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Encyclopedia > Dogs
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Domestic dog
Fossil range: Late Pleistocene - Recent
other images of dogs
Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. lupus
Subspecies: C. l. familiaris
Trinomial name
Canis lupus familiaris
Dogs Portal
Dog skeleton

The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term encompasses both feral and pet variants. It is also sometimes used to describe wild canids of other subspecies or species. The domestic dog has been and continues to be one of the most widely-kept working and companion animals in human history, as well as being a food source in some cultures. Look up Dog in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Image File history File linksMetadata YellowLabradorLooking. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and the presence of hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or IPA: ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Wikispecies has information related to: Canidae Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Image File history File links HappyMutt. ... Image File history File links Dog. ... Image File history File links Dog. ... In zoology, as in other branches of biology, subspecies is the rank immediately subordinate to a species. ... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and the presence of hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Wikispecies has information related to: Canidae Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or IPA: ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Kritikos Lagonikos, a. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Wild Dog may refer to one of the following: African Wild Dog — an African mammal Wild Dog (comics) — a DC Comics character Wild Dog (Time Crisis) — a villain in the Time Crisis series of videogames Category: ... Siberian Husky. ... PET, see PET. A pet or companion animal is an animal that is kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, rather than for economic reasons. ... A platter of cooked dog meat In some countries, apart from being kept as pets, certain breeds of dogs are raised on farms and slaughtered for their meat. ...


Over time, the dog has developed into hundreds of breeds with a great degree of variation. For example, heights at the withers range from just a few inches (such as the Chihuahua) to roughly three feet (such as the Irish Wolfhound); colors vary from white through grays (usually called blue) to black, and browns from light (tan) to dark ("red" or "chocolate") in a tremendous variation of patterns; and coats can be anything from very short to several centimeters long, from coarse hair to something akin to wool, straight or curly, or smooth. This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes. ... The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Irish Wolfhound is a breed of dog (a sighthound) bred to hunt. ... A dogs coat is its fur. ...

Contents

Overview

Origins

Some research appears to show that dogs were domesticated from wolves as recently as 15,000 years ago,[1] or perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago based upon recent genetic, fossil and DNA evidence.[2] Other research suggests that dogs have only been domesticated for a much shorter amount of time and were domesticated from populations of wild dogs, which had previously diverged from wolves.[3][4] It has been suggested that Dog#Ancestry and history of domestication, Dog#Neoteny_in_the_rapid_evolution_of_diverse_dog_breeds be merged into this article or section. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ...


New evidence suggests that dogs were first domesticated in East Asia, possibly China,[5] and the first peoples to enter North America took dogs with them from Asia. Genetic research has identified 14 ancient dog breeds, with the oldest being the Chow Chow, Shar Pei, Akita Inu, Shiba Inu and Basenji. Because many of the 14 breeds are associated with China and Japan, the theory that the dog originated in Asia seems to be likely.[5] Fourteen ancient breeds of dog have recently been identified through advances in DNA analysis. ... Chow-chow is a combination of different vegetables: cabbage, carrots, beans, asparagus, cauliflower, and peas which are pickled in a jar and served cold. ... Å­Go to Shar Pei for a surprise! A Shar-Pei Is an awesome dog. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shiba Inu ) is the smallest of the six original and distinct breeds of dog from Japan. ... The Basenji is a breed of hunting dog that originates in central Africa. ...


As humans migrated around the planet a variety of dog forms migrated with them. The agricultural revolution and subsequent urban revolution led to an increase in the dog population and a demand for specialization. These circumstances would provide the opportunity for selective breeding to create specialized working dogs and pets. In the Earths history there have been a number of agricultural revolutions. ... In anthropology and archaeology, the urban revolution is the process by which small, kin-based, nonliterate agricultural villages are transformed into large, socially complex, civilized urban centres. ... Specialization is the separation of tasks within a system. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Siberian Husky. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ...


Human relationships

Shetland Sheepdogs are well known for their loyal companionship and intelligence.
Shetland Sheepdogs are well known for their loyal companionship and intelligence.

Dogs are highly social animals due to selective breeding. This can account for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social situations. This similarity has earned dogs a unique position in the realm of interspecies relationships. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ...


The loyalty and devotion that dogs demonstrate as part of their natural instincts as pack animals closely mimics the human idea of love and friendship, leading many dog owners to view their pets as full-fledged family members. Conversely, dogs seem to view their human companions as members of their pack, and make few, if any, distinctions between their owners and fellow dogs. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide range of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of dogs is as companions. For the Brian Yuzna film, see Society (film). ... Siberian Husky. ... Dog sports are activities that involve dogs. ... Companion dog usually describes a dog that does not work, providing only companionship as a pet, rather than usefulness by doing specific tasks. ...


Dogs have lived and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the unique sobriquet "man's best friend".[6] However, some cultures consider dogs to be unclean. In some parts of the world, dogs are raised as livestock to produce dog meat for human consumption. In many places, consumption of dog meat is discouraged by social convention or cultural taboo. A sobriquet is a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation. ... It has been suggested that Clean animals be merged into this article or section. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... A platter of cooked dog meat In some countries, apart from being kept as pets, certain breeds of dogs are raised on farms and slaughtered for their meat. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Terminology

The English word dog, in common usage, refers to the domestic pet dog, Canis lupus familiaris. The species was originally classified as Canis familiaris by Linnaeus in 1758. In 1993, dogs were reclassified as a subspecies of the gray wolf, Canis lupus, by the Smithsonian Institution and the American Society of Mammalogists. "Dog" is sometimes used to refer collectively to any mammal belonging to the family Canidae (as in "the dog family"), such as wolves, foxes, and coyotes. Some members of the family have "dog" in their common names, such as the African Wild Dog. The constellations Canes Venatici, Canis Major and Canis Minor are named from the Latin word for "dog," for their perceived resemblance to dogs. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The American Society of Mammalogists (ASM) was founded in 1919. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Wikispecies has information related to: Canidae Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ... Binomial name (Temminck, 1820) African Wild Dog range The African Wild Dog, Lycaon pictus also known as the African Hunting Dog, Cape Hunting Dog, or Painted Wolf, is a carnivorous mammal of the Canidae family. ... Canes Venatici (Latin for Hunting dogs) is a small northern constellation that was introduced by Johannes Hevelius in the 17th century. ... Canis Major (IPA: , Latin: ) is one of the 88 modern constellations, and was also in Ptolemys list of 48 constellations. ... Canis Minor (IPA: , Latin: ) is one of the 88 modern constellations, and was also in Ptolemys list of 48 constellations. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


The English word dog might derive from the Old English docga, a "powerful breed of canine". The French dogue and Spanish dogo as in dogo Argentino are borrowings from English. The English word hound is a cognate of German Hund, Dutch hond, common Scandinavian hund, Icelandic hundur which, though referring to a specific breed in English, means "dog" in general in the other Germanic languages. Hound itself derives from the Proto-Indo-European *kwon-, which is the direct root of the Greek κυων (kuōn) and the indirect root of the Latin canis through the variant form *kani-.[7] Common nickname Dogo Country of origin Argentina Classification and breed standards The Dogo Argentino (or Argentinian Mastiff) is a large, white, muscular, and courageous dog that was developed in Argentina for big game hunting. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ...


In breeding circles, a male canine is referred to as a dog, while a female canine is called a bitch. The father of a litter is called the sire, and the mother of a litter is called the dam. Offspring are generally called pups or puppies until they are about a year old. A group of offspring is a litter. The process of birth is whelping. Many terms are used for dogs that are not purebred. Mixed-breed puppy A puppy is a juvenile dog, generally less than one year of age that has not reached the equivalent of dog puberty yet. ... A healthy mixed-breed dog shows hybrid vigor. ...


Intelligence

Main article: Dog intelligence
Many dogs can easily be trained to retrieve.
Many dogs can easily be trained to retrieve.

Among dog lovers, dogs are generally valued for their intelligence, and both anecdotal evidence and scientific research suggest that dogs have a reasonably high intelligence. This intelligence is expressed differently with different breeds and individuals, however. For example, Border Collies are noted for their ability to learn commands, while other breeds may not be so motivated towards obedience, but instead show their cleverness in devising ways to steal food or escape from a yard. Being highly adaptable animals themselves, dogs have learned to do many jobs as required by humans over the generations. Dogs are employed in various roles across the globe, proving invaluable assets in areas such as search-and-rescue; law enforcement (including attack dogs, sniffer dogs and tracking dogs); guards for livestock, people or property; herding; Arctic exploration sled-pullers; guiding the blind and acting as a pair of ears for the deaf; assisting with hunting, and a great many other roles which they may be trained to assume. Most dogs rarely have to deal with complex tasks and are unlikely to learn relatively complicated activities (such as opening doors) unaided. Some dogs (such as guide dogs for the visually impaired) are specially trained to recognize and avoid dangerous situations. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into The Intelligence of Dogs. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 212 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 212 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... The Border Collie is a hardworking breed of herding dog that originated in the border country of England and Scotland. ... A blind man is led by his guide dog in Brasília, Brazil. ...


Evaluation of a dog's intelligence

The meaning of "intelligence" in general, not only in reference to dogs, is hard to define. Some tests measure problem-solving abilities and others test the ability to learn in comparison to others of the same age. Defining it for dogs is just as difficult. It is likely that dogs do not have the ability to premeditate an action to solve a problem. Some dogs may, however, have more drive to keep trying various things until they accidentally reach a solution and still others might have more ability to make the association between the "accident" and the result.[citation needed]


For example, the ability to learn quickly could be a sign of intelligence. Conversely it could be interpreted as a sign of blind subservience and a desire to please. In contrast, some dogs who do not learn very quickly may have other talents. An example is breeds that are not particularly interested in pleasing their owners, such as Siberian Huskies. Huskies are often fascinated with the myriad of possibilities for escaping from yards, catching small animals, and often figuring out on their own numerous inventive ways of doing both. Intelligence is the mental capacity to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Assistance dogs are also required to be obedient at all times. This means they must learn a tremendous number of commands, understand how to act in a large variety of situations, and recognize threats to their human companion, some of which they might never before have encountered. An assistance dog is a dog trained to help a person with a disability. ...


Many owners of livestock guardian breeds believe that breeds like the Great Pyrenees or the Kuvasz are not easily trained because their stubborn nature prevents them from seeing the point of such commands as “sit” or “down”. Hounds may also suffer from this type of ranking. In fact several rank in the bottom tier of "The Intelligence of Dogs" list (such as Beagles, Bloodhounds, and Basset Hounds).[citation needed] These dogs are bred to have more of a "pack" mentality with other dogs and less reliance on a master's direct commands. While they may not have the same kind of intelligence as a Border Collie, they were not bred to learn and obey commands quickly, but to think for themselves while trailing game. Kazakh shepherd, his and his dogs primary job is to guard the sheep from predators Livestock Guarding Dogs (LGDs) is the name used by biologists for dogs bred to guard livestock such as sheep. ... Pyrenean Mountain Dog Categories: Stub | Dog breeds ... The Kuvasz (pronounced KOO-vahss; plural Kuvaszok, pronounced KOO-vah-sock) is a dog breed of ancient Hungarian origin. ... Categories: Dog stubs | Dog types ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bloodhound (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Physical characteristics

Main article: Dog anatomy
Some dogs, like this Weimaraner, have their predatory instincts suppressed in order to better assist human hunters.
Some dogs, like this Weimaraner, have their predatory instincts suppressed in order to better assist human hunters.
See also: Dog health

Modern dog breeds show more variation in size, appearance, and behavior than any other domestic animal. Within the range of extremes, dogs generally share attributes with their wild ancestors, the wolves. Dogs are predators and scavengers, possessing sharp teeth and strong jaws for attacking, holding, and tearing their food. Although selective breeding has changed the appearance of many breeds, all dogs retain basic traits from their distant ancestors. Like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, fused wristbones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching and tearing. Compared to the bone structure of the human foot, dogs technically walk on their toes. The anatomy of dogs varies tremendously from breed to breed, more than in any other animal species, wild or domesticated. ... Weimaraner Windwalkers Thunder Road Taken Feb 22,2004 at the SMART/USDAA dog agility competition in Salinas, CA. Photo by Ellen Levy Finch (Elf). ... Weimaraner Windwalkers Thunder Road Taken Feb 22,2004 at the SMART/USDAA dog agility competition in Salinas, CA. Photo by Ellen Levy Finch (Elf). ... The Weimaraner is a silver-grey breed of dog developed originally for hunting. ... Cavalier King Charles Spaniel with bandaged foot. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes. ... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...


