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Encyclopedia > Dog health

The domestic dog's health is possibly one of the best-studied areas in veterinary medicine, since the dog has had such a long and close relationship with humans. Infectious diseases are prevalent in dogs and are important not just from a veterinary standpoint but also because of the risk to public health. The most wellknown example of this is rabies. Genetic diseases are common in dogs due to the selective breeding necessary to produce individual dog breeds. Due to the popularity of both commercial and homemade dog foods, nutrition is also a heavily studied subject. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 733 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Mammals Dog health Talk:Dog health Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 733 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Mammals Dog health Talk:Dog health Metadata This file contains additional... CKCS redirects here. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the computer jargon, see eating ones own dog food. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ...

Contents

Diseases

For a complete list, see List of dog diseases

Some diseases and other health problems are common to both humans and dogs; others are unique to dogs and other animals. Dogs are susceptible to various diseases; similarly to humans, they can have diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, or arthritis. This list of dog diseases is a continuously updated selection of diseases and other conditions found in the dog. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...


Infectious diseases

An infectious disease is caused by the presence of organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites (either animalian or protozoan). Most of these diseases are spread directly from dog to dog, while others require a vector such as a tick or mosquito. Certain infectious diseases are a concern from a public health standpoint because they are zoonoses (transmittable to humans). This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Protozoa Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ...


Viral diseases

Rabies
A rabid dog
A rabid dog

Rabies is a viral disease commonly associated with dogs, although in recent years canine rabies has been practically eliminated in North America and Europe due to extensive and often mandatory vaccination requirements. However it is still a significant problem in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and Asia.[1] Dogs are considered to be the main reservoir for rabies in developing countries.[2] Areas that are rabies-free, (usually islands) such as Britain, Ireland, Australia, and the American state of Hawaii have strict quarantine laws to keep their territories rabies-free.[3] These require long periods of isolation and observation of imported animals, which makes them unattractive places to move with a pet unless the pet is quite young. Areas that are not rabies-free usually require that dogs (and often cats) be vaccinated against rabies. Rabid dog, with saliva dripping from the mouth. ... Rabid dog, with saliva dripping from the mouth. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Natural reservoir or nidus, refers to the long-term host of the pathogen of an infectious disease. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable (colour-blind compliant map)   Developing countries not listed as least developed countries or as newly industrialized countries, in their respective articles. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Historically, rabies has long been linked to dogs. The earliest mention of rabies is in the Codex of Eshnunna (ca. 1930 BC) (written prior to the Code of Hammurabi), which dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventative measure against bites. If a person was bitten by a rabid dog and later died, the owner was fined heavily. The sacred animal of the Babylonian goddess of health Gula or Ninisina was the dog; if a person insulted a dog, Gula caused that dog to bite the person and inflict them with rabies.[4] In the 1800s the infectious nature of rabies was first demonstrated by taking the saliva from a rabid dog and injecting it into another animal.[5] Eshnunna is the transliteration of the ancient name of a Sumerian city and city-state in lower Mesopotamia. ... (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 – 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt. ... An inscription of the Code of Hammurabi. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Gula was a Babylonian goddess, the consort of Ninib. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninsun or Ninsuna (lady wild cow) is a goddess, best known as the mother of the legendary hero Gilgamesh, and as the tutelary goddess of Gudea of Lagash. ...


Rabies in dogs is a fatal disease transmitted by the bite of an infected mammal, such as a cat, raccoon, bat, or another dog. Animals with rabies suffer deterioration of the brain and tend to behave bizarrely and often aggressively, increasing the chances that they will bite another animal or a person and transmit the disease. Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs and other animals. The first stage is a one to three day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. The second stage is the excitative stage, which lasts three to four days. It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies due to the tendency of the affected dog to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. Incoordination is seen due to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest.[5] Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Raccoon native range in red, feral range in blue. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... In medicine, a prodrome is an early symptom indicating the development of a disease, or indicating that a disease attack is imminent. ... In vertebrates, the term motor neuron (or motoneuron) classically applies to neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS) which project their axons outside the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Respiratory arrest is the cessation of the normal tidal flow of the lungs due to paralysis of the diaphragm, collapse of the lung or any number of respiratory failures. ...


