurring guest characters

  • Captain Frank Hollister (played by Mac McDonald) appears in Series VIII, two episodes of Series I and one episode of Series II.
  • Olaf Petersen (played by Mark Williams) appeared in two episodes of Series I and one episode in Series II, and is mentioned regularly when Lister talks about the days before the accident, and during his imprisonment in Series VIII. Typically Lister refers to this character by his surname only.
  • Selby and Chen (played by David Gillespie and Paul Bradley, respectively) appeared in three episodes altogether.
  • Kill Crazy (played by Jake Wood) and Baxter (played by Ricky Grover) appeared in several episodes of series VIII.
  • Warden Ackerman (played by Graham McTavish) appears in series VIII.
  • Bob the Skutter is a small maintenance robot and friend to the regular characters.

Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... Maurice Mac McDonald (died 1971) started the first McDonalds restaurant together with his brother. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... For other persons named Mark Williams, see Mark Williams (disambiguation). ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... Jake Wood (born 12 July 1972) is a British actor. ... Ricky Grover is a British actor. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... Graham McTavish is a British TV actor. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ...

Guest actors

Tony Hawks is a British comedian and author. ... Rupert Bates is a British TV actor. ... Anthony Declan James Slattery (born 9 November 1959) is an English actor and comedian. ... This article is about the actor. ... Craig Ferguson (born 17 May 1962) is a Scottish comedian, actor, writer and talk show host. ... Nicholas Ball (born 11 April 1946) is a British actor. ... Sarah Alexander (born 3 January 1971) is an English actress, best known for her roles in various British comedy series. ... Arthur Smith Arthur Smith (born Brian Smith in 1954) is an English alternative comedian and writer. ... Gordon Kennedy is a Scottish actor. ... Jack Docherty is a Scottish comedian. ... Lee Cornes is a British actor. ... Morwenna Banks (born 1964 in Flushing, Cornwall, England) is a British actress and comedian. ... Don Henderson as General Tagge in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. ... Don Warrington is an actor, originally from Trinidad and Tobago where he was born in 1952, who has been a familiar face on British television and stage for thirty years. ... Angela Bruce is a British actress, noted for her television work. ... Kathleen Dee-Anne Norris (born April 26, 1956), better known as Koo Stark, is an American film actress, model, and portrait photographer. ... Jennifer Ann Agutter (born December 20, 1952) is an English actress. ... Maggie Steed is a British actress, often seen on television. ... Jane Horrocks Jane Horrocks (born January 18, 1964) is an English actress and singer. ... Geraldine McEwan as Miss Marple Geraldine McEwan (born Geraldine McKeown on May 9, 1932, in Old Windsor, Berkshire, England), is a British actress (of Irish extraction) with a diverse and successful history in film, theatre and television spanning 55 years. ... Ruby Wax (born Ruby Wachs on April 19, 1953) is an American comedienne who made a career in the United Kingdom as part of the alternative comedy scene in the 1980s. ... Samantha Jane Robson (b. ... Timothy Leonard Spall OBE (born February 27, 1957) is an English BAFTA award-nominated film, stage and television actor. ...

Production history

The first series aired on BBC2 in 1988. Seven further series have so far been produced, and a film has been in development hell almost continually since before the last series in 1999. For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 2. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Development hell is media-industry jargon for a film, television screenplay, or computer game[1] (or sometimes just a concept or idea) getting stuck in development and never going into production. ...


Concept and commission

The concept for the show was originally developed from the sketch-series Dave Hollins: Space Cadet on the BBC Radio 4 show Son of Cliché in the mid-1980s, written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. Some of their influences came from 1970s movies such as Alien, Dark Star, Silent Running, and the television series Lost in Space; but their concept had a large element of British-style comedy and satire thrown into the mix, ultimately moulded into the form of a sitcom. Having first written the pilot script for Red Dwarf in 1983 during a stay at a Welsh cottage owned by Naylor's father, the former Spitting Image writers had hawked their unusual and original script around a number of places but it was rejected by everyone at the BBC for three years, as it was believed a sitcom based around science fiction wouldn't be popular. Dave Hollins: Space Cadet was a sketch on the Radio 4 series Son of Cliche, produced by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... Son Of Cliché was a comedy sketch show broadcast on BBC Radio 4 between 1983 and 1985 The sketches were written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, and were performed by Chris Barrie, Nick Maloney and Nick Wilton. ... Rob Grants novel, Colony. ... Doug Naylor is a British comedy writer who was born in Manchester, England. ... Alien (1979), directed by Ridley Scott, is an extremely popular and influential science fiction/horror film that spawned several sequels and imitators. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... For other uses, see Silent Running (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lost in Space (disambiguation). ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire For other uses, see Cottage (disambiguation). ... Spitting Image was a satirical puppet show that ran on the United Kingdoms ITV television network from 1984 to 1996. ...


However it was finally accepted by BBC North in 1986, a happy result of a spare budget being assigned for a second series of Happy Families that would never arise. The show was lucky to be remounted after an electrician's strike partway through rehearsals shut the entire production down, and the first episode, The End, finally made it onto screens on 15 February 1988. The creators have long admitted that without the persistence of producers and commissioners such as Paul Jackson and Peter Ridsdale-Scott, the series might never have seen the light of day. BBC North was the former name of the BBC Yorkshire and BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire regions of the BBC. It was based at the Broadcasting Centre, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds and was the production centre for the regional news programme Look North and BBC Local Radio station BBC Radio Leeds. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Happy Families was a rural comedy drama written by Ben Elton which appeared on the BBC in 1985 and told the story of the dysfunctional Fuddle family. ... TVA electricians, Tennessee, 1942. ... The End is the very first episode of Red Dwarf. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Paul Jackson (born 2 October 1947, sometimes credited as K. Paul Jackson - his first name is Kevin) is a British television producer. ...