Sight

Amazonian dogs, such as this one from Alto Amazonas, Peru are critical for indigenous peoples' hunting strategies, particularly in the rain forest.
Amazonian dogs, such as this one from Alto Amazonas, Peru are critical for indigenous peoples' hunting strategies, particularly in the rain forest.

Like most mammals, dogs are dichromats and have color vision equivalent to red-green color blindness in humans.[8][9] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3999 KB) Amazonian Dog, Alto Amazonas, Loreto Peru. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2304, 3999 KB) Amazonian Dog, Alto Amazonas, Loreto Peru. ... Alto Amazonas is a political division of the Loreto Region of Peru. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... A rainforest is a forested biome with high annual rainfall. ... A dichromat is an organism for which the perceptual effect of any arbitrarily chosen light from its visible spectrum can be matched by a mixture of no more than two different pure spectral lights. ... Color blindness in humans is the inability to perceive differences between some or all colors that other people can distinguish. ...


Different breeds of dogs have different eye shapes and dimensions, and they also have different retina configurations.[10] Dogs with long noses have a "visual streak" which runs across the width of the retina and gives them a very wide field of excellent vision, while those with short noses have an "area centralis" — a central patch with up to three times the density of nerve endings as the visual streak — giving them detailed sight much more like a human's. Human eye cross-sectional view. ...


Some breeds, particularly the best sighthounds, have a field of vision up to 270° (compared to 180° for humans), although broad-headed breeds with short noses have a much narrower field of vision, as low as 180°.[8][9] The Whippet shows the characteristic long legs, deep chest, and narrow waist of a sighthound. ...


Hearing

This mixed-breed dog angles her ears to find the source of a sound.
This mixed-breed dog angles her ears to find the source of a sound.

Dogs detect sounds as low as the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range (compared to 20 to 70 Hz for humans) and above 45 kHz[11] (compared to 13 to 20 kHz for humans),[9] and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. Eighteen or more muscles can tilt, rotate and raise or lower a dog's ear. Additionally, a dog can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, as well as hear sounds up to four times the distance that humans are able to. Those with more natural ear shapes, like those of wild canids like the fox, generally hear better than those with the floppier ears of many domesticated species. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1932x1446, 530 KB) Summary Penny, c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1932x1446, 530 KB) Summary Penny, c. ... A healthy mixed-breed dog shows hybrid vigor. ... The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI unit of frequency. ...


Smell

Dogs have nearly 220 million smell-sensitive cells over an area about the size of a pocket handkerchief (compared to 5 million over an area the size of a postage stamp for humans). Some breeds have been selectively bred for excellence in detecting scents, even compared to their canine brethren. What information a dog actually detects when he is scenting is not perfectly understood; although once a matter of debate, it now seems to be well established that dogs can distinguish two different types of scents when trailing, an air scent from some person or thing that has recently passed by, as well as a ground scent that remains detectable for a much longer period. The characteristics and behavior of these two types of scent trail would seem, after some thought, to be quite different, the air scent being intermittent but perhaps less obscured by competing scents, whereas the ground scent would be relatively permanent with respect to careful and repetitive search by the dog, but would seem to be much more contaminated with other scents. In any event, it is established by those who train tracking dogs that it is impossible to teach the dog how to track any better than it does naturally; the object instead is to motivate it properly, and teach it to maintain focus on a single track and ignore any others that might otherwise seem of greater interest to an untrained dog. An intensive search for a scent, for instance searching a ship for contraband, can actually be very fatiguing for a dog, and the dog must be motivated to continue this hard work for a long period of time. Raymond W. Kelly is seen here wearing a handkerchief in his left-breast pocket. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...


Coat color

Domestic dogs often display the remnants of countershading, a common natural camouflage pattern. The general theory of countershading is that an animal that is lit from above will appear lighter on its upper half and darker on its lower half where it will usually be in its own shade. This is a pattern that predators can learn to watch for. A countershaded animal will have dark coloring on its upper surfaces and light coloring below. This reduces the general visibility of the animal. One reminder of this pattern is that many breeds will have the occasional "blaze", stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or undersides.


Sprint metabolism

Dogs can generate large amounts of energy for a short period of time. This setup is useful for hunting and combat. An example of this is that almost any dog, even one that is usually slow and lazy, can outsprint any human. However, almost any human can catch up with any dog in a marathon run, or other activity where endurance is needed.


A dog's heart and lungs are oversized relative to its body and its normal everyday needs. A dog also has relatively more red blood cells than a human. Most of the time the dog will keep the extra red blood cells stored in its spleen. When the animal enters into a situation where its full metabolism is required, such as play, catching game, or fighting other dogs, the extra cells are released into the bloodstream. The "oversized" heart and lungs will now be running at full capacity, and the animal will have an enhanced ability to engage in aerobic activity. This activity will produce internal heating. Dogs, being covered in fur, are limited in their ability to cool down. After a short time the animal must either cease its athletic activity or risk harming itself from overheating. One can easily observe this pattern of intense activity followed by rest periods in puppies. During the rest phase the spleen collects red blood cells and the animal may pant to cool down.


Working, utility and assistance dogs

Labrador Retrievers are often used as assistance dogs.
Labrador Retrievers are often used as assistance dogs.
Main article: Working dog

There are several types of working dogs: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 730 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1682 pixel, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 730 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1682 pixel, file size: 456 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Labrador Retriever (Labrador or Lab for short), is one of several kinds of retriever, and is the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in both the United States and the United Kingdom. ... Siberian Husky. ...

  • Assistance dogs which help the seeing and hearing-impaired. Others are trained to help those with epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, by detecting the onset of the condition so they can seek help. The typical assistance dog is a sociable breed such as a Labrador Retriever.
  • The detection dog, which is a dog trained to and works at using its senses (almost always the sense of smell) to detect substances such as explosives or illegal drugs.
  • Guard dogs trained to protect property. These are commonly Doberman Pinschers, German Shepherds and Rottweilers or mixes of these breeds.
  • Herding dogs trained to protect livestock in the range against predators. Sheepdogs are a common breed.
  • Hunting dogs that search for and retrieve game. Pointers and retrievers are typical hunting breeds.
  • Police dogs, typically German Shepherds, are trained to assist law enforcement officers.
  • Rescue dogs that search for missing humans. The archetypal breeds are the St. Bernard and the Bloodhound, although any dog with a good sense of smell can be trained to perform this task.
  • Therapy dogs, with friendly and gentle temperaments, trained to provide comfort and affection to hospitalized and institutionalized patients.
  • The war dog, used by the military to detect mines and enemy soldiers.

An assistance dog is a dog trained to help a person with a disability. ... The Labrador Retriever (Labrador or Lab for short), is one of several kinds of retriever, and is the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in both the United States and the United Kingdom. ... A detection dog getting ready to search cars for drugs. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... A guard dog or watch dog is a dog employed to guard against, or watch for, unwanted or unexpected animals or people. ... The Doberman Pinscher (alternatively spelled Dobermann in many countries) or Doberman is a breed of domestic dog. ... Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The German Shepherd Dog (known also as the Alsatian or Schäfer(hund)) is an intelligent breed of dog. ... A Rottweiler is a large, robust and powerful dog breed originating in Germany. ... A herding dog is a dog that either has been trained in herding or that is a member of a breed developed originally for herding. ... A Sheep dog is a type of domestic dog whose original purpose was to herd or guard sheep. ... A hunting dog refers to any dog who assists humans in hunting, or whose breed was originally developed to do so. ... Belgian Malinois as K-9 unit A police dog is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and similar law-enforcement personnel with their work. ... Rescue dog has various meanings: A large dog that has been trained to physically rescue humans from disasters. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: St. ... For other uses, see Bloodhound (disambiguation). ... Therapy Dog refers to a dog trained to provide affection and comfort to people in hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes, mental institutions, schools, and stressful situations such as disaster areas. ... A war dog is a dog trained for war. ...

Show and sport (competition) dogs

An English Springer Spaniel during a show in a country where docking is illegal
Main article: Show dog
See also: Dog sport

Owners of dogs often enter them in competitions, whether show (breed conformation shows) or sports, including dog racing & dog sledding. The winners garner much prestige and prize money. These dogs are often bred specifically for competition, which may not be entirely beneficial for the breeds due to the magnification of hereditary defects. Download high resolution version (800x607, 56 KB)Photograph by Jurriaan Schulman copyright Jurriaan Schulman. ... Download high resolution version (800x607, 56 KB)Photograph by Jurriaan Schulman copyright Jurriaan Schulman. ... The English Springer Spaniel is a gun dog traditionally used for flushing and retrieving game. ... Docking is used as a term for the intentional removal of part of an animals tail or ears. ... An American Cocker Spaniel show dog with its ears wrapped in preparation for showing A show dog is a purebred dog that is displayed at conformation dog shows to determine how well it conforms to established breed standards. ... Dog sports are activities that involve dogs. ...

  • Dog agility is a sport in which dogs complete a timed obstacle course.
  • Dogsled racing is a winter sport where a team of dogs, usually high performance mixed breed dogs called Alaskan Huskies or Eurohounds, pull a sled and driver (called a musher). The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is perhaps the most famous of these races. Dog sledding is an ancient form of transportation and still a very effective way of moving freight across this type of terrain.
  • Dog racing, almost always Greyhounds, involves dogs racing at betting tracks in a sport not unlike horseracing, reaching speeds of 40 miles per hour. Elsewhere, Dachshunds are often raced, as a humorous sidelight in charity events.
  • Dog fighting and dog baiting are blood sports involving dogs. They are illegal in most jurisdictions, but are still occasionally performed underground.
  • The show dog, purebreds entered in conformation dog shows and evaluated by how closely they match the ideal characteristics of the breed. The Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is one of the most famous of this type of competition.

Dog agility is a sport in which a handler directs a dog through an obstacle course in a race for both time and accuracy. ... Dogsled racing is a winter dog sport involving the timed competition of teams of sleddogs that pull a sled, on the runners of which the dog driver or musher stands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A eurohound is a cross between an Alaskan husky and a pointer (dog). ... A team of six white, husky-type dogs Mushing also means playing on a MUSH. Mushing also can be used to describe the kneading behavior of domestic cats when they are content or are preparing to settle for a nap. ... For the current race, see 2007 Iditarod The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, usually called the Iditarod, is an annual dog sled race in Alaska, where mushers and teams of dogs cover about 1,150 miles (1,852 km) in eight to fifteen days. ... Dog sled A dog sled (or dogsled) is a sled pulled by one or more dogs used to travel over ice and through snow. ... Several dogs prior to a race Dog racing is both a gambling event as well as a fund-raising event, depending on the breed and location. ... This article is about the breed of dog; for other meanings of Greyhound, see Greyhound (disambiguation). ... Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) The Dachshund is a short-legged, elongated dog breed of the hound family. ... Dog fighting is a fight between game dogs. ... Contemporary picture of Bull-baiting Bait or Baiting is the act to worry or torment a chained or confined animal by setting dogs upon it for sport. ... This article is about the sport; for the Jean-Claude Van Damme movie, see Bloodsport (movie). ... An American Cocker Spaniel show dog with its ears wrapped in preparation for showing A show dog is a purebred dog that is displayed at conformation dog shows to determine how well it conforms to established breed standards. ... The Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show is a two-day benched conformation show that takes place at Madison Square Garden in New York City every year. ...

