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Encyclopedia > Dogwood
Dogwood
European Cornel (Cornus mas)
European Cornel (Cornus mas)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Cornales
Family: Cornaceae
Genus: Cornus
Subgenera

Cornus
Benthamidia
Swida Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1359x957, 335 KB) Description: Cornus mas, Paris, France, 13 march 2005 Source: Bouba Licence: Creative Commons File links The following pages link to this file: Dogwood Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text The Cornales are an order of flowering plants, basal among the asterid group of dicotyledons. ... Genera Cornaceae sensu stricto     Cornus -- dogwood Nyssaceae     (Nyssa -- tupelo)     (Camptotheca -- happy tree)     (Davidia -- dove tree) The Dogwood family (Cornaceae) is a widespread family, mostly in the north temperate zone, in the order Cornales. ...

The Dogwoods comprise a group of 30-50 species of deciduous woody plants (shrubs and trees) in the family Cornaceae, divided into one to nine genera or subgenera (depending on botanical interpretation). Four subgenera are enumerated here. Deciduous means temporary or tending to fall off (deriving from the Latin word decidere, to fall off) and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally. ... A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Genera Cornaceae sensu stricto     Cornus -- dogwood Nyssaceae     (Nyssa -- tupelo)     (Camptotheca -- happy tree)     (Davidia -- dove tree) The Dogwood family (Cornaceae) is a widespread family, mostly in the north temperate zone, in the order Cornales. ...