Casting

Alan Rickman and Alfred Molina were two of the notable names that auditioned for roles in the series, with Molina actually being cast as Rimmer originally. However, after having difficulties with the concept of the series, and of his role in particular (it has been said by Doug Naylor that he was constantly wondering when his character would stop being a hologram), the role was recast and filled by Chris Barrie, a professional voice-actor and impressionist who had previously worked with both the writers on Spitting Image, and with the producers on Happy Families and various Jasper Carrott productions. Craig Charles, a Liverpudlian "punk poet", was given the role of Dave Lister. He was originally approached by Grant and Naylor for his opinion about the character 'The Cat' as they were concerned it may be considered by some people as racist. On the television programme 'Comedy Connections', Charles described the character as 'pretty cool' and after reading the script he decided he wanted to audition for the part of Dave Lister. Laconic stand up comedian Norman Lovett, who had originally tried out for the role of Rimmer, was kept in the show as the senile computer of the titular ship, Holly. A professional dancer and singer, Danny John-Jules, arriving famously late for his appointment, stood out as The Cat immediately. This was partly due to his "cool" exterior, partly due to his dedicated research (reading Desmond Morris's book Catwatching), and partly because he showed up in character, wearing his father's 1950s-style suit. Alan Sidney Patrick Rickman (born February 21, 1946) is an acclaimed, award-winning English film, television and stage actor. ... Alfred Molina (born May 24, 1953) is an English actor of both the stage and screen. ... Chris Barrie (born March 28, 1960) is an English actor, best known for his roles as Arnold Rimmer in the cult BBC2 comedy Red Dwarf, and as Gordon Brittas in popular BBC1 sitcom The Brittas Empire. ... Spitting Image was a satirical puppet show that ran on the United Kingdoms ITV television network from 1984 to 1996. ... Happy Families was a rural comedy drama written by Ben Elton which appeared on the BBC in 1985 and told the story of the dysfunctional Fuddle family. ... Jasper Carrott OBE (born Robert Davis, March 14, 1945) is an English comedian (declaring himself world famous in Birmingham). // Born in Acocks Green, Birmingham, he was educated at Moseley Grammar School and later attended Aston University in the heart of Birmingham. ... Craig Charles as Dave Lister Craig Charles (born July 11, 1964 in Liverpool, England) is an English actor, stand up comedian, author, poet, and radio and television presenter, best known for playing Dave Lister in the British cult-favourite sci-fi sitcom Red Dwarf. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Richard Pryor hits the money line A stand-up comedian or stand-up comic is someone that performs in comedy clubs, usually reciting a fast paced succession of amusing stories, short jokes and one-liners, typically called a monologue. ... Norman Lovett (born October 31, 1946) is a British stand-up comedian and actor, best known for the role of Holly in Red Dwarf during the first, second, seventh and eighth series. ... The British sci-fi comedy Red Dwarf prominently features many different spaceships. ... Holly is the ships computer on the science fiction comedy television show Red Dwarf. ... Danny John-Jules as the Cat in Red Dwarf Daniel (Danny) John-Jules (born in London on September 16, 1960) is a British actor and dancer. ... The Cat in Series 5 of Red Dwarf The Cat is a character in the British comedy television series Red Dwarf. ... Dr Desmond Morris (born 24 January 1928 in the village of Purton, UK) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ... Desmond Morris (born January 24th, 1928) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ...


Other actors attached to the project with supposed major roles at some stage during the pre-production years of the show include Ronnie Barker, Hugh Laurie, and David Baddiel. Many who came close to getting leading roles were rewarded with guest parts, including Craig Ferguson, Lee Cornes and David Gillespie. Ronald William George Barker, OBE (25 September 1929 – 3 October 2005), popularly known as Ronnie Barker was an English comic actor and writer. ... James Hugh Calum Laurie, OBE (born June 11, 1959) is an English actor, comedian, writer, and musician. ... David Baddiel (born May 28, 1964, Troy, New York, U.S.) is an English comedian, novelist and television presenter. ... Craig Ferguson (born 17 May 1962) is a Scottish comedian, actor, writer and talk show host. ... Lee Cornes is a British actor. ...


Writing, producing, and directing

Grant and Naylor wrote the first six series together (using the pseudonym Grant Naylor on the first two novels and later as the name of their production company, although never on the episodes themselves) before Grant left in 1996, leaving Naylor to write the final two with a group of new writers, notably including Paul Alexander and actor Robert Llewellyn. Grant Naylor is a cult leader and an underground artist, who lives in Sydney Australia. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ...


For the most part, Ed Bye produced and directed the series. He left before Series V due to a scheduling clash (he ending up directing a series starring his wife, Ruby Wax), and Juliet May took over as director, but she parted ways with Grant and Naylor partway through the series for personal and professional reasons. Grant and Naylor took over direction of the series, in addition to writing and producing. Series VI was directed by Andy De Emmony, with Bye returning for the final two series. Edward Richard Morrison Bye is a british film and TV producer and director. ... Ruby Wax (born Ruby Wachs on April 19, 1953) is an American comedienne who made a career in the United Kingdom as part of the alternative comedy scene in the 1980s. ...


Series I, II and III were made by Paul Jackson Productions, with subsequent series produced by the writers' own company Grant Naylor Productions, all for BBC North; all eight series were broadcast on BBC2. At the beginning of Series IV, production moved from the BBC's Manchester studios to Shepperton. Grant Naylor is the collective name used by writers Rob Grant and Doug Naylor for their collaborative work, particularly Red Dwarf. ... BBC North was the former name of the BBC Yorkshire and BBC Yorkshire and Lincolnshire regions of the BBC. It was based at the Broadcasting Centre, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds and was the production centre for the regional news programme Look North and BBC Local Radio station BBC Radio Leeds. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Shepperton Studios, located in Shepperton, Middlesex, England is a film studio with a long history of film making. ...