Diet

At present, there is some debate as to whether domestic dogs should be classified as omnivores or carnivores, by diet. The classification in the Order Carnivora does not necessarily mean that a dog's diet must be restricted to meat; unlike an obligate carnivore, such as the cat family with its shorter small intestine, a dog is dependent on neither meat-specific protein nor a very high level of protein in order to fulfill its basic dietary requirements. Dogs are able to healthily digest a variety of foods including vegetables and grains, and in fact dogs can consume a large proportion of these in their diet. Wild canines not only eat available plants to obtain essential amino acids, but also obtain nutrients from vegetable matter from the stomach and intestinal contents of their herbivorous prey, which they usually consume. Domestic dogs can survive healthily on a reasonable and carefully designed vegetarian diet, particularly if eggs and milk products are included. Some sources suggest that a dog fed on a strict vegetarian diet may develop dilated cardiomyopathy since it lacks L-carnitine,[12] however, maintaining a balanced diet is also a factor since L-carnitine is found naturally in many nuts, seeds, beans, vegetables, fruits and whole grains. In the wild, dogs can survive on a vegetarian diet when animal prey is not available. However it has been noted, both by observation of extremely stressful conditions such as the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race and by scientific studies of similar conditions, that high-protein (approximately 40%) diets including meat help prevent damage to muscle tissue. (This research is also true for some other mammals.) This level of protein corresponds to the percentage of protein found in the wild dog's diet when prey is abundant; higher levels of protein seem to confer no added benefit. Omnivores are organisms that consume both plants and animals. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or IPA: ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... A glass of cows milk. ... The logo of the worlds first Vegan Society, registered in 1944 [2] Veganism is a philosophy and lifestyle which seeks to exclude — as far as is possible and practical — all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes... Dilated cardiomyopathy or DCM (also known as congestive cardiomyopathy), is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is dilated, often without any obvious cause. ... Categories: Amino acids | Biochemistry stubs ... Categories: Amino acids | Biochemistry stubs ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut A nut can be either a seed or a fruit. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ...


Dogs frequently eat grass, which is a harmless activity. Explanations abound, but rationales such as that it neutralizes acid, or that eating grass might make the dog vomit, so dogs eat grass to remove unwanted substances from their stomachs, are at best educated guesses. Indeed, dogs may eat grass when they have an upset stomach in order to cause vomiting. The grass binds with the offending material. Then the grass acts as an irritant and causes the dog to vomit, bringing up the poisonous material at the same time..[13] Dogs do vomit more readily than humans, as part of their typical feeding behavior of gulping down food then regurgitating indigestible bones, fur, etc. This behavior is typical of pack feeding in the wild, where the most important thing is to get as much of the kill as possible before others consume it all. Individual domestic dogs, however, may be very "picky" eaters, in the absence of this evolutionary pressure.
Natural vegetation dominated by grasses Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ...


Also, dogs eat grass, because it's a normal part of their diet. Wild canine relatives of dogs — wolves and foxes — eat all of an animal when they catch it. They end up, therefore, eating grasses and plants in the intestines of these animals. Domestic dogs, eating prepared dog food, lack this part of their diet and so they eat grass. Finally, dogs may appear to eat grass, when they are just running the blades through their mouth to gather information. Their sense of smell and taste may act together to detect if other animals have walked through their area or urinated on the grass.[14]


Dangerous substances

Some foods commonly enjoyed by humans are dangerous to dogs, including chocolate (Theobromine poisoning), onions, grapes and raisins,[15] some types of gum, certain sweeteners[16] and Macadamia nuts. It is currently believed that the only dangerous substance in chocolate is cocoa, meaning that forms of chocolate without this ingredient, such as white chocolate may become re-evaluated for their safety in future. Chocolate most commonly comes in dark, milk, and white varieties, with cocoa solids contributing to the brown coloration. ... Theobromine poisoning or chocolate poisoning is an adverse reaction to the alkaloid theobromine, found in chocolate, tea, cola beverages, and some other foods. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Many plants in the genus Allium are known by the common name onion but, used without qualifiers, it usually refers to Allium cepa. ... It has been suggested that Veraison be merged into this article or section. ... Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Chewing gum Chewing gum is a type of confectionery which is designed to be chewed rather than swallowed. ... Species Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia tetraphylla The macadamia nut is the fruit of a tree native to the east coast of Australia. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The acute danger from grapes and raisins has been uncovered only since about 2000, and made public slowly since then. At present the cause is not known. Whatever the reason, since only small quantities are necessary to induce acute renal failure, dogs should not be fed grapes or raisins, and sultanas and currants should likely be withheld as well. Grape and raisin toxicity in the dog is a potential health threat to dogs that have eaten grapes or raisins. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... The sultana is a type of white, seedless grape of Turkish or Persian origin, as well as a type of raisin made from it; such sultana raisins are often called simply sultanas or They are commonly used in South Asian cooking, where they are called These are typically larger than... A currant can refer to Redcurrants and blackcurrants, berries of the genus Ribes. ...


Cooked bones should never be given to dogs, as the heat changes the chemical and physical properties so that they cannot be chewed properly, splintering into jagged shards, and resist digestion. Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ...


Human medications should not be given to a dog as a substitute for their regular medication as some can be especially toxic, especially paracetamol/acetaminophen (Tylenol). Alcoholic beverages pose much of the same hazards to dogs as they do to humans. Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Dogs may also find some poisons attractive, including antifreeze, snail bait, slug bait, insect bait, and rodent poisons. Antifreeze may be one of the most insidious of poisons to dogs because of its sweet taste and because a dog may walk upon or lie down upon a spill of it or its residue and then lick it off. Dogs must be kept strictly away from antifreeze and not allowed access to any place that has had a spill of it that has not been completely removed. Antifreeze is used in gasoline and diesel engines. ... The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... Subinfraorders, superfamilies, and families See text Slugs are gastropod mollusks without shells or with very small internal shells, in contrast to snails, which have a prominent coiled shell. ... Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents. ... Antifreeze is used in gasoline and diesel engines. ...


Plants such as caladium, dieffenbachia and philodendron will cause throat irritations that will burn the throat going down as well as coming up. Hops are particularly dangerous and even small quantities can lead to malignant hyperthermia.[17] Species See text. ... Species See text Dieffenbachia is a genus of tropical plants in the Family Araceae noted for their patterned leaves. ... {{Taxobox | color = lightgreen | name = Philodendrons | image = Philodendron01. ... Look up Throat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hop umbel in a Hallertau hopgarden Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Malignant hyperthermia (MH or MHS for malignant hyperthermia syndrome, or malignant hyperpyrexia due to anesthesia) is a rare life-threatening condition that is triggered by exposure to drugs used for general anaesthesia, such as volatile anaesthetics or the depolarizing muscle relaxant suxamethonium chloride. ...


Amaryllis, daffodil, english ivy, iris, and tulip (especially the bulbs) cause gastric irritation and sometimes central nervous system excitement followed by coma, and, in severe cases, even death. Binomial name Amaryllis belladonna L. Amaryllis is a monotypic genus of plant containing one species, the Belladonna Lily (Amaryllis belladonna), a native of South Africa. ... Species ????? Daffodils are a group of large flowered members of the genus Narcissus. ... English Ivy, (hedera helix), is an extremely invasive species of ivy native to England, but now has taken root in many places such as the U.S., often wiping out native grasses and undergrowth. ... Species See text Iris is a genus of between 200-300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers which takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, referring to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. ... Species See text Tulip (Tulipa) is a genus of about 100 species of flowering plants in the family Liliaceae. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στομάχι) is an organ in the alimentary canal used to digest food. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. ...


Ingesting foxglove, lily of the valley, larkspur and oleander can be life threatening because the cardiovascular system is affected. Equally life threatening is the yew which affects the nervous system. If any of these plants are ingested, get the dog to a veterinarian immediately. Species Digitalis ferruginea Digitalis grandiflora Digitalis lanata Digitalis lutea Digitalis obscura Digitalis purpurea Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous biennials, perennials and shrubs in the foxglove family Scrophulariaceae. ... Binomial name Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley is a flowering plant of the Convallaria genus. ... genera see text Ranunculaceae is the botanical name for a family of flowering plants. ... Binomial name Nerium oleander L. Oleander (Nerium oleander), is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the dogbane family Apocynaceae. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Species Taxus baccata - European Yew Taxus brevifolia - Pacific Yew Taxus canadensis - Canadian Yew Taxus chinensis - Chinese Yew Taxus cuspidata - Japanese Yew Taxus floridana - Florida Yew Taxus globosa - Mexican Yew Taxus sumatrana - Sumatran Yew Taxus wallichiana - Himalayan Yew Yews are small coniferous trees or shrubs in the genus Taxus in the...


Many household cleaners such as ammonia, bleach, disinfectants, drain cleaner, soaps, detergents, and other cleaners, mothballs and matches are dangerous to dogs, as are cosmetics such as deodorants, hair coloring, nail polish and remover, home permanent lotion, and suntan lotion. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Commercial chlorine bleach To bleach something, is to remove or lighten its color, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing; a bleach is a chemical that produces these effects, often via oxidation. ... Disinfection The destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means Disinfectants are chemical substances used to kill viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi. ... Drain cleaner is a chemical used to dissolve clogs to unblock pipes, such as the drainpipes of sinks, bathtubs, toilets, and showers. ... This article is about the computer protocol. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Mothballs are small balls of chemical pesticide and deodorant used when storing clothing and other articles susceptible to damage from mold or moth larvae. ... Household safety matches burning match A match is a simple and convenient means of producing fire under controlled circumstances and on demand. ... Roll-on deodorant Rexona Degree brand Stick deodorant Deodorants are substances applied to the body, most frequently the armpits, to reduce the body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Pink nail polish. ... Turn of the century advertisement for Nesslers permanent wave machine. ... Sunscreen or sunblock (also known as suntan lotion) is a lotion that blocks ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and which reduces sunburn and other damage to the skin, leading to a lower risk of skin cancer. ...


Zinc toxicity, mostly in the form of the ingestion of US pennies minted after 1982, is commonly fatal in dogs where it causes a severe hemolytic anemia.[18] General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... The United States one-cent coin is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ...


Dogs will occasionally eat their own feces or the feces of other species if available, such as that of cats and horses. This is known as coprophagia, and may be indicative of boredom or hunger, although there is no definitive reason known. Owners of both cats and dogs may find that dogs treat the catbox as a snack bar. Such behavior should be discouraged, as it could lead to Toxoplasmosis. Dogs seem to have different preferences in relation to eating feces. Some are attracted to the stools of deer, cows, or horses. Others will eat the stools of other dogs. And a great many dogs are attracted to cat droppings, possibly because cat foods are very high in protein and the dogs are going after undigested nutrients.[19] Coprophagia is the consumption of feces, from the Greek copros (feces) and phagein (eat). ...