A person or dog bitten by an unknown dog (or other animal) should always be treated without waiting for symptoms, given the potentially fatal consequences of a rabid biter: there have been very few cases of someone surviving rabies when treatment was not begun until after symptoms appeared. Depending on local laws, dogs that are showing neurological signs at the time of the bite are euthanized in order to have their brain tested for rabies. Unvaccinated healthy dogs need to be confined for ten days from the time of the bite (at home or at a veterinarian depending on local law). If the dog is not showing signs of rabies at the end of ten days, then the bitten person could not have been exposed to rabies. Dogs and cats do not have the rabies virus in their saliva until a few days prior to showing symptoms.[6] Ten day confinement does not apply to other species. A dog or cat bitten by a wild animal in an area known to have rabies should be confined for six months, because it can take that long for symptoms to start. This is an incentive to dog-owners to vaccinate their dogs even if they feel the risk of their dog contracting rabies is low, since vaccination will eliminate the need for their dog to be euthanized or impounded should it bite anyone or be suspected of biting anyone. Put down redirects here you may be looking for Insult This article is about euthanasia of animals. ... Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ...


Other viral diseases

Other canine viral diseases of note include parvovirus, distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, herpesvirus, and influenza.


Canine parvovirus (caused by canine parvovirus type 2, canine parvovirus type 1 is also known as canine minute virus) causes a highly contagious gastrointestinal infection that is especially severe in puppies. It is spread through contact with infected feces. The virus attacks rapidly dividing cells, notably those in the lymph nodes, intestinal crypts, and the bone marrow. There is depletion of lymphocytes in lymph nodes and necrosis and destruction of the intestinal crypts.[7] Symptoms and signs include vomiting, bloody diarrhea, depression, severe dehydration, fever, and low white blood cell counts. Although there is no specific treatment for the canine parvovirus, aggressive intravenous fluid therapy and antibiotics for dogs with secondary bacterial infections is usually required.[8] Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a contagious virus affecting dogs. ... Species Canine minute virus Canine parvovirus Chicken parvovirus Feline panleukopenia virus Feline parvovirus HB virus H-1 virus Kilham rat virus Lapine parvovirus LUIII virus Mice minute virus Mink enteritis virus Mouse parvovirus 1 Porcine parvovirus Raccoon parvovirus RT parvovirus Tumor virus X Parvovirus, commonly called parvo, is a genus... Canine minute virus is a type of parvovirus (canine parvovirus type 1) that infects dogs. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... The crypts of Lieberkühn are glands found in the epithelial lining of the small intestine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... “White Blood Cells” redirects here. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Canine distemper, caused by a paramyxovirus similar to the cause of measles, is a highly contagious disease that affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. It is spread through either direct contact with respiratory excretions, through the air, or on fomites (inanimate objects such as clothing). Symptoms and signs include discharge from the eye or nose, coughing, difficulty breathing, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, seizures, and paralysis. Similar to canine parvovirus, treatment is supportive.[9] 11:06, 9 October 2007 (UTC)124. ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ... A fomite is any inanimate object or substance supposed to be capable of absorbing, retaining, and transporting contagious or infectious organisms (from germs to parasites) from one individual to another. ...


Infectious canine hepatitis is caused by canine adenovirus type 1. The virus is spread in the feces, urine, blood, saliva, and nasal discharge of infected dogs. It causes a liver infection and a bleeding disorder. Signs and symptoms include fever, depression, loss of appetite, coughing, tender abdomen, and spontaneous hemorrhages. Treatment is symptomatic.[10] Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ...


Canine herpesvirus is a virus of the family Herpesviridae which most importantly causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in puppies less than two to three weeks old. It is transmitted to puppies in the birth canal and by contact with infected oral and nasal secretions from the mother or other infected dogs, but it is not spread through the air. Signs and symptoms include depression, nasal discharge, and weakness. The inability of very young puppies to mount a febrile response seems to be a significant contributing factor to the high mortality rate in this age dog - it can reach 80 percent.[11] In adult dogs, canine herpesvirus can cause abortion. Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a virus of the family Herpesviridae which most importantly causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in puppies less than two to three weeks old. ... Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ...