The theme tune and incidental music were written and performed by Howard Goodall, with the distinctive vocals on the theme tune courtesy of Jenna Russell. Goodall also wrote music for the show's various songs, including "Tongue Tied", with lyrics written by Grant and Naylor, which Danny John-Jules re-orchestrated and released as a Top 20 single. Craig Charles wrote, performed and sang "Cash" — from the episode "Timeslides" — with his band. Goodall's own voice can be heard in the version of the song "High Noon" in "Queeg" (Series II), and in the "Rimmer Munchkin Song" in "Blue" (Series VII). Chris Barrie purports to have been upset by not being invited to sing this song himself (Back from the Dead, series VII DVD); Howard Goodall, however, insists that Barrie was asked but turned the invitation down (Howard Goodall, Settling the Score, series VI DVD). Howard Goodall Howard Goodall (born 1958 in Bromley, South London) is a British composer of musicals, choral music and music for television. ... Jenna Russell (born 5 October 1967) is an English actress who appeared as Maggie in the comedy On The Up and as Deborah Gilder in Born and Bred. ... Danny John-Jules as the Cat in Red Dwarf Daniel (Danny) John-Jules (born in London on September 16, 1960) is a British actor and dancer. ... Timeslides was the fifth episode to air in the third series of Red Dwarf. ... High Noon is a popular song. ... Queeg was the eleventh Red Dwarf episode to air, the fifth of the second series. ... Blue was the fifth episode to air in Series VII of Red Dwarf. ...


Hiatus, changes, and disputes

A period of three years elapsed between series VI and VII, partly due to the imprisonment and subsequent exoneration of Craig Charles on a rape charge, but also due to cast and crew working on other projects (notably Chris Barrie in The Brittas Empire) and disputes over pay. When the series returned, it was filmised and no longer shot in front of a live audience (a common misconception is that canned laughter was used, when in fact the completed episodes were later shown to an audience), allowing for greater use of four-walled sets, location shooting and single camera techniques. Although some critics praised the higher production values, many fans disliked the series (see "Mixed reactions"), and when the show returned for its eighth series two years later, it had dropped use of the filmising process and restored the live audience. The Brittas Empire is a BBC television sitcom that ran from 1991 to 1997. ... Filmizing (a. ... Location shooting is the practice of filming in an actual setting rather than on a sound stage or back lot. ... A single camera setup is the name given to the filming procedure used to film motion pictures. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ...


Red Dwarf Remastered

Main article: Red Dwarf Remastered

In 1998, on the tenth anniversary of the show's first airing (and between the broadcast of series VII and VIII), the first three series of Red Dwarf were remastered and released on VHS. The remastering included reformatting the series in 14:9 widescreen (albeit, only for the VHS releases. TV showings were in original 4:3), applying the same 'field-removal' film effect as Series VII, replacing model shots with computer graphics, cutting various small pieces of dialogue (and, in some cases, entire scenes), re-filming Norman Lovett's Holly footage, creating a consistent set of opening titles for use in all episodes, and updating music and ambient sound effects with a digital master. Grant Naylor explained: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Remaster (and its derivations, frequently found in the phrases digitally remastered or digital remastering) is a word and concept ushered into the mass consciousness via the digital age, although it had existed before then. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... Grant Naylor is a cult leader and an underground artist, who lives in Sydney Australia. ...

We're basically remastering the whole of the first six series for BBC Worldwide (the video company) who feel that they would be able to sell it more easily in Europe and America if there was a more unified look and feel to the whole of the series. What this means is ... consistent opening titles; it means that in places we can replace and improve the model shots.

Red Dwarf Remastered was met with a generally poor fan reaction in the UK, but significant international broadcast sales - due mainly to the newer-looking visuals and the availability of isolated audio tracks for language dubbing. No further series were remastered and the later DVD releases of the same series reverted to the original versions; although the first episode of Series VII ("Tikka to Ride") would also include an alternative Remastered version, featuring upgraded CGI as the only difference to the original broadcast version. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tikka to Ride was the first episode to air in the seventh series of Red Dwarf. ...


The Remastered episodes were re-released on DVD on November 12th 2007, as part of the Red Dwarf : The Bodysnatcher Collection boxset.


Spin-offs

Books

The franchise has expanded to include four novels, written by the show's creators, Doug Naylor and Rob Grant (under the combined name of Grant Naylor).

These novels contain deeper insights and more thorough backstories for the main characters, as well as more information on humanity's future state of affairs. Rather than adapting the show outright, the books provide yet another, possibly idealized version of the series' backstory. They reinterpret and reposition elements from past episodes, and even introduce ideas that would later be used in the show. is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Better Than Life is a major concept in the Red Dwarf canon. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Last Human is the title of a 1995 science fiction comedy novel written by Doug Naylor. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Backwards is the fourth Red Dwarf novel. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


It was reported that both authors were working together on a sequel to Better than Life, called The Last Human, but after falling out with each other, and still owing Penguin Publishing two more Red Dwarf books, Grant and Naylor decided to each work alone on the novels. Two completely different, contradicting sequels were made as a result. Last Human (by Doug Naylor, who would go on to make two further television series) added Kochanski to the crew and places more emphasis on the science-fiction and plot elements, while Backwards (by Rob Grant) was more in keeping with the previous two books, borrowing more extensively from established television stories. The styles of these sequels vary wildly from the two predecessors and each other, and gave some insight into which author had been more responsible for different elements and characters in preceding works. While opinion differs strongly on which solo effort is superior, neither matched the widespread fan acclaim of the original co-written novels.


All four books were published in audiobook format, the first two read by Chris Barrie, Last Human read by Craig Charles, and Backwards read by its author Rob Grant. An audio book is a recording of the contents of a book read aloud. ...


The BBC World Service re-recorded the first two books as The Red Dwarf Radio Show, with Chris Barrie narrating and additional sound effects. These re-recordings were abridged versions of the original novels. The first series was broadcast from 3 December 1995 to 17 February 1996, and the second from 13 March 1997 to 28 March 1997. The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


An Omnibus edition of the first two books, including a few edits to the original text and some extra material such as the original script to the first episode of the TV series, was released in 1992 (ISBN 0-14-017466-4).