Contents

Types of Dogwood

Cornus drummondii in flower
Canadian Dwarf Cornel (Cornus canadensis)
Canadian Dwarf Cornel (Cornus canadensis)
Cornus florida Dogwood berries encased in ice, Hemingway, South Carolina
Cornus florida Dogwood berries encased in ice, Hemingway, South Carolina
  • Flower clusters semi-showy, usually white or yellow, in cymes without large showy bracts, fruit red, blue or white:
    • (Sub)genus Cornus. Cornels; four species of shrubs or small trees; flower clusters with a deciduous involucre.
      • Cornus chinensis (Chinese Cornel). China.
      • Cornus mas (European Cornel or Cornelian-cherry). Mediterranean.
      • Cornus officinalis (Japanese Cornel). Japan.
      • Cornus sessilis (Blackfruit Cornel). California.
    • (Sub)genus Swida. Dogwoods; about 20-30 species of shrubs; flower clusters without an involucre.
      • Cornus alba (Swida alba; Siberian Dogwood). Siberia and northern China.
      • Cornus alternifolia (Swida alternifolia; Pagoda Dogwood or Alternate-leaf Dogwood). Eastern North America north to extreme southeast Canada.
      • Cornus amomum (Swida amomum; Silky Dogwood). Eastern U.S. east of the Great Plains except for deep south, and extreme southeast Canada.
      • Cornus asperifolia (Swida asperifolia; Rough-leaf Dogwood).
      • Cornus austrosinensis (Swida austrosinensis; South China Dogwood). East Asia.
      • Cornus bretschneideri (Swida bretschneideri; Bretschneider's Dogwood). Northern China.
      • Cornus controversa (Swida controversa; Table Dogwood). East Asia.
      • Cornus coreana (Swida coreana; Korean Dogwood). Northeast Asia.
      • Cornus drummondii (Swida drummondii; Roughleaf Dogwood). U.S. between the Appalachian belt and the Great Plains, and southern Ontario.
      • Cornus foemina (Stiff Dogwood) Southeastern, Southern, and Eastern United States.
      • Cornus glabrata (Swida glabrata; Brown Dogwood or Smooth Dogwood). Western North America.
      • Cornus hemsleyi (Swida hemsleyi; Hemsley's Dogwood). Southwest China.
      • Cornus koehneana (Swida koehneana; Koehne's Dogwood). Southwest China.
      • Cornus macrophylla (Swida macrophylla; Large-leafed Dogwood). East Asia.
      • Cornus obliqua (Swida obliqua; Pale Dogwood). Eastern North America.
      • Cornus paucinervis (Swida paucinervis). China.
      • Cornus racemosa (Swida racemosa; Northern Swamp Dogwood or Gray Dogwood). Extreme southeast Canada and northeast U.S.
      • Cornus rugosa (Swida rugosa; Round-leaf Dogwood). Southeast Canada and extreme northeast U.S.
      • Cornus sanguinea (Swida sanguinea; Common Dogwood). Europe.
      • Cornus sericea (C. stolonifera; Swida stolonifera; Red Osier Dogwood). Northern North America.
      • Cornus stricta (Swida stricta; Southern Swamp Dogwood). Southeast U.S.
      • Cornus walteri (Swida walteri; Walter's Dogwood). Central China.
      • Cornus wilsoniana (Swida wilsoniana; Wilson's Dogwood). Central China.
  • Flower clusters inconspicuous, usually greenish, surrounded by large, showy petal-like bracts; fruit usually red:
    • (Sub)genus Chamaepericlymenum. Bunchberries or Dwarf cornels; two species of creeping subshrubs growing from woody stolons.
      • Cornus canadensis (Chamaepericlymenum canadense; Canadian Dwarf Cornel or Bunchberry) Northern North America.
      • Cornus suecica (Chamaepericlymenum suecicum; Eurasian Dwarf Cornel or Bunchberry). Northern Eurasia, locally in extreme northeast and northwest North America.
      • Cornus × unalaschkensis (hybrid C. canadensis × C. suecica). Aleutian Islands, Greenland, Labrador.
    • (Sub)genus Benthamidia (syn. subgenus Dendrobenthamia, subgenus Cynoxylon). Flowering dogwoods; five species of trees.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2028 × 1558 pixel, file size: 286 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by John Knouse, May 2005 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2028 × 1558 pixel, file size: 286 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by John Knouse, May 2005 I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Dogwood berries encased in ice Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:52, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dogwood berries encased in ice Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:52, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hemingway is a town located in Williamsburg County, South Carolina. ... Binomial name Cornus mas L. The European Cornel (Cornus mas) is a species of dogwood native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Cornus mas L. The European Cornel (Cornus mas) is a species of dogwood native to southern Europe and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name Cornus alba L. Cornus alba, the Siberian Dogwood is a large shrub or small tree. ... Binomial name L. Cornus alba, the Siberian or Red-Barked Dogwood is a large shrub or small tree. ... Binomial name Cornus alternifolia L.f. ... Binomial name Cornus alternifolia L.f. ... Binomial name P.Mill. ... Binomial name P.Mill. ... Binomial name Wangerin The Korean Dogwood (Cornus coreana or Swida coreana, Korean=산수유) is a deciduous shrub or small tree 8-16 m tall, native to eastern Asia in Korea and adjacent northeastern China. ... Binomial name Cornus coreana Wangerin The Korean Dogwood (Cornus coreana or Swida coreana) is a deciduous shrub or small tree 8-16 m tall, native to eastern Asia in Korea and adjacent northeastern China. ... Appalachians in North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Binomial name Lam. ... Binomial name Cornus racemosa Lam. ... Binomial name L. The Common Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea, syn. ... Binomial name Cornus sanguinea L. The Common Dogwood (Cornus sanguinea, syn. ... Binomial name L. The Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus sericea, syn. ... Binomial name Cornus sericea The Red Osier Dogwood, Cornus sericea, is a winter hearty species of dogwood commonly found in the northeastern and mid-western regions of North America. ... A subshrub (Latin suffrutex) is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody perennial plant, distinguished from a shrub by variously its ground-hugging stems and lower height, with overwintering perennial woody growth typically less than 10-20 cm tall, or by being only weakly woody and/or only... Silverweed (Argentina anserina) picture showing red stolons. ... Binomial name L. Cornus canadensis (Canadian Dwarf Cornel, Canadian Bunchberry, Crackerberry, in China cao zhu yu) is a herbaceous member of the dogwood family. ... Binomial name Cornus canadensis L. The Canadian Dwarf Cornel or Canadian Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) is a herbaceous member of the dogwood family. ... Binomial name Cornus suecica L. Cornus suecica (Eurasian Dwarf Cornel or Bunchberry) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Cornus, native to cool temperate and subarctic regions of Europe and Asia, and also locally in extreme northeast and northwest North America. ... Binomial name L. Cornus suecica (Eurasian Dwarf Cornel or Bunchberry) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Cornus, native to cool temperate and subarctic regions of Europe and Asia, and also locally in extreme northeast and northwest North America. ... // This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Cornus florida L. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida or Benthamidia florida) is a showy small tree native to eastern and southeastern North America. ... Binomial name Cornus florida L. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida or Benthamidia florida) is a showy small tree native to eastern and southeastern North America. ... Binomial name Cornus florida L. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida or Benthamidia florida) is a showy small tree native to eastern and southeastern North America. ... Binomial name Cornus kousa Buerger ex Miq. ... Binomial name Cornus nuttallii Audubon The Pacific Dogwood Cornus nuttallii (syn. ... Binomial name Cornus nuttallii Audubon The Pacific Dogwood Cornus nuttallii (syn. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

Characteristics of Dogwood

Flowering Dogwood blooming in Spring
Flowering Dogwood blooming in Spring
A pink flowering Dogwood
A pink flowering Dogwood

Most species have opposite leaves and a few have alternate. The fruit of all species is a drupe with one or two seeds. Flowers have four parts. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 718 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 718 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Many species in subgenus Swida are stoloniferous shrubs, growing along waterways. Several of these are used in naturalizing landscape plantings, especially the species with bright red or bright yellow stems. Most of the species in subgenus Benthamidia are small trees used as ornamental plants. As flowering trees, they are of rare elegance and beauty, comparable to Carolina silverbell, Canadian serviceberry, and the Eastern Redbud for their ornamental qualities. Silverweed (Argentina anserina) picture showing red stolons. ... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name (L.) Medik. ... Binomial name Cercis canadensis Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis) is a large shrub or small tree in the pea family Fabaceae, native to eastern North America from southern Ontario, Canada south to northern Florida, United States. ...