Canine influenza usually refers to infection with equine influenza virus H3N8. This virus was found to infect dogs in 2004, and the disease was very contagious due to the dog's lack of natural immunity. Signs and symptoms include cough and nasal discharge, and in more severe cases fever and pneumonia. Canine influenza has a high morbidity but a low mortality.[12] Canine influenza or dog flu refers to varieties of Influenzavirus A that create influenza in canines. ... Equine influenza (Horse flu) refers to varieties of Influenzavirus A that are endemic in horses. ... H3N8 is a subtype of the species avian influenza virus (bird flu virus). ... Immunity may refer to: Immunity (medical), a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, and is related to the functions of the immune system Immunity (legal), conferring a status on a person or body that makes that person or body free from... This article is about human pneumonia. ... In medicine, epidemiology and actuarial science, the term morbidity can refer to the state of being diseased (from Latin morbidus: sick, unhealthy), the degree or severity of a disease, the prevalence of a disease: the total number of cases in a particular population at a particular point in time, the...


Bacterial diseases

A number of Leptospira sp. bacteria atop a 0.1. µm polycarbonate filter
A number of Leptospira sp. bacteria atop a 0.1. µm polycarbonate filter

Bacterial diseases in dogs are usually not contagious from dog to dog; instead they are usually the result of wound colonization, opportunistic infections secondary to decreased resistance (often the result of viral infections), or secondary to other conditions (pyoderma secondary to skin allergies or pyometra secondary to cystic endometrial hyperplasia). These examples are not considered infectious diseases because they do not satisfy Koch's postulates - for example Staphylococcus intermedius, a commonly isolated bacteria from skin infections in dogs, would not cause pyoderma when introduced to a healthy dog. In all likelihood that type of bacteria is already present on the skin of a healthy dog. Image File history File links Leptospira_scanning_micrograph. ... Image File history File links Leptospira_scanning_micrograph. ... Polycarbonates are a particular group of thermoplastic polyesters. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms and usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... Pyometra is a disease of the uterus in bitches (female dogs). ... Kochs postulates (or Henle-Koch postulates) are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. ...


There are some bacteria that are contagious from dog to dog. The most notable of these are Bordetella bronchiseptica, one of the causes of kennel cough, Leptospira sp, which cause leptospirosis, and Brucella canis, cause of brucellosis in dogs. There are also common tick-borne bacterial diseases, including Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Binomial name Bordetella bronchiseptica (Ferry 1912) Moreno-López 1952 Bordetella bronchiseptica is a bacterium of the genus Bordetella that can cause infectious bronchitis. ... Kennel cough or tracheobronchitis is a highly contagious canine illness characterized by inflammation of the upper respiratory system. ... Species Leptospira is a genus of spirochaete bacteria, including a small number of pathogenic and saprotrophic microorganisms. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... For ehrlichiosis in humans, see Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ...


Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Humans and dogs become infected through contact with water, food, or soil containing urine from infected animals. This may happen by swallowing contaminated food or water or through skin contact, especially with mucosal surfaces, such as the eyes or nose, or with broken skin. In dogs, transmission most commonly occurs by drinking puddle, pond, or ditch water contaminated by urine from infected wildlife such as squirrels or raccoons. The liver and kidney are most commonly damaged by leptospirosis. Vasculitis can occur, causing edema and potentially disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Myocarditis, pericarditis, meningitis, and uveitis are also possible sequelae. [13] This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Raccoon native range in red, feral range in blue. ... In medicine, vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of diseases featuring inflammation of the wall of blood vessels due to leukocyte migration and resultant damage. ... This page is about the condition called edema. ... Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. ... In medicine (cardiology), myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. ... Pericarditis is inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the uvea but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. ...

Ixodes scapularis
Ixodes scapularis

Brucellosis in dogs is caused by Brucella canis. It is a sexually transmitted disease, but can also be spread through contact with aborted fetuses. The most common sign is abortion during the last trimester or stillbirth. Other symptoms include inflammation of the intervertebral disc and eye (uveitis), and inflammation of the testicle (orchitis) and prostate (prostatitis) in males.[14] Download high resolution version (640x766, 97 KB)Adult deer tick from http://www. ... Download high resolution version (640x766, 97 KB)Adult deer tick from http://www. ... A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an illness caused by an infectious pathogen that has a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual contact, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex. ... The human gestation period of approximately 40 weeks between the time of the last menstrual cycle and delivery is traditionally divided into three periods of three months, or trimesters. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Intervertebral discs lie in between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. ... Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the uvea but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. ... Orchitis is an often very painful condition of the testicles involving inflammation, swelling and frequently infection. ... The prostate is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male mammalian reproductive system. ... Prostatitis is any form of inflammation of the prostate gland. ...