Other books include:

  • The Official Red Dwarf Companion — 1992 — Bruce Dessau — ISBN 1-85286-456-7
  • Red Dwarf VIII Scriptbook — 1999 — Doug Naylor (with Paul Alexander) — ISBN 1-85227-872-2
  • The Making of Red Dwarf — 1994 — Joe Nazzaro (with photographs by Nobby Clark) — ISBN 0-14-023206-0
  • Red Dwarf Programme Guide — 1993 — Chris Howarth & Steve Lyons — ISBN 0-86369-682-1 (with three subsequent revisions until 2000)
  • The Space Corps Survival Manual — 1996 — Doug Naylor & Paul Alexander — ISBN 0-7493-2374-4
  • The Red Dwarf Quiz Book — 1994 — Nicky Hooks & Sharon Burnett — ISBN 0-14-023662-7
  • Red Dwarf Log No. 1996 — 1995 — ISBN 0-434-00370-0 (Diary)
  • The Man in the Rubber Mask — 1994 — Robert Llewellyn — ISBN 0-14-023575-2 (Autobiography)
  • Red Dwarf: The Role Playing Game — 2003 — Todd Downing, Mark Bruno, John Sullivan, Andrew Kenrick, Lee Hammock, Gavin Downing, Allan McComas & Samantha Downing — ISBN 0-97-108203-0

There have also been two script books — Primordial Soup (1993, ISBN 0-14-017886-4) and Son Of Soup (1996, ISBN 0-14-025363-7) — each containing six scripts; and an extremely rare short book entitled Scenes From The Dwarf (ISBN 0-14-600243-1) was released in 1996 as part of the Penguin 60s series, containing scripts of a handful of scenes from the series. It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ...


The Log: A Dwarfer's Guide to Everything (1997, ISBN 0-14-026862-6), a collection of humorous observations on a wide variety of topics written by Craig Charles and Russell Bell, was not affiliated with Red Dwarf, Grant/Naylor or the BBC. However, Charles was pictured on the cover in costume as Lister and, in the introduction, describes the book (tongue in cheek) as an attempt to compile a comparative list of scientific and sociological milestones in the development of the human race from the viewpoint of the last human being alive (i.e. someone very much like Lister). This book can therefore be considered an unofficial Red Dwarf spin-off.


U.S. version

A pilot episode for an American version (known to fans as Red Dwarf USA) was produced for NBC in 1992, though never broadcast. The show followed essentially the same story as the first episode of the original series, substituting American actors (including Craig Bierko as Lister, Chris Eigeman as Rimmer, and Hinton Battle as the Cat) for the British; exceptions being Llewellyn, who reprised his role as Kryten, and the British actress Jane Leeves, of Frasier fame, as Holly. It was directed by Jeffrey Melman and written and produced by Linwood Boomer of Malcolm in the Middle fame. A television pilot is a test episode of an intended television series. ... This article is about the television network. ... Craig Bierko (born August 18, 1964 in Rye Brook, New York, USA) is an American actor most famous for his role as Max Baer in the film Cinderella Man. ... Chris Eigeman (born March 1, 1965, Denver, Colorado) is an American actor best known for roles in the Whit Stillman films Metropolitan, Barcelona, and The Last Days of Disco. ... Hinton Battle (b. ... Jane Leeves (born April 18, 1961) is an English actress best known for her work as Daphne Moon on Frasier. ... Frasier is an American sitcom starring Kelsey Grammer as psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane. ... Jeff Melman is an American television producer and director. ... Linwood Boomer (b. ... Malcolm in the Middle is a seven-time Emmy-winning,[1] one-time Grammy-winning[1] and seven-time Golden Globe-nominated[1] American sitcom created by Linwood Boomer for the Fox Network. ...


It was later revealed on the series V DVD that Chris Barrie had been offered the chance to reprise his role as Rimmer for the US series, but turned it down believing he would be under contract "for years" afterwards if the show was a success.


It was also revealed that Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, with the support of the cast, convinced the pilot's producers to use a revised script of their creation, but in the course of production the American team reverted back to their original script.


As a result of this the two hastily put together an extremely low-budget network promo consisting of scenes from the first pilot and the British show edited in with newly-filmed footage (featuring a new Rimmer and, from a suggestion made by the network, a female Cat, played by Terry Farrell). This was also unsuccessful. Terry Farrell (born November 19, 1963) is an American actress and former fashion model, best known for her roles in the television series Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Becker. ...


Clips from the first pilot can be found on the DVD of series V in the featurette Dwarfing USA, along with interviews with the British cast and Doug Naylor. Bootlegs of the pilots are widely circulated among Red Dwarf fans, and sold at conventions, while some low-quality recordings can be found on the Internet for downloading.


Red Dwarf: The Movie

Since the end of series Eight, Doug Naylor has been attempting to get funding to make a feature length film version of the show, but on every occasion so far has been thwarted by circumstances. He has long persisted with his conviction that the making of the movie (for which the script has been written for many years) takes precedence over any other possible future incarnation of Red Dwarf. On the series VIII DVD documentary The Tank, however, he admits to being — perhaps mindful of the age and schedules of the principal cast — close to having to make a final, outright decision of whether to continue to pursue the film, make a series IX or some one-off TV special(s) (as Only Fools & Horses did previously), or simply end the series as it is.[2] Naylor sent a letter to the Red Dwarf fans at the Dimension Jump convention in 2004, which mostly consisted of his failed attempts to create the film, such as a fake Duke of Manchester offering money to fund the film provided Naylor paid his air fare to attend the meeting. Naylor has also stated that some studios have been impressed by the scripts, but either weren't looking for that kind of project or wanted the film recast.[3] Only Fools and Horses is a hugely popular British sitcom, created and written by John Sullivan, and made and broadcast by the BBC. Seven series were broadcast between 1981 and 1991, with sporadic Christmas specials until 2003. ...


