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Encyclopedia > Dollar sign
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Punctuation Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... CifrÃ£o on 2. ... \$, the dollar sign, is primarily used to represent currencies: Many different dollars Many different pesos Different escudos The Brazilian real The Tongan paanga The Nicaraguan cÃ³rdoba \$ may also be: \$ (film), also known as Dollars A sigil (computer programming) Â·\$ is a colour code for MSN Messenger. ... Emoticons originated with text representations. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ...

apostrophe ( ' )
brackets (( )), ([ ]), ({ }), (< >)
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipsis ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )

Interword separation

spaces ( ) ( ) ( )
interpunct ( · )
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ... An interpunct Â· is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ...

General typography

ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
currency ( ¤ ) ¢, \$, , £, ¥, ,
dagger/obelisk ( ) ( )
degree ( ° )
inverted exclamation point ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
not sign ( ¬ )
number sign ( # )
numero sign ( )
percent and related signs
( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
section sign ( § )
tilde/swung dash ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )

Uncommon typography

asterism ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark ( ؟ )
reference mark ( )
sarcasm mark
A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... The symbol â˜ž is a rare punctuation mark, called an index or fist. ...   In a mathematical proof, the therefore sign is a symbol that is sometimes placed before a logical consequence, such as the conclusion of a syllogism. ... For other uses, see Interrobang (disambiguation). ... The irony mark or irony point (ØŸ) (French: point dâ€™ironie; also called a snark or zing) is a punctuation mark that purports to indicate that a sentence should be understood at a second level. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... A sarcasm mark, also called a sarcasm point, helps the reader identify certain messages as being derogatory or ironic. ...

The dollar sign or peso sign (\$) is a symbol primarily used to indicate a unit of currency.

History

The sign's ultimate origins are not certain,[3] though it is widely accepted that it comes from the Spanish coat of arms, which carries the two Pillars of Hercules and the motto Plus Ultra in the shape of an "S". Coat of Arms of Spain (Official model) The current Coat of arms of Spain was approved by law [1] in 1981, when the present established replaced the interim version which, in turn, replaced the official arms of Francoist Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ...

Spanish Coat of Arms

The Pillars of Hercules with "S"-shaped ribbon in the Town Hall of Seville, (Spain) (16th century)

The most widely accepted explanation is that the dollar sign derives from the Spanish coat of arms engraved on the Spanish colonial silver coins "Real de a Ocho" ("piece of eight") or Spanish dollar under circulation in the Spanish colonies of America and Asia, as well as in the English Thirteen Colonies and later the U.S. and Canada. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 567 Ã— 599 pixelsFull resolution (1053 Ã— 1113 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 567 Ã— 599 pixelsFull resolution (1053 Ã— 1113 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...

The Spanish coat of arms has two columns (||), which represent the Pillars of Hercules and an "S"-shaped ribbon around each, with the motto "Non Plus Ultra" originally, and later "Plus Ultra".[4] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The Pillars of Hercules around the modern coat of arms of Spain.

There is also another explanation that makes the sign derive from where "\$" is a corruption of the letters "PS" or PS, used as an abbreviation for pesos.[6][7] Image File history File links Escudo_de_EspaÃ±a. ... Image File history File links Escudo_de_EspaÃ±a. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The peso is a unit of currency. ...

Alternative origin hypotheses

There are a number of alternative origin theories, with several degrees of verifiability and academic acceptance.

From 'US'

That \$ is a monogram of U and S (United States AKA Uncle Sam), which was used as a mark on money bags issued by the United States Mint. The letters U and S superimposed resemble the historical double stroke "\$" sign: the bottom of the 'U' disappears into the bottom curve of the 'S', leaving two vertical lines. This double-stroke dollar sign has been used to refer to the U.S. currency. Thus, the one-stroke design may have been modified from the double-stroke design to represent United States currency. This idea was largely popularized by the novel Atlas Shrugged by philosopher Ayn Rand[citation needed]. It does not consider the fact that the symbol was already in use in the time of the British Colonies, when the term 'United States' did not exist yet. The Chi-Rho, a monogram of the first two letters in the Greek word for Christ E and L embroider for clothes and bedding, for a wife by the initials E L or L E A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... For the film, see Atlas Shrugged (film). ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 â€“ March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher. ...

From a symbol used on the Roman sestertius

That the dollar sign goes back to the most important Roman coin, the Sestertius, which had the letters 'HS' as its currency sign. When superimposed, these letters form a dollar sign with two vertical strokes (the horizontal line of the 'H' merging into the 'S'). This explanation is widely discarded, in spite of the tendency of neo-classic Roman Republic influences in styles evident in other early US government designs, such as the Capitol and Senate buildings. The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...