Tick-borne diseases are common in dogs. Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and spread by Ixodes pacificus on the West coast of the Umited States and by I. scapularis (deer tick) in the rest of the U.S. Signs and symptoms include fever, joint swelling and pain, lameness, and swelling of the lymph nodes. It has been diagnosed in dogs in all 48 states of the continental U.S.[15] Ehrlichia canis, which causes canine ehrlichiosis, and Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever, are both spread by the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineous.[16] Tick-borne diseases are diseases or illnesses transmitted by ticks. ... Binomial name Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson RC et al 1984 Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria and the causative agent of Lyme disease. ... Binomial name Ixodes scapularis Say, 1821 Ixodes scapularis, known as the deer tick or black-legged tick is a hard-bodied tick (family Ixodidae) of the eastern United States. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia africae etc. ... Dermacentor variabilis, also known as the American dog tick, is a species of tick that is known to carry bacteria responsible for several diseases in humans, including Rocky Mountain spotted fever. ...


Fungal diseases

One of the most common fungal diseases in dogs is ringworm, or dermatophytosis, an infection of the skin, hair, or nails. There are three fungal species that cause ringworm in dogs. About 70 percent of infections are caused by Microsporum canis, 20 percent by M. gypseum, and 10 percent by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Signs include hair loss and scaling of the skin. Treatment for localized ringworm is not always necessary as the disease is self-limiting, but the cliinical course can be shortened by using topical miconazole or clotrimazole. Generalized infections, most commonly seen in immunocompromised dogs, can be treated with oral antifungal drugs such as griseofulvin or itraconazole. Infection can spread to humans.[17] Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... This article is about the fungal infection. ... Microsporum species form both macro- and microconidia on short conidiophores. ... The genus Trichophyton is characterized by the development of both smooth-walled macro- and microconidia. ... Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent commonly applied topically (to the skin) or mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. ... Clotrimazole is a potent, specific inhibitor of p450 enzymes. ... In medicine, immune deficiency (or immunodeficiency) is a state where the immune system is incapable of defending the organism from infectious disease. ... An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athletes foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. ... Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug. ... Itraconazole (marketed as Sporanox® by Janssen Pharmaceutica) is a triazole antifungal agent that is prescribed to patients with fungal infections. ...

Blastomyces dermatitidis
Blastomyces dermatitidis

There are several fungal diseases that are systemic in nature, meaning they are affecting multiple body systems. Blastomycosis, caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis, is a fungal disease that affects both dogs and humans, although it is only rarely zoonotic. It is found mainly in the United States in the Mississippi River and Great Lakes areas. Signs include weight loss, cough, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, draining skin lesions, blindness, and lameness. Because dogs are ten times more likely to become infected from the environment than humans, they are considered to be sentinels for the disease.[18] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1197x874, 103 KB) Summary Photo of a Blastomyces dermatitidis organism taken through a microscope at 100x magnification. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1197x874, 103 KB) Summary Photo of a Blastomyces dermatitidis organism taken through a microscope at 100x magnification. ... Blastomyces is a fungal genus responsible for the medical condition Blastomycosis. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ...


Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, is a disease with a worldwide distribution. In the United States it is mainly found in the Mississippi and Ohio River areas, most commonly in bird and bat feces. Signs include weight loss, cough, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal symptoms.[19] Coccidioidomycosis, caused by Coccidioides immitis, is found in arid and semi-arid regions of Central and South America, Mexico, and southwestern United States. Signs include weight loss, fever, cough, enlarged lymph nodes, and lameness.[20] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Histoplasma . ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Binomial name Coccidioides immitis G.W. Stiles Sputum culture of Coccidioides immitis on Sabourauds medium, showing white, cottony fungus growth. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Parasites

External parasites
  • Fleas and ticks of various species can be acquired and brought home by a dog, where they can multiply and attack humans (and vice versa). This is particularly important, now that tick-borne Lyme Disease has become endemic throughout a large area, in addition to other similar diseases such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although dogs do not seem to be as susceptible to such diseases as humans, similar rickettsial diseases have been spread by dogs to humans through such mechanisms as a dog killing an infected rabbit, then shaking itself off in the house near enough to its owners to fatally infect most of the family.
  • Fleas and ticks are common parasites for which there are many effective preventive measures.
  • Various mites cause skin problems such as mange.