Tongue Tied

The song "Tongue Tied", originally featured in a dream sequence in the series II episode "Parallel Universe", was rearranged and rerecorded by Danny John Jules (under the name 'The Cat') and released as a single in October 1993. It reached number 17 in the UK charts, and was expected to get higher, but a planned performance on Top of the Pops never happened, thus halting momentum for the single. The single also included the actor's performance of the Red Dwarf theme song. Top of the Pops, also known as TOTP, was a long-running British music chart television programme, made and broadcast by the BBC. It was originally shown each week, mostly on BBC One, from 1 January 1964 to 30 July 2006. ...


A video to accompany the release which starred Danny John-Jules as some of his Red Dwarf alter-egos, including Duane Dibbley, was also produced. This was primarily available to readers of the Red Dwarf Smegazine. It was based around a storyline written by Danny John-Jules and featured music videos for some of the remixes, with guest appearances from the rest of the Red Dwarf cast, along with Clayton Mark ("Elvis" in Meltdown) and Charles Augins ("Queeg 500" in Queeg). In addition an eight-minute "Making Of" documentary featuring the cast was included. Clayton Mark is an American professional Elvis Presley impersonator, based in the United Kingdom. ...


The main melody of the song is also used in background music cues elsewhere in the second series - it appears in rearranged form in the episodes "Stasis Leak" and "Better Than Life", both of which actually precede "Parallel Universe" in the broadcast order.


Specials

On February 14, 1998, the night before the tenth anniversary of the show's first broadcast episode, BBC2 devoted an evening of special programming to the series, under the banner of Red Dwarf Night. The evening consisted of a mixture of new, specially-recorded content and existing material, and was introduced and linked by famed actor and Dwarf fan Patrick Stewart. In addition, a series of special take-offs on BBC2's famous idents, featuring the "2" logo falling in love with a skutter, were used. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 2. ... This article is about the actor. ... Station identification (sometimes called a sounder or stinger) is the practice of any type of radio or television station or network identifying itself, typically with a call sign or brand name. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ...


The night began with Can't Smeg, Won't Smeg, a spoof of the popular cookery programme Can't Cook, Won't Cook, presented by that show's host Ainsley Harriott (who had himself earlier appeared in Red Dwarf, albeit under heavy make-up, prior to his career as a celebrity chef). Taking place out of the continuity of the series (not least as it features both Kochanski and the hologram Rimmer, who never actually met in the series, on-board Starbug), two teams (Kryten and Lister versus Rimmer and the Cat, although the Cat quickly departs to be replaced by alter ego Duane Dibbley) are challenged to make the best chicken vindaloo. The show was part-scripted by Paul Alexander, and part-improvised by the cast. Can't Smeg, Won't Smeg is available for viewing as a special feature on the series IV DVD. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Ainsley Harriott (born February 28, 1957) is a British celebrity chef. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... Pork vindalho, served in Lisbon, Portugal, in a goan restaurant Vindaloo also called Vindalho or Vindallo is a very popular Indian dish. ... Improvisation is the act of making something up as you go along. ...


After a compilation bloopers show, featuring out-takes that had already been seen on the various Smeg Ups releases (see DVD and video) but new linking material from the cast, the next special programme was Universe Challenge, a take-off of the University Challenge (or College Bowl in the USA) format. Hosted by original University Challenge presenter Bamber Gascoigne (following an introduction in which Chris Barrie mimicked current host Jeremy Paxman — who Gascoigne subsequently 'blew up' with a Bazookoid), the show saw a team of knowledgeable Dwarf fans defeat a team consisting of Chris Barrie, Craig Charles, Robert Llewellyn, Chloe Annett and Danny John Jules. Universe Challenge has not yet been released on DVD due to copyright complications. A blooper usually refers to a faux pas made by an actor while filming a television show or movie. ... University Challenge is a long-running British television quiz show, licensed and produced by Granada Television. ... College Bowl is a format of college-level quizbowl run and operated by College Bowl Company, Incorporated. ... Bamber Gascoigne (born 1935) is a British television presenter and author. ... Jeremy Dickson Paxman (born 11 May 1950) is an English BBC journalist, news presenter and author. ...


Universe Challenge was followed by The Red Dwarf A-Z, a half-hour documentary special that chose a different aspect of the show to focus on for each letter of the alphabet. Talking heads on the episode included Stephen Hawking, Terry Pratchett, original producer Paul Jackson, and Patrick Stewart, in addition to an appearance from two (officially-licensed) Daleks. Finally, the night ended with a showing of the Emmy award-winning episode from 1993, "Gunmen of the Apocalypse". The Red Dwarf A-Z is available for viewing as a bonus feature on the series II DVD, and as part of some countries' series VII VHS release. Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... Paul Jackson (sometimes credited as K. Paul Jackson) is a British television producer. ... Daleks can refer to either: Plural of Dalek, the fictional robot; or Daleks (video game). ... An Emmy Award. ... Gunmen of the Apocalypse was the third epsiode to air in the sixth series of Red Dwarf. ...


Another one-off Dwarf special was produced in November of that year — a short sketch serving as a prelude to Series VIII that was broadcast as part of the annual Children in Need fundraising night. The sketch saw the Dwarf crew (again featuring both Rimmer and Kochanski — with Rimmer still sporting his holographic H to avoid spoiling the nature of his return) onboard the newly-redesigned Blue Midget, discussing fund-raising and telethons. New BBC Children in Need Pudsey and logo from 2007 BBC Children in Need is an annual British charity appeal organised by the BBC. Since 1980 it has raised over £576million. ... The 2005 Telethon on Seven Perth. ...