Reproduction

Main article: Canine reproduction

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

General

In domestic dogs, sexual maturity (puberty) begins to happen around age 6 to 12 months for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years old for some large breeds. Adolescence for most domestic dogs is around 12 to 15 months, beyond which they are for the most part more adult than puppy. As with other domesticated species, domestication has selectively bred for higher libido and earlier and more frequent breeding cycles in dogs, than in their wild ancestors. Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... Young Men Organization Teenager and Teen also redirect here. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Libido in its common usage means sexual desire; however, more technical definitions, such as those found in the work of Carl Jung, are more general, referring to libido as the free creative—or psychic—energy an individual has to put toward personal development, or individuation. ...


Males

Females

Females have a twice-yearly fertile period (technically every 7 months in most breeds), known as 'seasons', during which her body prepares for pregnancy, and at the peak she will come "into heat", her fertile period, during which time she will be mentally and physically receptive to copulation. A female is able to become pregnant on her first heat; this is not normally considered advisable as she is mentally and physically still young in other ways. A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or fetuses by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ... A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ...


As with most domesticated species, one of the first and strongest effects seen from selective breeding is selection for cooperation with the breeding process as directed by humans. In domestic dogs, one of the behaviors that is noted is the abolition of the pair bond seen in wild canines. The ability of female domestic dog to come into estrus at any time of the year and usually twice a year is also valued. The amount of time between cycles varies greatly among different dogs, but a particular dog's cycle tends to be consistent through her life. This is also called in season or in heat. Conversely, undomesticated canine species experience estrus once a year, typically in late winter. Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ...


Most female dogs come into season for the first time between 6 and 12 months, although some larger breeds delay until as late as 2 years. Like most mammals, the age that a bitch first comes into season is mostly a function of her current body weight as a proportion of her body weight when fully mature. The different rates of maturation are responsible for the menarche, not the chronological age. They then experience fertile seasons biannually until old age. Female dogs do not experience menopause, although their cycles will become irregular and fertility becomes unpredictable as they become older. Dogs over around 7 or 8 years are usually considered no longer appropriate for breeding, but can still remain fertile. Menarche (IPA: ) is the first menstrual period, or first menstrual bleeding. ...


Copulation

When copulating, a male canine initially mounts the female from behind, as with most tetrapods, a position known informally as doggy style. The female will hold her tail to the side and allow this if receptive. If unreceptive she may sit or lie down, snap, move away, or otherwise be uncooperative or not allow mating. The male will often move about as he tries to get a good purchase upon her, and whilst attempting penetration of his penis to the female's vulva. At the time of penetration, the penis is not truly erect. Rather, it is held rigid by a small bone, known as the baculum. A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... Groups See text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sexual penetration (as opposed to outercourse) typically involves the insertion of the penis into a bodily orifice. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ... The baculum (also penis bone, penile bone or os penis) is a bone found in the penis of most mammals. ...


When the male achieves penetration, he will often hold tighter and thrust faster. At this point the male's penis expands. Canine reproduction is different from human sexual intercourse, because human males acquire an erection prior to penetration. Canine males enter first, then swell and become erect. It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ...


The male dog has a bulbus glandis, a spherical area of erectile tissue at the base of the penis, which traps the penis inside the female's vagina during copulation as it becomes engorged with blood. [1] The bulbus glandis is an erectile tissue structure unique among domesticated animals to the canine penis. ... Erectile tissue is tissue in the body that can become erect, usually by becoming engorged with blood. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ...


Once the penis is locked into the vagina by the bulbus glandis, the male will usually lift a leg and swing it over the female's back while turning around. The two stand with their hind ends touching and the penis locked inside the vagina while ejaculation occurs, decreasing leakage of semen from the vagina. After some time, typically 5 - 20 minutes (but sometimes longer), the bulbus glandis disengorges, allowing the mates to separate. Virgin dogs can become quite distressed at finding themselves unable to separate during their first copulation, and may try to pull away or run. Dog breeders' often suggest it is appropriate to help calm and settle the mating dogs once this stage is reached, if they show anxiety. Ejaculation is the ejecting of semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Note that similar canine mounting behavior (sometimes with pelvic thrusting) is also used by dominant canines of both sexes. Dominance mounting, with or without thrusting, should not be confused with copulatory mounting, in which the thrusting is short term until a "tie" is achieved. Dominance in the context of biology and anthropology is the state of having high social status relative to other individuals, who react submissively to dominant individuals. ...


Gestation and litters

A Catahoula Leopard mother nursing her litter of puppies.

Dogs bear their litters roughly 9 weeks after fertilization, although the length of gestation can vary from 56 to 72 days. A general rule of thumb is that a mammal will produce half as many offspring as the number of teats on the mother. This rule is altered in domesticated animals since larger litters are often favored for economic reasons and in dogs, particularly, the great range of sizes and shapes plays a role in how many healthy puppies a female can carry. An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. Toy dogs generally produce from one to four puppies in each litter, while much larger breeds may average as many as 12 pups in each litter. The number of puppies also varies with the mother's age and health, the father's sperm count, the timing of the breeding, and many other factors. Litter of Catahoula Leopard puppies Taken by Leslie Bickel of the litter of puppies from which her dog came; Molly is the mom. ... Litter of Catahoula Leopard puppies Taken by Leslie Bickel of the litter of puppies from which her dog came; Molly is the mom. ... The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog, also known as the Catahoula Cur, Catahoula Hog Dog, or simply the Catahoula, is named after Catahoula Parish, Louisiana, USA. Of remaining dog breeds, the Catahoula is believed to have occupied North America the longest, aside from the dogs descended from Native American-created breeds. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Mixed-breed puppy A puppy is a juvenile dog, generally less than one year of age that has not reached the equivalent of dog puberty yet. ... The Bichon Frisé is an example of a toy dog[1] that requires considerable grooming. ...


Some breeds have been developed to emphasize certain physical traits beyond the point at which they can safely bear litters on their own. For example, the Bulldog often requires artificial insemination and almost always requires cesarean section for giving birth. Since a mother can provide nutrients and care to only a limited number of offspring, humans must assist in the care and feeding when the litter exceeds approximately eight puppies. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), is a surgical incision through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more fetuses. ...


Spaying and neutering

For more details on this topic, see Spaying and neutering.

Spaying (females only) and neutering (both genders but more usually males) refers to the sterilization of animals, usually by removal of the male's testicles or the female's ovaries and uterus, in order to eliminate the ability to procreate, and reduce sex drive. Neutering has also been known to reduce aggression in male dogs, but can occasionally increase aggression in female dogs.[20] Spaying and neutering are the respective processes of female and male animal sterilization, in order to keep them from producing offspring. ... Sterilization can mean: Sterilization (surgical procedure) - an operation which renders an animal or human unable to procreate Sterilization (microbiology) - the elimination of microbiological organisms It can also mean the death of sperm cells due to radiation. ... The testicle (from Latin testis, plural testes) is the male generative gland in animals. ... For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) Ovaries are egg-producing reproductive organs found in female organisms. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ...


Animal control agencies in the United States and the ASPCA advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be spayed or neutered so that they do not have undesired puppies.[21] In some countries of Europe, spaying or neutering of dogs is less common, and owners are usually instead advised to keep their dogs on leash and under supervision to avoid unwanted matings; drugs are used to prevent pregnancy and abort unwanted litters.[citation needed] American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (usually referred to as the ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing the abuse of animals. ...


Because of the overpopulation of dogs in some countries, puppies born to strays or as the result of accidental breedings often end up being killed in animal shelters. Spaying and neutering can also decrease the risk of hormone-driven diseases such as mammary cancer, as well as undesired hormone-driven behaviors. However, certain medical problems are more likely after neutering, such as urinary incontinence in females[22] and prostate cancer in males.[23] The hormonal changes involved with sterilization are likely to somewhat change the animal's personality, however, and some object to spaying and neutering as the sterilization could be carried out without the excision of organs. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ...


It is not essential for a female dog to either experience a heat cycle or have puppies before spaying, and likewise, a male dog does not need the experience of mating before neutering. However, there is mounting evidence[citation needed] that spaying female dogs before they experience at least one heat cycle and neutering males before they reach sexual maturity predisposes them to earlier allergies, more severe immune-related disorders, increased reactions to vaccinations, and increased incidence of certain cancers (e.g. bone cancer). Behavioral problems now being attributed[citation needed] to early sterilization of both male and female dogs are perpetual puppy syndrome (e.g. submissive urination), inhibited social adjustment, increase in cognitive disorders, and increased aggression in females.


Female cats and dogs are seven times more likely to develop mammary tumors if they are not spayed before their first heat cycle. [24] The high dietary estrogen content of the average commercial pet food as well as the estrogenic activity of topical pesticides[citation needed] may be contributing factors in the development of mammary cancer, especially when these exogenous sources are added to those normal estrogens produced by the body. Dog food containing soybeans or soybean fractions have been found to contain phytoestrogens in levels that could have biological effects when ingested longterm.[25] A mammary tumor is a tumor originating in the mammary gland. ... The oestrus cycle (also Å“strus or estrous cycle) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females (humans and great apes are the only mammals who undergo a menstrual cycle instead). ... Binomial name Glycine max (L.) Merr. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal cells and bodies. ...


A female dog can become pregnant on her first heat cycle (which can take place as early as six months), and should be kept away from intact male dogs, including littermates, over the age of 4 months[citation needed].


Gender-preservative surgeries such as vasectomy and tubal ligation are possible, but do not appear to be popular due to the continuation of gender-specific behaviors and disease risks.


Overpopulation

According to the Humane Society of the United States, 3-4 million dogs and cats are euthanized each year in the United States and many more are confined to cages in shelters because there are many more animals than there are homes. Spaying or neutering dogs helps keep overpopulation down.[26] Local humane societies, SPCA's and other animal protection organizations urge people to spay or neuter their pets and to adopt animals from shelters instead of purchasing them. Several notable public figures have spoken out against animal over population, including Bob Barker. On his game show, The Price is Right, Barker stresses the issue at the end of every episode, saying: "Help control the pet population. Have your pets spayed or neutered." Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Euthanasia (from Greek: ευθανασία -ευ, eu, good, θάνατος, thanatos, death) is the practice of terminating the life of a person or animal with an incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or a possibly undignified death in a painless or minimally painful way, for the purpose of limiting suffering. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Quiz show” redirects here. ... The Price Is Rights US 35th season logo. ...


Dog health

Main article: Dog health
Further information: Category:Dog health

Dogs are susceptible to various diseases, ailments, and poisons, some of which affect humans in the same way, others of which are unique to dogs. Dogs, like all mammals, are also susceptible to heat exhaustion when dealing with high levels of humidity and/or extreme temperatures.[27] Cavalier King Charles Spaniel with bandaged foot. ...


Diseases

Infectious diseases commonly associated with dogs include rabies (hydrophobia), canine parvovirus, and canine distemper. Congenital diseases of dogs can include a wide range from hip dysplasia and medial patellar luxation to epilepsy and pulmonic stenosis. Canines can get just about anything a human can get (excluding many infections which are species specific) like hypothyroidism, cancer, dental disease, heart disease, etc. Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a contagious virus affecting dogs. ... Canine distemper is a viral disease affecting animals in the families Canidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Procyonidae, and possibly Felidae (though not domestic cats; feline distemper or panleukopenia is a similar, but different, virus exclusive to cats). ... This article covers Hip dysplasia, a condition affecting the hip joint, which occurs in humans but is more commonly associated with animals, especially dogs (Canine hip dysplasia). ... Luxating patella, or trick knee, is a condition in which the patella, or kneecap, dislocates or moves out of its normal location. ... Pulmonary valve stenosis (or, less commonly, pulmonic valve stenosis), abbreviated PVS, is a condition that can result in the reduction of flow of blood to the lungs. ...