The two pillars in the temple of Solomon

That the two vertical lines represent the two cult pillars Boaz and Jachin in the original Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem. This is based on the idea that Masonic symbols, such as the All Seeing Eye of God, appear on U.S. currency; however, they did not in 1785. Boaz and Jachin were the name of the two pillars that stood on the eastern porch of Solomons Temple, the first temple in Jerusalem (1 Kings 7:21; 2 Kings 11:14; 23:3). ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... The Eye of Providence floating above an unfinished pyramid on the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States. ...

From a sign used on the German Thaler

That it derives from the symbol used on a German Thaler. According to Ovason (2004), on one type of thaler, one side showed the crucified Christ, and the other side showed a serpent hanging from a cross, and near the serpent's head the letters NU, and on the other side of the cross the number 21. This refers to the Bible, Numbers, chapter 21 (see Nehushtan). Examples of German and Austrian Thalers compared to a US quarter piece (bottom center) The Thaler (or Taler) was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ... Icon of Christ in a Greek Orthodox church This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Moses lifts up the brass snake, curing the Isrealites from Snake Bites. ...

Unit of Silver

The dollar symbol was in use in colonial times before the American Revolution. Prices were often quoted in units of silver, as the Spanish "piece of eight" was in common use for payment of goods and services. When a price was quoted the capital 'S' was used to indicate silver with a capital 'U' written on top to indicate units. Eventually, the capital 'U' was replaced by double vertical hash marks.

Other theories

Another possibility is that it derives from the British notation 8/ for eight shillings, referring to the Spanish 8 reales coin ("piece of eight"), which later became the USA dollar. Others derive it from the Portuguese Cifrão sign $mathrm{S}!!!Vert$.[8] This article is about coinage. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, heavy, or pound) is a silver coin which was minted in Spain after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ... CifrÃ£o on 2. ...

Image of 1768 Spanish Colonial Real silver coin, showing PTSI (\$) mint mark in lower right quadrant. It also shows the columns around the hemispheres (this time displayed one at the side of the other).

A common explanation is that the symbol is derived from the numeral eight with a slash through it denoting "pieces of eight". The Oxford English Dictionary prior to 1963 held that this was the most probable explanation, though later editions have placed it in doubt. Image File history File linksMetadata Potosi_Real. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Potosi_Real. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ...

Still another explanation holds that the dollar sign is derived from (or at least inspired by) the mint mark on Spanish colonial silver coins ("real" or "piece of eight") that were minted in Potosí (in present day Bolivia). The mint mark was composed of the letters "PTSI" superimposed on one another, and bears an undeniable resemblance to the single-stroke dollar sign (see picture). The Potosí mine is generally accepted as having been the largest single silver strike in history. Silver coins minted in Potosí would have been in common use in colonial America, and its mint mark widely recognized. Poorly documented explanations sustains that the symbol represents an snake, guarding a bag, and that it was used in Tironian notes. A mint mark is an inscription on a coin indicating the mint at which the coin was produced. ... The real was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries. ... The Spanish dollar or peso (literally, weight) is a silver coin that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. ... PotosÃ­ is a city, the capital of the department of PotosÃ­ in Bolivia. ... A nugget of silver Silver mining refers to the resource extraction of the precious metal element silver, mostly through mines. ... Tironian notes (notae Tironianae) is a system of shorthand invented by Ciceros scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. ...

However, the dollar sign may have also originated from the Greek God of bankers, thieves, messengers, and tricksters: Hermes. Besides the crane, one of his symbols was a peeled hasel stick from which white ribbons dangled. Foolish people often mistook these for snakes. So, the vertical line (|) may be the hasel stick and the S may be the ribbons. Greek mythological characters (Most of the gods and goddesses had Roman equivalents. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Genera Grus Anthropoides Balearica Bugeranus Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds of the order Gruiformes, and family Gruidae. ...

First cast dollar symbol

The plaque on the bookshop on the corner of South Street and Church Street in St Andrews.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 711 KB)  Summary Plaque in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland reading: Here stood the house of Bailie Bell, who, before 1744, was an eager co-worker with Alexander Wilson, the father of Scottish type-founder, and John Baine, in whose... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 711 KB)  Summary Plaque in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland reading: Here stood the house of Bailie Bell, who, before 1744, was an eager co-worker with Alexander Wilson, the father of Scottish type-founder, and John Baine, in whose...

Use in computer programming

As the dollar sign is one of the few symbols that is on the one hand almost universally present in computer character sets, but on the other hand rarely needed in its literal meaning within programming languages, the \$ character has been used on computers for many purposes not related to money, including: A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ... This article is about the machine. ...