Stage Plays

Blak Yak Theatre, a theatre group in Perth, Western Australia, were also given permission by Grant Naylor Productions to mount stage versions of certain Red Dwarf episodes in 2002, 2004 and 2006. Most notably, the cast featured a Lister speaking with an Australian accent and a white Cat. Tentative plans were also announced by GNP in September 2007 for an official project titled Red Dwarf : The Movie : The Stage Play, but no further information has yet been forthcoming.


DVD and VHS

DVD Releases

All eight series remain available on DVD in Regions 1, 2 and 4, with each release from Series III onward being accompanied by an original documentary about the making of each respective series, and a bonus disc filled with extra material. The DVD releases have been praised[4] for their particularly extensive bonus material, which includes cast commentaries, exhaustive deleted scenes, raw effects footage, previously-broadcast one-offs and specials about the show, outtakes and much more, including — in one instance — a special audio/part-animated version of an unmade episode, performed by Chris Barrie. In all of the DVDs there are hidden extras among the menus, known as Easter Eggs. These include extra animated interviews with Grant Naylor and Ed Bye, as well as other model shots and unseen footage.
There are also various country-specific releases, usually without extras, across the globe.


Regions 2 and 4 have also seen the release of two Just The Shows, digipack boxsets containing all the episodes from Series I–IV (Volume 1) and V-VIII (Volume 2) with static menus and no extras. In October 2006, meanwhile, an Interactive Quiz DVD entitled Red Dwarf: Beat The Geek was released. The quiz allows "hardcore fans" to compete against casual viewers, in addition to offering general knowledge questions for friends/family not au fait with the series.[5] The DVD is hosted by Norman Lovett and Hattie Hayridge, both reprising their roles as Holly. It is currently only available in regions 2-4, and in region 2 the initial release also included an internet treasure hunt competition called "Geek Chase",[6] with a prize of £5,000. (Now expired, though the game itself remains available online.) DVD Television Games are standalone games that can be played on set-top DVD players. ...


The Region 1, 2(UK) and 4 releases of series 1-3 are the originally aired versions of the show. Some European countries such as Poland, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and The Netherlands have localised releases which contain the Remastered versions of Series I-III. Bonus features on these DVDs vary. An earlier release in Japan featured the NHK versions of the show - remastered and dubbed, but with significantly altered title sequences and shorter running times, reflecting the fact that these edits were originally created for showing on commercial television. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... NHK Broadcasting Center in Shibuya, Tokyo NHK (, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or the Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ...


In December 2006, it was announced[7] that a DVD boxset of Red Dwarf : Remastered was being prepared for release in October 2007. It was subsequently announced in April 2007[8] that the name of the boxset would be Red Dwarf : The Bodysnatcher Collection rather than Red Dwarf Remastered. The new title highlighted one of the set's other main bonus features: a storyboard construction of "Bodysnatcher" (the "lost" episode from series 1, performed by Chris Barrie as for the series VII extra "Identity Within"), notable for being an original 1987 script "finished" by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor in 2007, working together for the first time since 1993. The intention of the boxset retitling to was to ensure that no buyers or reviewers would mistake the set for a 'vanilla' edition of the 1997 Remastered series (akin to the Just The Shows sets) or even a new 2007 Remastering of the series. It was felt by GNP that the renaming would focus attention onto the array of bonus features that had not been financially viable when the early series were originally released on DVD.


On Friday 24th August, 2 Entertain confirmed that another Red Dwarf DVD would be released by the end of the year. 'Red Dwarf: Just The Smegs' contains the original video releases of 'Smeg Ups' and 'Smeg Outs' (Out-takes from Series 1 - 6), plus the half hour version shown on 'Red Dwarf Night' and the Series 7 & 8 Smeg Ups released on the original series video releases. The Region 2 DVD will be released on November 5th in the UK.


VHS Releases

For the initial release of the VHS editions, the videos were named after the first episode on the tape, as were other BBC videos at the time. This was changed for the second half of series I, as the BBC already had another series called Waiting for God (the title of the fourth episode in the series) so the video was named after the fifth episode, "Confidence and Paranoia". Because of this, the episode summaries on the back of the tape were mixed up with the second episode being listed first. The first video of series VI was named after the third episode on the tape, presumably because the Emmy-winning episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse" was seen as being more prestigious than "Psirens", the first episode of the series. Waiting for God was a British sitcom that ran on BBC1 for five series from 1990 to 1994. ... An Emmy Award. ... Gunmen of the Apocalypse was the third epsiode to air in the sixth series of Red Dwarf. ...


Boxed Sets / Speciality Releases: Prior to the DVD releases, all eight series had been available on VHS. All the videos are now deleted, but none — save for "Six Of The Best" — are particularly rare. Three episodes of series VII were also released as special "Xtended" versions with extra scenes and no laugh track (these "Xtended" episodes would later be included on the DVD), while the remastered versions of series I–III were released individually and in a complete box-set. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A special limited edition box-set, Six Of The Best, was released in 1997, featuring one episode from each (then-existing) series selected by the writers, and an audio CD of discussion and commentary by Rob Grant, Doug Naylor and Ed Bye (this discussion would later be split up and used as extras and easter eggs on the DVD releases). The first easter egg. ...


Outtakes: Finally, two outtake videos were released, the famed Smeg Ups in 1994, and its sequel Smeg Outs in 1995. There was also a specially edited version of Smeg Ups for the Red Dwarf anniversary, which featured newly recorded links by Robert Llewellyn as Kryten, Chris Barrie as Rimmer and Craig Charles as Lister, the links were later released separately on the series VII DVD. The original, 1994 version of Smeg Ups contained outtakes from Series IV–VI, with brand new specially-recorded links performed by Robert Llewellyn as Kryten, and featured the never-before-seen original ending of the Series VI finale "Out Of Time". Smeg Outs featured out-takes from the first three series, with more new links (now also featuring Craig Charles as Lister), in addition to the full-length video for "Tongue Tied". These videos were a strong commercial success, and Red Dwarf's outtakes remain among the most famous in television. All the out-takes featured on the videos have now been included on the relevant DVDs, and will be released in their original form on DVD on November 5th (In the UK) as 'Red Dwarf: Just The Smegs'. A blooper usually describes a short sequence of a film or video production which contains a mistake made by a member of the cast or crew. ...