For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ... Binomial name Wolbach, 1919 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia africae etc. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Families Ixodidae - Hard ticks Argasidae - Soft ticks Nuttalliellidae - ????? ticks Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodoidea Tick is the common name for the small arachnids that, along with other mites, constitute the order Acarina. ... Look up mite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mange (from Middle English manjeue, from Old French manjue, from mangier, meaning to eat)[1] is a parasitic infestation of the skin of animals. ...

Internal parasites
  • Parasites, particularly intestinal worms such as hookworms, tapeworms and roundworms, can be transmitted in a dog's feces. Some tapeworms have fleas as intermediate hosts: the worm egg must be consumed by a flea to hatch, then the infected flea must be ingested (usually by the dog while grooming itself, but occasionally by a human through various means) for the adult worm to establish itself in the intestines. The worm's eggs then pass through the intestines and adhere to the nether regions of the dog, and the cycle begins again.
  • Intestinal worms cause varying degrees of discomfort.
  • Heartworm is a dog parasitoid. It is hard to eliminate and can be fatal; prevention, however, is easily achieved using medication.
    As the name suggests, an infected mosquito injects a larva into the dog's skin, where it migrates to the circulatory system and takes up residence in the pulmonary arteries and heart, growing and reproducing to an alarming degree. The effects on the dog are quite predictable, cardiac failure over a year or two, leading to death. Treatment of an infected dog is difficult, involving an attempt to poison the healthy worm with arsenic compounds without killing the weakened dog, and frequently does not succeed. Prevention is much the better course, via heartworm pills which are fed to the dog and contain a compound which kills the larvae immediately upon infection without harming the dog. Often they are available combined with other parasite preventives.
  • Hydatidosis is caused by a cestode Echinococcus. This is usually noticed among dogs, wild dogs, foxes, etc. Due to its importance as a zoonosis, these worms are important to treat. Preventing hydatidosis is an easier task than treating the same. Anthelmintics such as praziquantel may help prevent this condition. Prohibition of the feeding of dogs with uncooked offals may be the best prophylactic measure against these tapeworms.

A parasite is an organism that lives in or on the living tissue of a host organism at the expense of it. ... Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic worm (nematode) that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... Orders Subclass Cestodaria Amphilinidea Gyrocotylidea Subclass Eucestoda Aporidea Caryophyllidea Cyclophyllidea Diphyllidea Lecanicephalidea Litobothridea Nippotaeniidea Proteocephalidea Pseudophyllidea Spathebothriidea Tetraphyllidea Trypanorhyncha In biology, Cestoda is the class of parasitic flatworms, called cestodes or tapeworms, that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the bodies of various animals... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ... For the album by Whipping Boy, see Heartworm (album). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF) (also called heart failure) is the inability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the body, or requiring elevated filling pressures in order to pump effectively. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... cystic echinococcosis Categories: Medicine stubs ... The genus Echinococcus includes the following species of cyclophyllid tapeworms of the family Taeniidae. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... Praziquantel (Biltricide) is an anthelmintic effective against flatworms. ... Orders Subclass Cestodaria Amphilinidea Gyrocotylidea Subclass Eucestoda Aporidea Caryophyllidea Cyclophyllidea Diphyllidea Lecanicephalidea Litobothridea Nippotaeniidea Proteocephalidea Pseudophyllidea Spathebothriidea Tetraphyllidea Trypanorhyncha In biology, Cestoda is the class of parasitic flatworms, called cestodes or tapeworms, that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the bodies of various animals...

Genetic diseases

Bilateral hip dysplasia
Bilateral hip dysplasia

Genetic conditions are a problem in some dogs, particularly purebreeds. For this reason many of the national kennel clubs require that dogs with certain genetic illnesses or who are deemed to be carriers cannot be registered. Some of the most common conditions include hip dysplasia, seen in large breed dogs, von Willebrand disease, a disease that affects platelets that is inherited in Doberman Pinschers, entropion, a curling in of the eyelid seen in Shar Peis and many other breeds, progressive retinal atrophy, inherited in many breeds, deafness, and epilepsy, known to be inherited in Belgian Shepherd Dogs, German Shepherd Dogs, Cocker Spaniels, and St. Bernards.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... A kennel club (known as a kennel council or canine council in some countries) is an organization for canine affairs that concerns itself with the breeding, showing and promotion of more than one breed of dog. ... This article covers Hip dysplasia, a condition affecting the hip joint, which occurs in humans but is more commonly associated with animals, especially dogs (Canine hip dysplasia). ... Von Willebrand disease (vWD) is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans, although it can also be acquired as a result of other medical conditions. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... For the movie called Dobermann, see Dobermann (film). ... Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelids fold inward. ... ŭGo to Shar Pei for a surprise! A Shar-Pei Is an awesome dog. ... Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic disease of the retina that occurs bilaterally and is seen in certain breeds of dogs. ... This article discusses the way the word deaf is used and how deafness is perceived by hearing and Deaf communities. ... The Belgian Shepherd Dog Tervuren, less often spelled Tervueren, (IPA pronunciation: ), is a breed of dog, sometimes classified as a variety of the Belgian Shepherd Dog rather than as a separate breed. ... The German Shepherd Dog (also Alsatian) is a popular breed of dog. ... Cocker Spaniel refers to two different breeds of dogs, both of which are commonly called simply Cocker Spaniel in their countries of origin: American Cocker Spaniel English Cocker Spaniel Categories: | ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: St. ...