• \$ was used as a string terminator in CP/M and subsequently also in all versions of 86-DOS, PC-DOS, MS-DOS and derivatives (Int 21h with AH=09h)
• \$ signifies the end of a line or the file in text editors ed, ex, vi and derivatives, and consequently:
• \$ matches the end of a line or string in sed, grep, and POSIX and Perl regular expressions.
• \$ was used to define string variables in older versions of the BASIC programming language ("\$" was often pronounced "string" instead of "dollar" in this use).
• \$ is used to define hexadecimal constants in Pascal-like languages such as Delphi, as well as in certain variants of assembly language.
• \$ is used to define variables in the PHP programming language and scalar variables in the Perl programming language (see Sigil (computer programming)).
• In the AutoIt automation script language, any variable is required to have a \$ at the beginning of its name.
• In most shell scripting languages, \$ is used to interpolate environment variables, special variables, arithmetic computations and special characters, and to perform translation of localised strings.
• In UNIX-like systems the \$ is often part of the command prompt, depending on the user's shell and environment settings. For example, the default environment settings for the bash shell specify \$ as part of the command prompt.
• \$ is used in the TeX typesetting language to delimit mathematical regions.
• \$ is used by the `prompt` command in DOS to insert special sequences into the DOS command prompt string.
• Formulas in Microsoft Excel and other spreadsheets use \$ to indicate an absolute cell reference.

Currencies that use the dollar or peso sign

In addition to those countries of the world that use dollars or pesos, a number of other countries use the \$ symbol to denote their currencies, including, but not limited, to: This article is about the type of currency, for the U.S. Dollar see United States dollar. ... The peso is a unit of currency. ...

Except the Philippine peso, whose sign is written as . ISO 4217 Code NIO User(s) Nicaragua Inflation 9. ... The paanga (or Tongan dollar) is the currency of the Kingdom of Tonga. ... ISO 4217 Code PHP User(s) Philippines Inflation 2. ... Image File history File links PhilippinePeso. ...

Some currencies use the cifrão $(mathrm{S}!!!Vert )$, similar to the dollar sign, but always with two strokes: CifrÃ£o on 2. ...

The cifrão is also currently used to account for over 130,000,000 domestic standard US Mint (1986+) bullion US silver dollars as one dollar per one troy ounce fine (99.9%), thereby avoiding confusion with debased US trade dollar-denominated tokens and Federal Reserve Notes. ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... The official currency of Cape Verde (Portuguese: Cabo Verde), a former Portuguese colony, is called Escudo. ... Chilean notes currently in circulation: 1,000; 2,000; 5,000; 10,000; 20,000 pesos The peso is the currency of Chile. ... The escudo was the official currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro in 1 January 1999 (euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ... The United States Mint is responsible for producing and circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ...

The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... This article is about the currency symbol. ...

References

1. ^ Lawrence Kinnaird: "The Western Fringe of Revolution", The Western Historical Quarterly. Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1976), page 259 [1]
2. ^ Pub. L. No. 109-145, 119 Stat. 2664 (Dec. 22, 2005).
3. ^ "Note on Our Dollar Sign", Bulletin of the Business Historical Society, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1939), pp. 57-58 [2]
4. ^ Nussbaum, Arthur: A history of the dollar. New York : Columbia University Press, 1957.
5. ^ Earl Rosenthal: "Plus Ultra, Non plus Ultra, and the Columnar Device of Emperor Charles V", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 34, 1971 (1971), pp. 204-228
6. ^ Arthur S. Aiton; Benjamin W. Wheeler: "The First American Mint", The Hispanic American Historical Review. Vol. 11, No. 2 (May, 1931), pp. 198-215. [3]
7. ^ "Origin of the \$ Sign", US Bureau of Engraving and Printing website
8. ^ Florian Cajori: "New Data on the Origin and Spread of the Dollar Mark", The Scientific Monthly. Vol. 29, No. 3 (Sep., 1929), pp. 212-216 [4]
• Cajori, Florian (1993). A History of Mathematical Notations. New York: Dover (reprint). ISBN 0-486-67766-4.  - contains section on the history of the dollar sign, with much documentary evidence supporting the "pesos" theory.
• Ovason, David (2004-11-30). The Secret Symbols of the Dollar Bill. Harper Paperbacks (reprint). ISBN 0-06-053045-6.

Results from FactBites:

 Dollar sign - definition of Dollar sign in Encyclopedia (463 words) The name Spanish dollar was used for a Spanish silver coin, the peso, an eight-real coin, which was widely circulated during the 18th century in the Spanish colonies in the New World. The use of the Spanish dollar and the Maria Theresa thaler as legal tender for the early United States is the reason for the name of that nation's currency. The dollar was also in use in Scotland during the 17th century, and there is a claim that it was invented at the University of St Andrews.
 Dollar sign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1010 words) The dollar sign is a symbol primarily used to indicate a unit of currency. The sign is attested in business correspondence between British North America and Mexico in the 1770s as referring to the Spanish-Mexican piastre. The piastre was known as "Spanish dollar" in British North America, and in 1785, it was adopted as U.S. currency, together with both the term "dollar" and the \$ sign.
More results at FactBites »

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