Two serious medical conditions affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all types and ages, and bloat, which affects the larger breeds or deep chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions, and can kill rapidly; owners of dogs which may be at risk should learn about such conditions as part of good animal care. Pyometra is a disease of the uterus in bitches (female dogs). ... Spaying and neutering are the respective surgical processes of female and male animal sterilization, to keep them from producing offspring. ... Bloat, also known as torsion, gastric torsion, and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ...

See also: Vaccination of dogs

Programs supporting regular vaccination of dogs have contributed both to the health of dogs and to the public health. ...

Parasites

Common external parasites are various species of fleas, ticks, and mites. Internal parasites include hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms, and heartworms. See also CVBD (Canine Vector-Borne Diseases). Families Tungidae â€“ sticktight and chigoe fleas (chiggers) Pulicidae â€“ common fleas Coptopsyllidae Vermipsyllidae â€“ carnivore fleas Rhopalopsyllidae â€“ marsupial fleas Hypsophthalmidae Stephanocircidae Pygiopsyllidae Hystrichopsyllidae â€“ rat and mouse fleas Leptopsyllidae â€“ mouse and rat fleas Ischnopsyllidae â€“ bat fleas Ceratophyllidae:-fleas mainly associated with rodents Amphipsyllidae Malacopsyllidae Dolichopsyllidae â€“ rodent fleas Ctenopsyllidae Flea is the common name... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Families Tetranychidae - Spider mites Eriophyidae - Gall mites Sarcoptidae - Sarcoptic Mange mites The mites and ticks, order Acarina or Acari, belong to the Arachnida and are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups, although some way behind the insects. ... Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic worm (nematode) that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... Orders Subclass Cestodaria Amphilinidea Gyrocotylidea Subclass Eucestoda Aporidea Caryophyllidea Cyclophyllidea Diphyllidea Lecanicephalidea Litobothridea Nippotaeniidea Proteocephalidea Pseudophyllidea Spathebothriidea Tetraphyllidea Trypanorhyncha In biology, Cestoda is the class of parasitic flatworms, called cestodes or tapeworms, that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the bodies of various animals... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... A canine heart with heartworms Heartworm is a parasitoid roundworm (Dirofilaria immitis) that is spread from host to host through the bites of mosquitoes. ... CVBD is a term used internationally by veterinarians for Canine Vector-Borne Diseases -- in other words, diseases transferred to dogs by various parasitic vectors. ...


Common physical disorders

Some breeds of dogs are also prone to certain genetic ailments, such as hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, cleft palate, blindness, or deafness. Dogs are also susceptible to the same ailments that humans are, including diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, and arthritis. Gastric torsion and bloat is a dangerous problem in some large-chested breeds. This article covers Hip dysplasia, a condition affecting the hip joint, which occurs in humans but is more commonly associated with animals, especially dogs (Canine hip dysplasia). ... Luxating patella, or trick knee, is a condition in which the patella, or kneecap, dislocates or moves out of its normal location. ... Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or psychological factors. ... Hearing impairment is a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect or understand sounds. ... Diabetes mellitus strikes 1 in 400 cats and a similar number of dogs, though recent veterinary studies[1] note that it is becoming more common lately. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Bloat, also known as torsion, gastric torsion, and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. ... Bloat, also known as torsion, gastric torsion, and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. ...


Lifespan and old age

Main articles: Dog years and Aging in dogs

The typical lifespan of dogs varies considerably by breed. For example, many giant dog breeds (such as Great Danes) average only 7 or 8 years, while some small terrier breeds, or toy breeds might live as long as 20 or above. The average lifespan for mixed-breed and midsize dogs is about 13 to 14 years. The longest-lived dog with reliable documentation died at 29 years and 27 days, the breed of the dog was an Australian cattle dog and it lived in Virginia, USA, the date of death was in 1939. The oldest currently living dog is from Canberra, Australia and is now 27 years old. Although the lifespans of all living species are mostly uncontrollable, one can significantly extend a dog's life by feeding it the right kinds of foods, giving it regular exercise, treating its diseases, caring for its special needs and giving it love and comfort. Older dogs, like this 10-year-old Neapolitan Mastiff, often grow grey hairs on their muzzles; some dogs go grey all over. ... Aging in dogs covers the impact of aging in the domestic dog (Canis Lupus Familiaris), common medical and clinical issues arising, and life expectancy. ... The Great Dane is a breed of dog known for its large size and gentle personality. ... The Bichon Frisé is an example of a toy dog[1] that requires considerable grooming. ... The Australian Cattle Dog (ACD), also known as the Queensland Heeler, Blue Heeler, and Red Heeler, is a herding dog developed in Australia for controlling cattle. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... For other meanings see Canberra (disambiguation). ...


Behavior

Further information: Category:Dog training and behavior

Dogs are very social animals, but their personality and behavior vary with breed as well as how they are treated by their owners and others who come in contact with them. Physical abuse and starvation can produce very neurotic, dangerous dogs, and even simply failing to socialize them properly may entail maladaptive behaviors.[citation needed] It is not uncommon for dogs to attack humans and other animals; however, this is usually because of lack of care or improper upbringing by its owner. Dog attacks on humans have become common news items in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ...


Laughter in dogs

Laughter might not be confined or unique to humans, despite Aristotle's observation that "only the human animal laughs". The differences between chimpanzee and human laughter may be the result of adaptations that have evolved to enable human speech. However, some behavioral psychologists argue that self-awareness of one's situation, or the ability to identify with somebody else's predicament, are prerequisites for laughter, so animals are not really laughing in the same way that humans do.

A playful dog
A playful dog

The dog-laugh sounds similar to a normal pant. However by analyzing the pant using a spectrograph, this pant varies with bursts of frequencies, resulting in a laugh. When this recorded dog-laugh vocalization is played to dogs in a shelter setting, it can initiate play, promote pro-social behavior, and decrease stress levels. In a study by Simonet, Versteeg, and Storie, one hundred and twenty subject dogs residing in a mid-size county animal shelter were observed. Dogs ranging from 4 months to 10 years of age were compared with and without exposure to a dog-laugh recording. The stress behaviors measured included panting, growling, salivating, pacing, barking, cowering, lunging, play-bows, sitting, orienting and lying down. The study resulted in positive findings. Exposure to the dog laughing recording resulted in the following: significantly reduced stress behaviors, increased tail wagging and the display of a play-face when playing was initiated, and more frequent pro-social behavior such as approaching and lip licking. This research suggests exposure to dog-laugh vocalizations can calm and possibly increase shelter adoptions. (Simonet, Versteeg, & Storie 2005) A dog laughter sample: Simonet 2005. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Dog communication

Main article: Dog communication

A dog might stretch after standing up, just as people do, or might drop into a stretch to lead into a play bow or to calm a person or other dog. ...

Ancestry and history of domestication

This ancient mosaic, likely Roman, shows a large dog with a collar hunting a lion.

Molecular systematics indicate that the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) descends from one or more populations of wild wolves (Canis lupus). As reflected in the nomenclature, dogs are descended from the wolf and are able to interbreed with wolves. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Dog#Ancestry and history of domestication, Dog#Neoteny_in_the_rapid_evolution_of_diverse_dog_breeds be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Dog#Ancestry and history of domestication, Dog#Neoteny_in_the_rapid_evolution_of_diverse_dog_breeds be merged into this article or section. ... Roman dog mosaic showing hunting, possibly from the floor of a Roman villa in England (British Museum). ... Roman dog mosaic showing hunting, possibly from the floor of a Roman villa in England (British Museum). ... It has been suggested that molecular phylogeny be merged into this article or section. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal system of naming species. ...


The relationship between human and canine has deep roots. Wolf remains have been found in association with hominid remains dating from 400,000 years ago. Converging archaeological and genetic evidence indicate a time of domestication in the late Upper Paleolithic close to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago. Fossil bone morphologies and genetic analysis of current and ancient dog and wolf populations have not yet been able to conclusively determine whether all dogs descend from a single domestication event, or whether dogs were domesticated independently in more than one location. Domesticated dogs may have interbred with local populations of wild wolves on several occasions (so-called introgression). Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ...


The earliest dog fossils, two crania from Russia and a mandible from Germany, date from 13,000 to 17,000 years ago. Their likely ancestor is the large northern Holarctic wolf, Canis lupus lupus. Remains of smaller dogs from Mesolithic (Natufian) cave deposits in the Middle East, dated to around 12,000 years ago, have been interpreted as descendants of a lighter Southwest Asian wolf, Canis lupus arabs. Rock art and skeletal remains indicate that by 14,000 years ago, dogs were present from North Africa across Eurasia to North America. Dog burials at the Mesolithic cemetery of Svaerdborg in Denmark suggest that in ancient Europe dogs were valued companions. It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The Holarctic is a term used by zoologists to define the ecozone covering much of Eurasia and North America, which have often been connected by the Bering land bridge. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Rock art is a term in archaeology for any man-made markings made on natural stone. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ...


Genetic analyses have so far yielded divergent results. Vilà, Savolainen, and colleagues (1997) concluded that dogs split off from wolves between 75,000 and 135,000 years ago, while a subsequent analysis by Savolainen et al. (2002) indicated a "common origin from a single gene pool for all dog populations" between 40,000 and 15,000 years ago in East Asia. Verginelli et al. (2005), however, suggest both sets of dates must be reevaluated in light of recent findings showing that poorly calibrated molecular clocks have systematically overestimated the age of geologically recent events. On balance, and in agreement with the archaeological evidence, 15,000 years ago is the most likely time for the wolf-dog divergence. Geographic East Asia. ...


Verginelli examined ancient DNA evidence from five prehistoric Italian canids carbon-dated to between 15,000 and 3,000 years old, 341 wolves from several populations worldwide, and 547 purebred dogs. Their results indicate multiple independent origins of dogs and/or of frequent interbreeding between early proto-dogs and wolves throughout a vast geographic range. The detailed history remains unexplored and until further evidence is available, the following section on wolf ancestors must be considered purely speculative. The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Dusicyon Fennecus Lycalopex Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivorous mammals commonly known as canines. ...


Wolf ancestors

Although all wolves belong to the species Canis lupus, there are (or were) many subspecies that had developed a distinctive appearance, social structure, and other traits. For example, the Japanese Wolf and the Eastern Timber Wolf possess different distinctive coloration, hunting and social structures. The origin of the dog is so ancient and so worldwide that many varieties of wolf played a part in it. It is wrong to say that dogs descended from modern wolves. They descended from ancestral wolves, and this difference must always be kept in mind. Ancestral wolves of many varieties existed all over the world. Humans are of a tropical origin, and it was there that the domestication of dogs from wolves first took place[citation needed]. It follows then, that the first wolves to be domesticated were the warm-climate, short-haired varieties that gave rise to many of our dog breeds, with the long-haired, northern wolves giving rise to our northern breeds when humans reached these latitudes.[citation needed] “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus hodophilax (Temminck, 1839) The Japanese Wolf ) refers to two extinct subspecies of the grey wolf. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775 Eastern Timber wolf range The Eastern Timber Wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) is an endangered subspecies of the Gray Wolf and is native to North America. ...


The Indian Wolf is thought to have contributed to the development of more breeds of dogs than other subspecies. Many of today's wild dogs, such as the dingo and the pariah dogs, are descended from this wolf. The Indian Wolf is also thought to have bred with descendants of the European wolf to create the Mastiffs and eventually leading to the development of such diverse breeds as the Pug, the Saint Bernard, and the Bloodhound. The Tibetan Mastiff is an example of an ancient breed. Trinomial name Canis lupus pallipes (Reginald Innes Pocock, 1941) Present distribution of Indian wolf in light blue The Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes), also known as the Indian Gray Wolf or the Peninsular Gray Wolf, is the small subspecies of the Grey Wolf. ... Dingo range Breed standards (external link) ANKC The dingo (plural dingoes or dingos) or warrigal, Canis lupus dingo, is a type of wild dog, probably descended from the Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes). ... Kritikos Lagonikos, a. ... Mastiffs are a group of large, solidly built breeds of dogs typically with heavy bones, pendant ears, a relatively short and well-muscled neck, and a short muzzle. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see Adore. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: St. ... For other uses, see Bloodhound (disambiguation). ... The Tibetan Mastiff (Do-khyi in Tibetan, meaning tied dog) is a rare, very large ancient breed of dog originating in what in the past was Tibet and neightboring countries with similar nomadic culture (for ex. ...