The fruit of several species in the subgenera Cornus and Benthamidia is edible, though without much flavour. The berries of those in subgenus Swida are mildly toxic to people, though readily eaten by birds. Dogwoods are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Emperor Moth, The Engrailed, Small Angle Shades and the following case-bearers of the genus Coleophora: C. ahenella, C. salicivorella (recorded on Cornus canadensis), C. albiantennaella, C. cornella and C. cornivorella (The latter three feed exclusively on Cornus). They were used by pioneers to brush their teeth. The pioneers would peel off the bark, bite the twig and then scrub their teeth. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... who cares though]] island species, have also lost the ability to fly. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Binomial name Pavonia pavonia Linnaeus, 1758 The Emperor Moth (Pavonia pavonia) is a moth of the family Saturniidae. ... Binomial name Ectropis crepuscularia Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Engrailed (Ectropis crepuscularia) is a moth of the family Geometridae. ... Binomial name Euplexia lucipara Linnaeus, 1758 The Small Angle Shades (Euplexia lucipara) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Coleophora is a very large genus of moths of the family Coleophoridae with over 750 described species. ...


Dogwood in Government Insignia

Numerous varieties of Dogwood are represented in the insignia of U.S. states and Canadian provinces.


The inflorescence of Pacific Dogwood is the official flower of the Canadian province of British Columbia Red clover inflorescence (spike) An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers on a branch of a plant. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km...


The Dogwood (Cornus florida) and its inflorescence are the state tree and the state flower respectively for the U.S. Commonwealth of Virginia. It is also the state tree for Missouri, and the state flower for North Carolina. Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...


Etymology and Other meanings

The word dogwood comes from dagwood, from the use of the slender stems of very hard wood for making 'dags' (daggers, skewers). The wood was also highly prized for making the shuttles of looms, for tool handles, and other small items that required a very hard and strong wood. Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... A Turkish woman in Konya works at a traditional loom. ...


Larger items were also made of dogwood such as the screw in basket-style wine or fruit presses.


Another earlier name of the dogwood in English is the whipple-tree. Geoffrey Chaucer uses the word whippletree in the Canterbury Tales (The Knight's Tale, verse 2065) to refer to the dogwood. Another larger item made of dogwood still bears the name of the tree from which it is carved. The whippletree is an element of the traction of a horse-drawn cart, which links the drawpole of the cart to the harnesses of the horses in file.


The name Dog-Tree entered English vocabulary by 1548, & had been further transformed to Dogwood by 1614. Once the name dogwood was affixed to the tree, it soon acquired a secondary name as the Hound's Tree, while the fruits came to be known as Dogberries or Houndberries (the latter a name also for the berries of Black nightshade & alluding to Hecate's hounds). Binomial name Solanum nigrum L. Subspecies subsp. ...


It is possible that the common name of Dogwood may have come because “dogs were washed with a brew of its bark, hence Dogwood.” Another name is blood-twig, due to the red colour it turns in autumn.


In botany and in colloquial use, the term dogwood winter may be used to describe a cold snap in spring. Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Look up Colloquialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cold snap is used in two ways to describe climate: A cold snap is a geological term for a period of intensely cold and dry weather, often occurring during an Ice Age. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Fable of the Dogwood

There is a Christian fable that the cross used to crucify Jesus was constructed of Dogwood. As the fable goes, during the time of Jesus, the Dogwood was larger and stronger than it is today. After his crucifixion, Jesus changed the plant to its current form: he shortened it and twisted its branches as to assure an end to the use of the plant for the construction of crosses, and he transformed its inflorescence into the form of his crucifixion itself. That form is recognized by the four white bracts, which are said to represent the four corners of the cross, each bearing a rusty indentation as of a nail; the red stamen of the flower, which is to represent Jesus' crown of thorns; and the clustered fruit, that represent his blood. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... For a comparison of fable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... The traditional form of the Western Christian cross, known as the Latin cross. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Jesus Carrying the Cross as portrayed by El Greco - Domenikos Theotokopoulos, 1580 In Christianity, the Crown of Thorns, one of the instruments of the Passion, was the woven chaplet of thorn branches worn by Jesus before his crucifixion. ...


However, this is just a fable that has been cobbled together over a long period of time. Like "The Cherry-Tree Carol," it is unlikely to have any truth to it for the following reasons: the modern Dogwood is typically too small and twisted in trunk and branch for such a task (though this inconsistency is explained in the legend as Christ's transforming the tree into its present form so that it would never be used for such an ignoble purpose again). The Cherry-Tree Carol is a ballad with the rare distinction of being both a Christmas carol and one of the Child Ballads (no. ...


Furthermore, the Bible does not specify what type of wood was used to construct the cross of Jesus, and there is no indication within Roman records and histories of the materials used in cross construction.[1] Since there is no Biblical, historical, archaeological or scientific evidence of this story, it is likely to be inaccurate. The origin of this fable is not known. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


External links

Notes

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cornus

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dogwood - HGIC @ Clemson University (2039 words)
Dogwoods prefer moist, well-drained, acidic (5.5 to 6.0 pH) soil that is high in organic matter.
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