Releases on other media

Smeg Ups was re-released on UMD in June 2006, with Smeg Outs originally intended to follow 'for Christmas',[9] but that release was subsequently cancelled. A UMD The Universal Media Disc (UMD) is an optical disc medium developed by Sony for use on the PlayStation Portable. ...


Meanwhile, three episodes — "Marooned", "Quarantine", and "Cassandra" — are also available to view on selected mobile phones on a "ROK Chip". Marooned was the second episode Series III of Red Dwarf. ... Quarantine was the fourth epsiode to air in the fifth series of Red Dwarf. ... Cassandra was the fourth episode to air in the eighth series of Red Dwarf. ...


Some episodes have also been made available to certain countries by the BBC for download through the Vuze client. Vuze (formerly code-named Zudeo[1]) is both a BitTorrent client and content service by Azureus, Inc. ...


Notable series characteristics

Mixed reactions

The many changes that were made to the series' cast, setting, creative teams and even production values from series to series have meant that opinions differ greatly between fans as to the quality of certain series. Series VI was based around the supply ship Starbug. In the opening show of the series, 'Psirens', the reason given by Rimmer was that Red Dwarf was stolen after Lister had forgotten which planetoid he had parked it on. However there was a real reason for the change — too much of the Red Dwarf set did actually go missing. Series VI is often regarded as a highlight for lovers of one-line jokes but some saw it as a continuation of the 'Monster of the week' philosophy of Series V, which was nevertheless visually impressive. In Series VII and VIII there was a discernible shift away from both 'Monster of the week' and the stereotypical antagonism between Lister and Rimmer.


Series VII was seen by many as a disappointment: while much slicker and higher-budget in appearance, the shift away from outright sitcom and into something approaching comedy drama did not impress a significant number of long-standing fans. Furthermore, the attempt to then shift back into traditional sitcom format for series VIII was greeted with a response that was similarly lukewarm — and at times downright hostile — by many fans who felt that the level of humour in that series was far below that which they had come to expect from the show. There was also a significant amount of criticism aimed at the decision to resurrect the entire crew of Red Dwarf, as many felt this detracted from the series' central premise of Lister being the last human being alive.[10] A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the origami historian, see David Lister (Origami Historian). ...


On the other hand, there are other Red Dwarf fans who feel that Series VII and VIII, either separately or as a whole, are no weaker than the earlier series, and the topic is therefore the subject of constant fervent debate among the show's fanbase.[11] Similar discussions revolve around the quality of Series VI (seen by some as the strongest series, but by others as a descent into formulaic comedy with an unwelcome change of setting), although not to the same extent; and there are even those who argue that the show lost its way with the significant changes made after Series II.


Within the context of British comedy in general, meanwhile, Red Dwarf occupies an ambiguous position. While revered by many — and still a successful programme, as recent DVD sales have shown (series IV and V were the third and fourth best-selling BBC DVDs respectively in 2005[12]) — it is also often looked down upon by those in the comedy fraternity (comedians such as Armando Iannucci and Lee and Herring have remarked on their dislike for the series)[citation needed]. This could be the result of any number of factors — its niche content, the fact that its writers largely worked alone and are noted for little else in the industry, or the 'unfashionable' status of its main cast members (consisting of a dancer, a poet, an impressionist, and a stand-up comic, rather than previously-noted comedic actors) and the science fiction setting. Despite this, Red Dwarf consistently topped ratings (e.g. the series VIII opener "Back in the Red" received 8.05 million viewers when first broadcast in February 1999[13]), and remains one of the longest-running BBC2 comedy series. Armando Iannucci (born 1964, Glasgow, Scotland) is a Scottish comedian, satirist and radio producer. ... Lee and Herring are a British standup comedy double act consisting of the comedians Stewart Lee and Richard Herring. ... A niche market also known as a target market is a focused, targetable portion (subset) of a market sector. ...


Invented words

Red Dwarf, like many other science fiction series, developed its own distinct vocabulary. Words and phrases such as Hologrammatic, Dollarpound, Felis sapiens, Fuchal, Rogue Simulants, GELF, Space weevil and Zero G Football appear at various points during the series, highlighting a development in language, political climate, technology, evolution and culture in the future. Hologrammatic is a term created by writers Rob Grant and Doug Naylor for their science fiction/comedy TV series Red Dwarf as an adjective form of the word hologram. Category: ... The dollarpound is a fictional currency used in the science fiction comedy series Red Dwarf and its resulting novels. ... Felis Sapiens (designated Felix Sapiens by Krytens replacement Hudzen-10 in the episode The Last Day) are a fictional, sentient, humanoid species from the Red Dwarf television series. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... G.E.L.F. is a term designating any type of Genetically Engineered LifeForm in the science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf. ...