The European wolf, in turn, may have contributed many of its attributes to the Spitz dog types, most terriers, and many of today's sheepdogs. The Chinese wolf is probably ancestor to the Pekingese and toy spaniels, although it is also probable that descendants of the Chinese and European wolves encountered each other over the millennia, contributing to many of the oriental toy breeds. “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... SPITZ (スピッツ) is a popular Japanese rock band that was formed in 1987, and consists of 4 members: Masamune Kusano (vocal, guitar, and songwriting), Tetsuya Miwa (guitar), Akihiro Tamura (bass guitar), and Tatsuo Sakiyama (drums). ... A Scottish Terrier and a West Highland White Terrier The terrier is a group of dog breeds initially bred for hunting and killing vermin. ... A Sheep dog is a type of domestic dog whose original purpose was to herd or guard sheep. ... Pekingese or Pekinese is an ancient breed of toy dog, originating in China. ... Most spaniels, like this English Cocker Spaniel, are small-to-medium dogs with drop ears and a longer coat. ... The Bichon Frisé is an example of a toy dog[1] that requires considerable grooming. ...


The Eastern Timber Wolf is a direct ancestor to most, if not all, of the North American northern sled dog types. This interbreeding still occurs with dogs living in the Arctic region, where the attributes of the wolf that enable survival in a hostile environment are valued by humans. Additionally, unintentional crossbreeding occurs simply because dogs and wolves live in the same environment. The general reproductive isolation which is required to define dogs and wolves as separate species is purely a result of lack of opportunity, stemming from a general mutual unfamiliarity, suspicion, mistrust, and fear. Trinomial name Canis lupus lycaon Schreber, 1775 Eastern Timber wolf range The Eastern Timber Wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) is an endangered subspecies of the Gray Wolf and is native to North America. ... Sled dogs, known also as sleigh dogs, sledge dogs or sleddogs are a group of dogs that are used to pull a wheel-less vehicle on runners (a sled or sleigh) over snow or ice, by means of harnesses and lines. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... An important concept in evolutionary biology, reproductive isolation is a category of mechanisms that prevent two or more populations from exchanging genes. ...


The phenotypic characteristics that distinguish a wolf from a dog are tenuous. Wolves typically have a "brush tail" and erect ears. While some dog breeds possess one of these characteristics, they rarely possess both. Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


Rate of domestication

Current research indicates that domestication, or the attributes of a domesticated animal, can occur much more quickly,[28] [not in citation given] than previously believed. Domestication of a wild dog may occur within one or two human generations with deliberate selective breeding. It is also now generally believed that initial domestication was through mutual desire. Wild canines who scavenged around human habitations received more food than their more skittish or fearful counterparts. Canines who attacked people or their children were likely killed or driven away, while those more friendly animals survived. Canines would have been beneficial by chasing away other vermin or scavengers. With their sharp senses, they would also be valuable as an alarm against marauding predators. The relationship is theorized to have developed in this way. Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Categories: Stub ...


A 2007 Animal Planet documentary discussed a 1900-1920 domestication experiment in Russia that led to rapid unusual changes in the coats of foxes. Animal Planet, launched in 1996, is a cable and satellite television network co-owned 80% by Discovery Communications, Inc. ...


Dog meat for human consumption

Main article: Dog meat

In some countries, certain dog breeds, apart from being kept as pets, are raised on farms and slaughtered for consumption. In countries where dogs are particularly popular as household pets, consumption of dogs is generally taboo and considered an abhorrent cultural practice, but there are exceptions, such as Vietnam, where dogs are popular as both pets and meat.[29] A platter of cooked dog meat In some countries, apart from being kept as pets, certain breeds of dogs are raised on farms and slaughtered for their meat. ...


Although the Chinese were the first to domesticate the dog and keep them as pets, dog meat has been a source of food in China from at least the time of Confucius, and possibly even before. Ancient writings from the Zhou Dynasty referred to the 'three beasts' (which were bred for food), including pig, goat, and dog. Mencius, the philosopher, recommended dog as the tastiest of all meats. Confucius (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... Boundaries of the Western Zhou Dynasty (1050 - 771 BC) in China The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou Ch`ao; 1122 BC to 256 BC (ref) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Mencius (most accepted dates: 372 BC – 289 BC; other possible dates: 385 BC – 303 BC or 302 BC) was born in the State of Zou (鄒國), now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (邹城市), Shandong province, only 30 km (18 miles) south of Qufu, the town of Confucius. ...


Dog abuse

Main article: Cruelty to animals

Cruelty to dogs refers to treatment that causes unacceptable suffering or harm. What qualifies as unacceptable suffering varies among countries and cultures. Cruelty can be passive, typified by simple neglect, or active, with malicious intent.[30] The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Harm can be defined as causing physical or psychological/emotional damage or injury to a person, animal or other entity. ...


Signs of dog abuse

Signs of dog abuse include:

  • Unusually frightened, fearful or subdued
  • Fractures
  • Bruising
  • Eye injuries
  • Scalds and burns
  • Signs of malnutrition
  • Significant matting or other poor grooming indicators
  • Ignored health problems
  • Injury history incompatible with injury or owner refusing to comment on how injury occurred
  • Owner showing lack of concern for animal’s injuries
  • Owner exhibiting Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy (MSP)

A bruise or contusion or ecchymoses is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... This page deals with the type of injury called burns; for other meanings of burn see burn (disambiguation) In medicine, a burn is a type of injury to the skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, or radiation (an example of the latter is sunburn). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Grooming refers to removing obvious imperfections in ones appearance, or improving ones hygiene. ... Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII) is the formal name of a type of abuse in which a caregiver feigns or induces an illness in a person under their care, in order to attract attention, sympathy, or to fill other emotional needs. ...

Famous dogs & dog sayings

Main article: List of famous dogs

In the long shared history of dogs and humans, there have been many famous, and notorious, dogs, and many fictional dogs have been featured in literature, cinema, and other media. List of famous dogs is an annotated list of real dogs. ... List of famous dogs is an annotated list of real dogs. ... This is a list of fictional dogs from literature, movies etc. ...


"I've seen a look in dogs' eyes, a quickly vanishing look of amazed contempt, and I am convinced that basically dogs think humans are nuts." - John Steinbeck[31]


"When a dog wags her tail and barks at the same time, how do you know which end to believe?" - Robin Williams in "Man of the Year"


Dog breeds

The dog has developed into hundreds of breeds with a great degree of variation, such as this Miniature Pinscher and Boxer.
The dog has developed into hundreds of breeds with a great degree of variation, such as this Miniature Pinscher and Boxer.

There are numerous dog breeds, with over 800 being recognized by various kennel clubs worldwide. As all dog breeds have been derived from mixed-breed dog populations, the term "purebred" has meaning only with respect to a certain number of generations. Many dogs, especially outside the United States of America and Western Europe, belong to no recognized breed. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 388 KB)Ivan and Friend File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 388 KB)Ivan and Friend File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Miniature Pinscher, also known as the Min Pin by fanciers, is a toy breed of dog. ... The Boxer is a breed of stocky, medium-sized, short-haired dog with a smooth fawn or brindled coat and square-jawed muzzle. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes. ... Dogs have been selectively bred for thousands of years, sometimes by inbreeding dogs from the same ancestral lines, sometimes by mixing dogs from very different lines. ... A kennel club (known as a kennel council or canine council in some countries) is an organization for canine affairs that concerns itself with the breeding, showing and promotion of more than one breed of dog. ...

The Papillon is a highly athletic breed of dog

A few basic breed types have evolved gradually during the domesticated dog's relationship with humans over the last 10,000 or more years, but most modern breeds are of relatively recent derivation. Many of these are the product of a deliberate process of artificial selection. Because of this, some breeds are highly specialized, and there is extraordinary morphological diversity across different breeds. Despite these differences, dogs are able to distinguish dogs from other kinds of animal. Image File history File links Papagility004. ... Image File history File links Papagility004. ... The Papillon is a small dog breed with distinctive large, fringed ears that earned it its name, the French word for butterfly. ... This Chihuahua mix and Great Dane show the wide range of dog breed sizes created using artificial selection. ...


The definition of a dog breed is a matter of some controversy. Depending on the size of the original founding population, closed gene pool breeds can have problems with inbreeding, specifically due to founder effect. Dog breeders are increasingly aware of the importance of population genetics and of maintaining diverse gene pools. Health testing and new DNA tests can help avoid problems, by providing a replacement for natural selection. Without selection, inbreeding and closed gene pools can increase the risk of severe health or behavioral problems. Some organizations define a breed more loosely, such that an individual may be considered of one breed as long as 75% of its parentage is of that breed. These considerations affect both pets and the show dogs entered in dog shows. Even prize-winning purebred dogs sometimes possess crippling genetic defects due to founder effect or inbreeding.[32] These problems are not limited to purebred dogs and can affect mixed-breed populations.[33] The behavior and appearance of a dog of a particular breed can be predicted fairly accurately, while mixed-breed dogs show a broader range of innovative appearance and behavior. Simple illustration of founder effect. ... In a conformation show, judges familiar with specific dog breeds evaluate individual dogs for how well they conform to published breed standards. ... Purebreds, also called purebreeds or pedigreed, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of a species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ... A genetic disorder is a disease caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... It has been suggested that inbreeding depression be merged into this article or section. ... Purebreds, also called purebreeds or pedigreed, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of a species, achieved through the process of selective breeding. ...


In February 2004, the Canine Studies Institute in Aurora, Ohio, arranged recognized breeds of dogs into ten categories. Location in Ohio Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Portage Government  - Mayor Lynn E. McGill Area  - City 24. ...


Mixed-breed dogs or Mongrels are dogs that do not belong to specific breeds, being mixtures of two or more in variant percentages. Mixed breeds, or dogs with no purebred ancestry, are not inherently "better" or "worse" than purebred dogs as companions, pets, working dogs, or competitors in dog sports. Sometimes mixed-breed dogs are deliberately bred, for example, the Cockapoo, a mixture of Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle. Such deliberate crosses may display hybrid vigor and other desirable traits, but can also lack one or more of the desired traits of their parents, such as temperament or a particular color or coat. However, without genetic testing of the parents, the crosses can sometimes end up inheriting genetic defects that occur in both parental breeds. Deliberately crossing two or more breeds is also a manner of establishing new breeds. A healthy mixed-breed dog shows hybrid vigor. ... For other uses, see Mongrel (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Siberian Husky. ... Dog sports are activities that involve dogs. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ...