Subaortic stenosis, or SAS, is a genetic ailment that causes a narrowing of the passage of blood between the heart and the aorta. This leads to heart problems and sometimes sudden death. It affects larger breeds such as the Newfoundland Dog and the Golden Retriever.[22] In some dogs, such as collies, the blue merle or harlequin coloring is actually the heterozygote of a partially recessive gene preventing proper development of the nervous system; therefore, if two such dogs are mated, on the average one quarter of the puppies will have severe genetic defects in their nervous systems and sensory organs ranging from deafness to fatal flaws. Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The aorta (generally pronounced [eɪˈɔːtə] or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The Newfoundland is a large, usually black, breed of dog originally used as a working dog in Canada. ... Golden Retriever is the basic name given to a breed of dog, originally developed to retrieve shot game during hunting. ... A Rough Collie Collie refers to various breeds of herding dog originating primarily in Scotland. ... Blue merle Border Collie puppy Merle is a colour combination in dogs’ coats. ... “Arlecchino” redirects here. ... An organism is a heterozygote or heterozygous for a gene or trait if it has different alleles at the genes locus for each homologous chromosome. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... (See also sense) A sensory system is a part of the nervous system that consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and those parts of the brain responsible for processing the information. ...


Skin diseases

Main article: Dog skin disorders
Canine atopy
Canine atopy

Skin diseases are very common in dogs. Atopy, a chronic allergic condition, is thought to affect up to 10 percent of dogs.[23] Other skin diseases related to allergies include hot spots and pyoderma, both characterized by secondary bacterial infections, food allergy, ear infections, and flea allergy dermatitis. Canine follicular dysplasia is an inherited disorder of the hair follicles resulting in alopecia (baldness). Mange is an infectious skin disease caused by mites. Endocrine diseases such as hypothyroidism and Cushing's syndrome can also manifest as skin problems like alopecia or recurring bacterial infections. Dog skin disorders are probably the most crucial disorders that dog owners have to deal with. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Eczema-a typical atopic manifestation Atopy (Greek ατοπία - placelessness) or atopic syndrome is an allergic hypersensitivity affecting parts of the body not in direct contact with the allergen. ... A food allergy is an immunologic response to a food protein. ... Pustules, small raw circles or patches in a dogs ear, typical of some kinds of otitis of bacterial infection. ... Flea allergy dermatitis is an eczematous itchy skin disease of dogs and cats. ... Follicular dysplasia is a genetic disease of dogs causing alopecia, or hair loss. ... A hair follicle is part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together. ... Alopecia is a set of disorders ranging from male and female pattern alopecia (alopecia androgenetica), to alopecia areata, which involves the loss of some of the hair from the head, alopecia totalis, which involves the loss of all head hair, to the most extreme form, alopecia universalis, which involves the... Mange (from Middle English manjeue, from Old French manjue, from mangier, meaning to eat)[1] is a parasitic infestation of the skin of animals. ... Look up mite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Among the hundreds of endocrine diseases (or endocrinological diseases) are: Adrenal disorders: Adrenal insufficiency Addisons disease Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome) Mineralocorticoid deficiency Conns syndrome Cushings syndrome Pheochromocytoma Adrenocortical carcinoma Glucose homeostasis disorders: Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Insulinoma Metabolic bone disease: Osteoporosis Osteitis deformans (Pagets... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Orthopedic diseases

Orthopedic diseases in dogs can be developmental, hereditary, traumatic, or degenerative. Because of the active nature of dogs, injuries happen frequently. One of the most common of these is an anterior cruciate ligament injury, a condition which often requires surgery. Bone fractures are a frequent occurrence in outdoor dogs due to trauma from being hit by cars. Degenerative joint disease is common in older dogs and is one of the most likely reasons for prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Diagram of the right knee Grays Fig. ... It has been suggested that Bone healing be merged into this article or section. ... Osteoarthritis / Osteoarthrosis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, arthrosis or in more colloquial terms wear and tear), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ...