The series also famously employed a vocabulary of fictional expletives in order to avoid using potentially-offensive expletives in the show, and to give nuance to futuristic colloquial language. By far, the most famous example is 'smeg'. The word can be considered a substitute for either "shit" or "fuck" depending on circumstance, and so variations of the word include 'smeghead', 'smeg off' and 'smegging hell'. Grant and Naylor have stated that they invented the word "smeg", and that it has no connection with any similar real words, such as 'smegma' or the brand name that appears on the front of kitchen appliances. However, lexicographer Tony Thorne, in his 1990 Dictionary of Contemporary Slang (ISBN 0-7475-2856-X), reports instances of 'smeg' (and derivatives) being used as a term of 'mild contempt and even affection' among 'schoolboys, students and punks' as early as the mid-1970s — a decade or so prior to the inception of the Red Dwarf phenomenon — and unequivocally traces the etymology of the term back to 'smegma'. A character in the 1978 DEVO promotional video "The Men Who Make The Music" employs the term in the line "You're dying under Daddy's Cap, Smeghead." The word expletive is currently used in three senses: syntactic expletives, expletive attributives, and bad language. The word expletive comes from the Latin verb explere, meaning to fill, via expletivus, filling out. It was introduced into English in the seventeenth century to refer to various kinds of padding — the padding... Smeg is a mild vulgarism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Smegma, a transliteration of the Greek word σμήγμα for sebum, is a combination of exfoliated (shed) epithelial cells, transudated skin oils, and moisture, and can accumulate under the foreskin of males and within the vulva of females. ... The pursuit of lexicography is divided into two related disciplines: Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Smegma, a transliteration of the Greek word σμήγμα for sebum, is a combination of exfoliated (shed) epithelial cells, transudated skin oils, and moisture, and can accumulate under the foreskin of males and within the vulva of females. ... Devo (pronounced DEE-vo or dee-VO, often spelled DEVO or DEV-O) is an American New Wave group formed in Akron, Ohio in 1972. ...


Other invented expletives and euphemisms include 'goit' (one who is annoying or awkward) and 'gimboid' (one who is stupid or clumsy). Another term of abuse used once in the show was the word 'gwenlan', the last name of Gareth Gwenlan, a former BBC head of comedy who had once passed on the show. Euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


Parody and pastiche

While Red Dwarf is a comedy series, there is a mistaken belief that it exists solely as a 'parody' of existing science fiction shows. This, however, is untrue — the science fiction elements of the series were always treated seriously by Grant and Naylor, and indeed there were many concepts introduced by the series that would later go on to be used by more "serious" programmes. Nevertheless, like many sitcoms of its era, a number of its episodes contained references to other (not always science fiction) television shows, films, books and plays. These included spoofs of films and TV programmes as diverse as 2001: A Space Odyssey, Alien, Neighbours, Casablanca, Top Gun, RoboCop, Doctor Doolittle and Pride and Prejudice. This article is about the first film in a series. ... This article is about an Australian soap opera. ... This article is about the 1942 film. ... Top Gun is a 1986 American film directed by Tony Scott and produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer in association with Paramount Pictures. ... RoboCop is a 1987 science fiction action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... Doctor Dolittle is the central character of a series of childrens books by Hugh Lofting. ... Pride and Prejudice is the title of a number of films: Pride and Prejudice (1940 film) Pride and Prejudice (BBC) Pride and Prejudice (2003 film) Pride and Prejudice (2005 film) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Continuity

Red Dwarf is particularly known for its creators' lax attitude towards continuity. As such, there were many facts and events that go contradicted (sometimes multiple times) from series to series. In the beginning, changing such things as the number of people on-board the ship (Originally 169, later became 1169), the number of times Rimmer took his astronavigation exam, or even what century Lister was from (In the 1st & 2nd series Lister was from the mid 21st century, but in the series 4 episode "Justice" Lister claims to be from the 23rd century), was a result of Grant and Naylor not bothering to check their facts because they assumed that no-one else would either. Perhaps the best-known example involved Lister having been said to have already had his appendix removed in an episode in series II, only to suffer from peritonitis and have it removed during series VI, an error that has received numerous attempts at explanation by writers and fans alike (most famously during the Smeg Ups video, when Kryten declared that Lister "liked the operation so much, he decided to have it again"[14]). Once the show began to attract a quite large fan base, however, such errors began to be gleefully pointed out by fans the world over, to the extent that they became one of the series' most notable features. Most of the series' continuity errors are therefore now treated with a certain amount of tongue-in-cheek reverence, and cheerfully ignored (just as Grant and Naylor ignored them when writing the show). Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


References

  1. ^ http://www.reddwarf.co.uk/deck05/series_8/aftermath.html
  2. ^ See Red Dwarf VIII (BBC DVD, 2006), documentary The Tank
  3. ^ Rawson-Jones, Ben. "Red Dwarf - The Movie That Never Was", Cult Spy, Digital Spy, 2007-04-06. Retrieved on 2007-11-12. 
  4. ^ Round-up of Series VIII DVD reviews by the official site. The comments on the extras in these reviews are fairly indicative of the reaction each of the eight releases have received.
  5. ^ News report on Beat The Geek release
  6. ^ News report on "Geek Chase"
  7. ^ "Remasters of the Universe", reddwarf.co.uk
  8. ^ "The Bodysnatcher Collection", reddwarf.co.uk
  9. ^ Information on future DVD releases
  10. ^ Ganymede & Titan - "Under Fire", 4 April 2003
  11. ^ Ganymede & Titan - "Why I Actually Like Series VII", 7 November 2004
  12. ^ BBC report on DVD sales, 6 June 2005
  13. ^ Broadcasters' Audience Research Board (Barb)/RSMB, taken from The Radio Times, week 20-26 Feb 1999
  14. ^ Smeg Ups, BBC Video, 1994

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... This is an episode list for the British science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf. ... The British sci-fi comedy Red Dwarf prominently features many different spaceships. ... A British sitcom is a situation comedy (sitcom) produced in the United Kingdom. ... Britains Best Sitcom was a poll conducted in 2003 and 2004 by the BBC to identify the United Kingdoms best situation comedy. ... This is a partial list of television series that include episodes about time travel. ... A typical chinface. ... This article is about a hypothetical method of space travel. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Red Dwarf

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

Cast links

Fan sites

  • Smegoo! - The Original Un-Official Red Dwarf Search Engine
  • Ganymede & Titan - News, features, analysis and community
  • Groovetown - The Music of Red Dwarf, also a discussion forum
  • Red Dwarf entry on FanFiction.Net
  • Red Dwarf Scripts & Fan Fiction
  • The Red Dwarf Zone
  • Blue Dwarf RPG - Continuing fanfiction

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m