Neoteny in the rapid evolution of diverse dog breeds

This rapid evolution of dogs from wolves is an example of neoteny or paedomorphism. As with many species, the young wolves are more social and less dominant than adults; therefore, the selection for these characteristics, whether deliberate or inadvertent, is more likely to result in a simple retention of juvenile characteristics into adulthood than to generate a complex of independent new changes in behavior. (This is true of many domesticated animals, including humans themselves, who have many characteristics similar to young bonobos.) This paedomorphic selection naturally results in a retention of juvenile physical characteristics as well. Compared to wolves, many adult dog breeds retain such juvenile characteristics as soft fuzzy fur, round torsos, large heads and eyes, ears that hang down rather than stand erect, etc.; characteristics which are shared by most juvenile mammals, and therefore generally elicit some degree of protective and nurturing behavior cross-species from most adult mammals, including humans, who term such characteristics "cute" or "appealing". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Dog#Ancestry and history of domestication, Dog#Neoteny_in_the_rapid_evolution_of_diverse_dog_breeds be merged into this article or section. ... Neoteny describes a process by which paedomorphism is achieved, and is a subject studied in the field of developmental biology. ... In developmental biology, pedomorphosis (also spelled paedomorphosis) or juvenification is a phenotypic and/or genotypic change in which the adults of a species retain traits previously seen only in juveniles. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ... Binomial name Schwarz, 1929 Bonobo distribution The Bonobo (Pan paniscus), until recently usually called the Pygmy Chimpanzee and less often the Dwarf or Gracile Chimpanzee,[3] is one of the two species comprising the chimpanzee genus, Pan. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and the presence of hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in the...


The example of canine neoteny goes even further, in that the various breeds are differently neotenized according to the type of behavior that was selected.Stephen Jay Gould; Eight Little Piggies: Reflections in Natural History; W. W. Norton & Company, 1993; pp. 394

  • Livestock guardian dogs exhibit the controlled characteristics of hunting dogs. Members of this group, such as Border Collies, Belgian Malinois and German Shepherds use tactics of hunter and prey to intimidate and keep control of herds and flocks. Their natural instinct to bring down an animal under their charge is muted by training. Other members of the group, including Welsh Corgis, Canaan dogs, and Cattle dogs herd with a more aggressive demeanor and make use of body design to elude the defences of their charges.
  • Gun dog breeds used in hunting—that is, pointers, setters, spaniels, and retrievers—have an intermediate degree of paedomorphism; they are at the point where they share in the pack's hunting behavior, but are still in a junior role, not participating in the actual attack. They identify potential prey and freeze into immobility, for instance, but refrain from then stalking the prey as an adult predator would do next; this results in the "pointing" behavior for which such dogs are bred. Similarly, they seize dead or wounded prey and bring it back to the "pack", even though they did not attack it themselves, that is, "retrieving" behavior. Their physical characteristics are closer to that of the mature wild canine than the sheepdog breeds, but they typically do not have erect ears, etc.
  • Scenthounds maintain an intermediate body type and behavior pattern that causes them to actually pursue prey by tracking their scent, but tend to refrain from actual individual attacks in favor of vocally summoning the pack leaders (in this case, humans) to do the job. They often have a characteristic vocalization called a bay. Some examples are the Beagle, Bloodhound, Basset Hound, Coonhound, Dachshund, Fox Hound, Otter Hound, and Harrier.
  • Sighthounds, who pursue and attack perceived prey on sight, maintain the mature canine size and some features, such as narrow chest and lean bodies, but have largely lost the erect ears of the wolf and thick double layered coats. Some examples are the Afghan, Borzoi, Saluki, Sloughi, Pharaoh Hound, Azawakh, Whippet, and Greyhound.
  • Mastiff-types are large dogs, both tall and massive with barrel-like chests, large bones, and thick skulls. They have traditionally been bred for war, protection, and guardian work.
  • Bulldog-types are medium sized dogs bred for combat against both wild and domesticated animals. These dogs have a massive, square skull and large bones with an extremely muscular build and broad shoulders.
  • Terriers similarly have adult aggressive behavior, famously coupled with a lack of juvenile submission, and display correspondingly adult physical features such as erect ears, although many breeds have also been selected for size and sometimes dwarfed legs to enable them to pursue prey in their burrows.

The least paedomorphic behavior pattern may be that of the basenji, bred in Africa to hunt alongside humans almost on a peer basis; this breed is often described as highly independent, neither needing nor appreciating a great deal of human attention or nurturing, often described as "catlike" in its behavior. It too has the body plan of an adult canine predator. Of course, dogs in general possess a significant ability to modify their behavior according to experience, including adapting to the behavior of their "pack leaders"—again, humans. This allows them to be trained to behave in a way that is not specifically the most natural to their breed; nevertheless, the accumulated experience of thousands of years shows that some combinations of nature and nurture are quite daunting, for instance, training whippets to guard flocks of sheep. Kazakh shepherd, his and his dogs primary job is to guard the sheep from predators Livestock Guarding Dogs (LGDs) is the name used by biologists for dogs bred to guard livestock such as sheep. ... The Border Collie is a hardworking breed of herding dog that originated in the border country of England and Scotland. ... The Belgian Shepherd Dog (Malinois) (IPA: [ˈmælɪnËŒwɑː]) is a breed of dog, sometimes classified as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog rather than as a separate breed. ... Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The German Shepherd Dog (known also as the Alsatian or Schäfer(hund)) is an intelligent breed of dog. ... The Cardigans ears (left) are somewhat larger than the Pembrokes (right). ... Country of origin Israel Classification and breed standards The Canaan Dog is a breed of dog that has existed in the Middle East for centuries. ... Country of origin Australia Common nicknames Bluey, ACD, Cattledog Classification and breed standards The Australian Cattle Dog (ACD), also known as the Queensland Heeler, Blue Heeler, and Red Heeler, is a herding dog developed in Australia for controlling cattle. ... Gundogs, also called bird dogs, are a category of dog breeds developed to assist hunters to find and retrieve game, usually birds. ... Pointers pointing stance The Pointer is a group of dog breeds; specifically, they are a type of gundog typically used in hunting birds. ... The Setter is a type of gundog used most often for hunting game such as quail, pheasant, and grouse. ... Most spaniels, like this English Cocker Spaniel, are small-to-medium dogs with drop ears and a longer coat. ... A retriever is a type of gundog that retrieves game for a hunter. ... Like most scent hounds, the Basset Hound has long ears, large nasal passages, and a sturdy body for endurance. ... The Whippet shows the characteristic long legs, deep chest, and narrow waist of a sighthound. ... Mastiffs are a group of large, solidly built breeds of dogs typically with heavy bones, pendant ears, a relatively short and well-muscled neck, and a short muzzle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Scottish Terrier and a West Highland White Terrier The terrier is a group of dog breeds initially bred for hunting and killing vermin. ... Circus Busch, 1906 Achondroplasia is a type of autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is a common cause of dwarfism. ... The Basenji is a breed of hunting dog that originates in central Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Breed popularity

Breed popularity varies widely over time[34] and in different parts of the world and different segments of the population. Counting by American Kennel Club (AKC) registration (not by licensing registration or by United Kennel Club (UKC) registration, which could present different statistics), the Labrador Retriever has been the United States's most commonly registered breed of dog since 1991. [35] However, even within parts of the United States, popularity varies; for example, in 2005 the most-registered breed in New York City was the Poodle while the Yorkshire Terrier was the second-most-registered breed in Houston. [36] However, animal shelters in many parts of the United States report that the most-commonly available dog for adoption is the American Pit Bull Terrier or pit bull-type mixes, making up as much as 20% of dogs available for adoption, none of which would be registered with the AKC.[37] Two decades ago, in 1983, the AKC's top two registered breeds were the American Cocker Spaniel and the Poodle.[38] © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... Dog licences (dog license in American English) are required in some jurisdictions to be the keeper of a dog. ... The United Kennel Club (or UKC) is the second oldest all-breed registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States and the second largest in the world. ... The Labrador Retriever (Labrador or Lab for short), is one of several kinds of retriever, and is the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in both the United States and the United Kingdom. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Yorkshire Terrier, (diminutive / nickname: Yorkie), is a breed of small dog in the toy category. ... Houston redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


In 2006 a British dog journal published an exhaustive research paper which pooled together quantifiable dog breed facts such as average lifespan, cost of maintenance, insurance claims made, known behavioural faults and various other criteria in order to arrive at the conclusion that the Staffordshire Bull Terrier is the 'highest scoring' dog breed in terms of desirable and established pedigree dog breed traits. [39]


In the United Kingdom, The Kennel Club reports that the most-registered breed from at least 1999 to 2005 was the Labrador Retriever. It rounds out the top three for 1999 to 2005 with the German Shepherd Dog, also popular in the States, and the English Cocker Spaniel[40] , which is no longer even in the top ten in the States. In the United Kindom a national dog adoption and rescue service indicates that the most common breed appearing in shelters is the Greyhound followed by the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. [41] The Kennel Club in the United Kingdom is a club aiming to improve the relationships between dogs and their owners. ... The German Shepherd Dog or Alsatian (see Breed names), is a breed of dog. ... The English Cocker Spaniel is a breed of gun dog. ...


In religion

Islam

See also Islam and animals

Muhammad, the prophet of Islam expressed that the company of dogs voids a portion of a Muslim's good deeds.[42] Muhammad said that If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...


Islamic law considers dogs to be unclean, but this is not derived from the Qur'an.[43] Muhammad is said to have given an order to kill all the dogs in Medina because the archangel Gabriel does not enter a house in which there is a dog. This hadith is however the "occasion for revelation" of verse 5:4 which indicates the importance of the hunting dog.[43] David Gordon White states that Islam, like Judaism and Christianity, usually cast the dog in a negative light by emphasizing its impurity and often identify dogs as demons or minions of the Devil. The story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus in the Qur'an (and also role of the dog in early Christianity) are the striking exceptions.[44]. Muhammad didn't like dogs (and most Muslims do not have dogs as pets). According to one tradition attributed to Muhammad, black dogs are evil, or even devils, in animal form.[45] Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Archangels are superior or higher-ranking angels. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... In Christian mythology, the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus is a folktale concerning a number of fictional people who for a time were venerated as saints. ... Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ), was one of the cities of Ionia in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea. ...


Muhammad commanded Muslims not trade or deal in dogs.[46]


Muhammad said that dogs and donkeys, if they pass in front of men in prayer, void or nullify that prayer.[47] Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...


Khaled Abou El Fadl, a professor of law at the UCLA School of Law where he teaches Islamic law, has written on the subject.[48][49] Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl (born 1963 in Kuwait) is a professor of law at the UCLA School of Law where he teaches Islamic law, immigration, human rights, international and national security law. ... The Hugh and Hazel Darling Law Library, UCLA School of Law The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), School of Law is the law school of the University of California, Los Angeles. ...


See also

It has been suggested that Dog#Ancestry and history of domestication, Dog#Neoteny_in_the_rapid_evolution_of_diverse_dog_breeds be merged into this article or section. ... A dog swimming Swimming is the ability to move through waters surface while partially or totally submerged in it and due to this submersion, in a lax sense the ability to maintain oneself afloat can be included in the definition. ... An attack dog is a dog trained (and possibly bred) to attack, and possibly kill, living creatures. ... Barking is the one of the noises most commonly produced by dogs. ... Dog attacks on humans have become common news items in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. ... A dog might stretch after standing up, just as people do, or might drop into a stretch to lead into a play bow or to calm a person or other dog. ... Dog licences (dog license in American English) are required in some jurisdictions to be the keeper of a dog. ... Dogs, as all mammals, have natural odors. ... The fear of dogs is a natural emotion, because dogs are potentially dangerous. ... Dogs have been selectively bred for thousands of years, sometimes by inbreeding dogs from the same ancestral lines, sometimes by mixing dogs from very different lines. ... Mixed-breed puppy A puppy is a juvenile dog, generally less than one year of age that has not reached the equivalent of dog puberty yet. ... The Dog king is a Scandinavian tradition which appears in several Scandinavian sources: Chronicon Lethrense, Annals of Lund, Gesta Danorum (book 7), Heimskringla (Hákonar saga góða), Hversu Noregr byggðist and probably also in Skáldatal. ... The 10 Most Popular Dog Breeds in the USA as of 2006, according to the American Kennel Club (AKC), are: Labrador Retriever Yorkshire Terrier German Shepherd Golden Retriever Beagle Dachshund Boxer Poodle Shih Tzu Miniature Schnauzer The Most Popular Breeds in America AKC Dog Registration Statistics Category: ... Therapy Dog refers to a dog trained to provide affection and comfort to people in hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes, mental institutions, schools, and stressful situations such as disaster areas. ... A guard dog or watch dog is a dog employed to guard against, or watch for, unwanted or unexpected animals or people. ... A war dog is a dog trained for war. ... Companion dog usually describes a dog that does not work, providing only companionship as a pet, rather than usefulness by doing specific tasks. ... A Wolf-dog hybrid (also called a wolf hybrid or wolfdog) is a canid hybrid resulting from the mating of a wolf (Canis lupus) and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris). ...