Hereditary orthopedic diseases are mainly found in purebred dogs. Hip dysplasia is a common problem that primarily affects larger breeds. Hip dysplasia is a defect in the shape of the hip joint which can, depending on the degree of hip luxation, be quite painful to the dog as it ages. Over time it often causes arthritis in the hips. Dysplasia can also occur in the elbow joint. Luxating patellas can be a problem for smaller breeds. It can cause lameness and pain in the hind legs. This article covers Hip dysplasia, a condition affecting the hip joint, which occurs in humans but is more commonly associated with animals, especially dogs (Canine hip dysplasia). ... Elbow dysplasia is a condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow-joint. ... Luxating patella, or trick knee, is a condition in which the patella, or kneecap, dislocates or moves out of its normal location. ...


Developmental orthopedic diseases include panosteitis and hypertrophic osteodystrophy. Panosteitis occurs in large and giant breed dogs usually between the age of five and fourteen months and manifests as fever, pain, and shifting leg lameness. Hypertrophic osteodystrophy is also seen in young large and giant breed dogs and is characterized by pain, lameness, fever, and swelling of the long bone metaphysis. Panosteitis is a common bone disease in dogs. ... Hypertrophic osteodystrophy is a bone disease in rapidly growing large breed dogs. ... The metaphysis is the body of cartilage that separates the epiphyses and the diaphysis of long bones during growth. ...


Cancer

Both benign and malignant tumors are seen in dogs. Common benign tumors include lipomas, non-viral papillomas, sebaceous gland adenoma, and perianal gland adenomas. Frequently seen malignant cancers include lymphoma, melanoma, mast cell tumors (which are considered to be potentially malignant, even though they may have benign behavior),[24], and osteosarcoma (bone cancer). Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... A lipoma is a common, benign tumor composed of fatty tissue. ... Papilloma refers to a benign epithelial tumor. ... Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ... Perianal gland tumor cytology A perianal gland tumor is a type of tumor found near the anus in dogs that arises from specialized glandular tissue found in the perineum. ... Lymphoma in animals is a type of cancer defined by a proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as the lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver and spleen. ... Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). ... A mast cell tumor is a type of tumor consisting of mast cells that is found in many species of animals. ... Osteosarcoma is the most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. ...


Certain breeds are more likely to develop particular tumors. The Golden Retriever is especially susceptible to lymphoma, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 8.[25] Boxers and Pugs are prone to multiple mast cell tumors.[24] Scottish Terriers have eighteen times the risk of mixed breed dogs to develop transitional cell carcinoma, a type of urinary bladder cancer.[26] Golden Retriever is the basic name given to a breed of dog, originally developed to retrieve shot game during hunting. ... Originally from Germany, The Boxer is a breed of stocky, medium-sized, short-haired dog, decended from the now extinct Bullenbeisser. ... This article is about a dog breed. ... The Scottish Terrier (also known as the Aberdeen Terrier), popularly called the Scottie, is a breed of dog best known for its distinctive profile. ... Transitional cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in the kidney, bladder or ureter. ...


Gastrointestinal diseases

Due to the indiscriminate nature of a dog's appetite, gastrointestinal upset is a frequent occurrence in dogs. The most common symptoms are anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Foreign body ingestion can lead to acute obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, a very dangerous condition. Acute pancreatitis can also result from dietary indiscretion. The word Foreign means originating elsewhere or in the physiological context outside the body. ...