References

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For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (126th in leap years). ... The Encyclopedia of the Quran (EQ) is a scholarly work with essays on the most important themes and subjects, and an encyclopaedic dictionary of Quran terms, concepts, personalities, place names, cultural history and exegesis. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (132nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Abrantes, Roger (1999). Dogs Home Alone. Wakan Tanka, 46 pages. ISBN 0-9660484-2-3 (paperback).
  • A&E Television Networks (1998). Big Dogs, Little Dogs: The companion volume to the A&E special presentation, A Lookout Book, GT Publishing. ISBN 1-57719-353-9 (hardcover).
  • Alderton, David (1984). The Dog, Chartwell Books. ISBN 0-89009-786-0.
  • Brewer, Douglas J. (2002) Dogs in Antiquity: Anubis to Cerberus: The Origins of the Domestic Dog, Aris & Phillips ISBN 0-85668-704-9
  • Coppinger, Raymond and Lorna Coppinger (2002). Dogs: A New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-11563-1
  • Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Parragon Publishing. ISBN 0-7525-8276-3.
  • Derr, Mark (2004). Dog's Best Friend: Annals of the Dog-Human Relationship. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14280-9
  • Donaldson, Jean (1997). The Culture Clash. James & Kenneth Publishers. ISBN 1-888047-05-4 (paperback).
  • Fogle, Bruce, DVM (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Doring Kindersley (DK). ISBN 0-7894-6130-7.
  • Grenier, Roger (2000). The Difficulty of Being a Dog. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30828-6
  • Milani, Myrna M. (1986). The Body Language and Emotion of Dogs: A practical guide to the Physical and Behavioral Displays Owners and Dogs Exchange and How to Use Them to Create a Lasting Bond, William Morrow, 283 pages. ISBN 0-688-12841-6 (trade paperback).
  • Pfaffenberger, Clare (1971). New Knowledge of Dog Behavior. Wiley, ISBN 0-87605-704-0 (hardcover); Dogwise Publications, 2001, 208 pages, ISBN 1-929242-04-2 (paperback).
  • Savolainen, P. et al. (2002). Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs. Science 298. 5598: 1610–1613.
  • Shook, Larry (1995). "Breeders Can Hazardous to Health", The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog, Chapter Two, pp. 13–34. Ballantine, 130 pages, ISBN 0-345-38439-3 (mass market paperback); Globe Pequot, 1992, ISBN 1-55821-140-3 (hardcover; this is much cheaper should you buy).
  • Shook, Larry (1995). The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog, Chapter Four, "Hereditary Problems in Purebred Dogs", pp. 57–72. Ballantine, 130 pages, ISBN 0-345-38439-3 (mass market paperback); Globe Pequot, 1992, ISBN 1-55821-140-3 (hardcover; this is much cheaper should you buy).
  • Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall (1993). The Hidden Life of Dogs (hardcover), A Peter Davison Book, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-66958-8.
  • Verginelli, F. et al. (2005). Mitochondrial DNA from Prehistoric Canids Highlights Relationships Between Dogs and South-East European Wolves. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 2541–2551.
  • Small animal internal medicine, RW Nelson, Couto page 107

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... GFDL Wikispecies logo File links The following pages link to this file: Solanaceae Species Asterias Homo (genus) Human Wikipedia:Template messages/Links Wikipedia:Template messages/All Homo floresiensis User talk:Tuneguru Template:Wikispecies Categories: GFDL images ... Wikispecies is a sister project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that anybody can edit with a great potential use to students and researchers. ... © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... © The American Kennel Club (or AKC) is the largest registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. ... The Hound Group is a kennel club designation for hunting dogs used primarily to track prey using well-developed senses of smell or sight. ... The Working Group is a kennel club designation for purebred dog breeds descended from dogs bred to assist humans with their work. ... The Terrier Group is a designation used by most all-breed dog registries (or Kennel clubs) for a group of dog breeds consisting almost entirely of terriers. ... The Toy Group is a designation used by most all-breed dog registries (or Kennel clubs) for a group of dog breeds consisting of the smallest of breeds. ... The Non-Sporting group is also referred to as the companion group. ... The Herding Group is an American Kennel Club designation for purebred dog breeds that comprises herding dogs and livestock guardian dogs. ... The Miscellaneous Class is an American Kennel Club designation for 6 purebred dog breeds. ... The Foundation Stock Service (FSS) Program is a breed registry of the American Kennel Club in which breeders can record the birth and parentage of a rare breed they are working to establish in the United States. ... It has been suggested that Residential pets be merged into this article or section. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Range map of Chinchilla species. ... Binomial name Octodon degus (Molina, 1782) The Degu (Octodon degus) is a small, caviomorph rodent that is native to Chile. ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Vulpes zerda (Zimmermann, 1780) Fennec Fox range Synonyms Fennec zerda Zimmermann, 1780 The Fennec fox is a small fox found in the Sahara Desert of North Africa (excluding the coast) and in some parts of Arabia, which has distinctive oversized ears. ... Trinomial name Mustela putorius furo (Linnaeus, 1758) In general use, a ferret is a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). ... fghldfgkd; fghldfgkd; fghldfgkd; fghldfgkd; fghldfgkd; fghldfgkd; fghldfgkd; fghldfgkd; Genera Gerbillus Microdillus Meriones Rhombomys Psammomys Sekeetamys Brachiones Desmodilliscus Pachyuromys Tatera Taterillus Desmodillus Gerbillurus Ammodillus A gerbil is a small mammal of the order Rodentia. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Binomial name Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia, originally indigenous to the Andes. ... Genera Mesocricetus Phodopus Cricetus Cricetulus Allocricetulus Cansumys Tscherskia Hamsters are rodents belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. ... The most common species of domesticated hedgehog is a hybrid of the White-bellied or Four-toed Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the Algerian Hedgehog (). It is smaller than the European Hedgehog, and thus is sometimes called African Pygmy Hedgehog. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... White fancy mouse Fancy mice (fancy, in this context, means hobby) are domesticated versions of the common or house mouse (Mus musculus). ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Sus domesticus The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758 A domestic rabbit, is any of the several varieties of European rabbit that has been domesticated by humans. ... Species The fancy rat or pet rat is a domesticated breed of the Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) or, more rarely, of the Black Rat (R. rattus). ... A good-quality skunk will be bright, alert, and curious, with a full shiny coat. ... Genera Many, see the article Sciuridae. ... Binomial name Waterhouse, 1839 Sugar Glider natural range: Red: Blue: Darkgreen: Yellow: Violet: Lightgreen: Black: The Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps), sometimes called the Flying Sugar, is a small gliding possum native to eastern and northern mainland Australia, New Guinea, and the Bismarck Archipelago, and introduced to Tasmania. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae), which may be correct, in which the budgerigar is... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... yo ma homy this is samuel = pink; yo ma homy this is samuel = pink; yo ma homy this is samuel = pink; yo ma homy this is samuel = pink; yo ma homy this is samuel = pink; yo ma homy this is samuel = pink; yo ma homy this is samuel = pink; yo... Subfamily Microglossinae Calyptorhynchinae Cacatuinae A cockatoo is any of the 21 bird species belonging to the family Cacatuidae. ... Domestic Canary The Canary is a domesticated form of the Wild Canary, (Serinus canaria) a small songbird in the finch family originating from Madeira and the Canary Islands. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... // Domesticated ducks Domesticated ducks are raised for meat, eggs and down. ... Genera Many, see text Finches are passerine birds, often seed-eating, found chiefly in the northern hemisphere and Africa. ... Species Nine - see text A lovebird (genus Agapornis, Greek for lovebird) is a very social and affectionate parrot. ... Genera Ara Anodorhynchus Cyanopsitta Primolius Orthopsittaca Diopsittaca For other uses, see Macaw (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Gracula religiosa Linnaeus, 1758 The Hill Myna, Gracula religiosa, is a member of the starling family. ... It has been suggested that True parrots be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Genera Bradypodion Calumma Chamaeleo Furcifer Kinyongia Nadzikambia Brookesia Rieppeleon Rhampholeon Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are squamates that belong to one of the best-known lizard families. ... Subfamilies Aeluroscalabotinae Eublepharinae Gekkoninae Teratoscincinae Diplodactylinae Geckos are small to average sized lizards belonging to the family Gekkonidae which are found in warm climates throughout the world. ... Binomial name Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758) The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is a large, arboreal lizard from Central and South America. ... Families Many, see text. ... blue: sea snakes, black: land snakes Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae A snake is a scaly, limbless, elongate reptile from the order Squamata. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... blue: sea turtles, black: land turtles Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... “Eft” redirects here. ... Suborders Cryptobranchoidea Salamandroidea Sirenoidea Salamander is the common name applied to approximately 500 species of amphibians with slender bodies, short legs, and long tails. ... Families At least 9, see article. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ant farm. ... Orders and Families See text Centipedes (Class Chilopoda) are fast-moving venomous, predatory, terrestrial arthropods that have long bodies and many jointed legs. ... Subfamilies See Taxonomy section Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (order Orthoptera). ... Hermit crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infra-order Paguroidea, distinct from the true crabs in the infra-order Brachyura. ... Binomial name (Schaum, 1853) Hissing roaches kept as pets. ... Subclasses, orders and families See text. ... Genera Lepidurus Triops The order Notostraca (colloquially referred to as notostracans, called Triops, tadpole shrimp or shield shrimp) are small crustaceans in the class Branchiopoda. ... A praying mantis, or praying mantid, is the common name for an insect of the order Mantodea. ... Superfamilies Pseudochactoidea Buthoidea Chaeriloidea Chactoidea Iuroidea Scorpionoidea See classification for families. ... External link The Official Sea Monkey Website What are they? Categories: Animal stubs ... Ctenomorpha Chronus Ctenomorpha Chronus Medauroidea Extradentata Stick insects are members of the one of the two insect families Phasmatidae and Phylliidae. ... Diversity 113 genera, 897 species Genera Subfamily Acanthopelminae    Acanthopelma Subfamily Aviculariinae    Avicularia    Ephobopus    Pachistopelma    Tapinauchenius Subfamily Eumenophorinae    Anoploscelus    Batesiella    Citharischius    Encyocrates    Eumenophorus    Hysterocrates    Loxomphalia    Loxoptygus    Monocentropus    Myostola    Phoneyusa    Polyspina Subfamily Harpactirinae    Ceratogyrus    Coelogenium    Eucratoscelus    Harpactira    Pterinochilus Subfamily Ischnocolinae    Chaetopelma    Cratorrhagus    Heterothele    Ischnocolus    Nesiergus    Plesiophrictus/Neoplesiophrictus Subfamily Ornithoctoninae    Citharognathus    Cyriopagopus    Haplopelma... Binomial name Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821) The East African Land Snail, Achatina fulica, is a terrestrial pulmonate snail species that has been widely introduced to Asia, to Pacific and Indian Oceans islands, and to the West Indies. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


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