Bloat and gastric torsion

Main article: Bloat

Breeds with deep, narrow chests, such as the Great Dane or St. Bernard, are susceptible to a syndrome of gastric torsion and bloat. The stomach twists on its supporting ligaments, sealing off the exits, and the contents begin to generate gas pressure which is very painful and rapidly causes shock and necrosis of large areas of stomach tissue. It can be fatal within a few hours. Dogs who have experienced bloat are very susceptible to recurrences. Treatment involves stabilization and abdominal surgery to tack the dog's stomach down to prevent recurrence (gastropexy). Bloat, also known as torsion, gastric torsion, and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. ... The Great Dane is a breed of dog known for its giant size and gentle personality. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: St. ... Bloat, also known as torsion, gastric torsion, and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas content. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... A ligament is a short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibres. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


Eye diseases

Cherry eye
Cherry eye

Eye diseases are common in dogs. Cataracts, glaucoma, and entropion are seen in both dogs and humans. Canine-specific eye diseases include progressive retinal atrophy, Collie eye anomaly, sudden acquired retinal degeneration, and cherry eye. Injury to the eye can result in corneal ulcers. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1849 × 1317 pixel, file size: 425 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cherry eye Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 570 pixelsFull resolution (1849 × 1317 pixel, file size: 425 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cherry eye Metadata This file contains... Human eye cross-sectional view, showing position of human lens. ... Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelids fold inward. ... Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic disease of the retina that occurs bilaterally and is seen in certain breeds of dogs. ... Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is a congenital, inherited, bilateral eye disease of dogs involving the retina, choroid, and sclera. ... Sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) is a disease in dogs causing sudden blindness. ... Cherry Eye on an English Bulldog Puppy Close-up of a cherry eye Cherry eye is the term used to refer to canine nictitans gland prolapse, a common eye condition in various dog breeds where the gland of the third eyelid prolapses and becomes visible. ... Large corneal ulcer in a dog A corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer. ...


The frequency of bilateral glaucoma with a genetic base in purebred dogs is higher than in any species except humans.[27] Cataracts in dogs either have a genetic base or can also be caused by diabetes. Nuclear sclerosis resembles a cataract but is actually a normal age-related change. Diabetes mellitus strikes 1 in 400 cats and a similar number of dogs, though recent veterinary studies[1] note that it is becoming more common lately. ... Nuclear sclerosis Nuclear sclerosis, also known as lenticular sclerosis, is a normal progressive change of the lens in older dogs. ...


Vestibular disease

Elderly dogs are susceptible to an unusual form of intense vertigo, known as old dog vestibular disease, the cause of which is unknown, or idiopathic. Signs include nausea, difficulty or the complete inability to stand, head tilt, circling, and nystagmus (the movement of the eyes in a repetitive jerking motion, usually horizontal). The signs may improve rapidly or take a few days. While most cases are idiopathic, vestibular signs can also be caused by inner ear disease, a brain tumor, or rarely a stroke. The major risk of idiopathic cases is that the dog is often unable to eat, drink, or go outside to urinate or defecate. These cases must receive supportive therapy of intravenous fluids and nutrition; a light sedative is sometimes administered, as the dog may be very stressed by the experience. For other uses, see Vertigo. ... Idiopathic means arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause. ... Nystagmus is involuntary eye movement that can be part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), with the eyes moving first in the direction of the lesioned side (slow phase) followed by a quick correction (fast phase) to the opposite side or away from the lesioned side. ... Otitis interna (Internal otitis) is an inflammation of the inner ear. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ...


Heart disease

Older, small breeds of dogs are prone to congestive heart failure due to degeneration of the mitral valve. This condition is known to be inherited in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels. Degenerative valve disease is the most common form of heart disease in dogs.[28] Mitral insufficiency leads to turbulent blood flow and increased pressure in the left atrium. This causes increased pressure in the pulmonary blood vessels and pulmonary edema (a build-up of fluid in the lungs). Decreased output of blood by the left ventricle causes the body to compensate by increasing sympathetic tone and activating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Increased sympathetic tone leads to increased peripheral vascular resistance and increased heart rate and contractility of the heart muscle. Chronic elevation of sympathetic tone damages the heart muscle. Activation of the RAAS results in increased retention of water and sodium by the kidneys, vasoconstriction, and other effects that result in increased blood volume. It also results in an increase in diastolic pressure and leads to pulmonary edema. Treatment for congestive heart failure nearly always includes two types of drugs that address these concerns: diuretics (especially furosemide), which decrease blood volume, and ACE inhibitors, which interrupt the RAAS. Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... The mitral valve (also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve), is a dual flap (bi = 2) valve in the heart that lies between the left atrium (LA) and the left ventricle (LV). ... CKCS redirects here. ... Mitral regurgitation (MR), also known as mitral insufficiency, is the abnormal leaking of blood through the mitral valve, from the left ventricle into the left atrium of the heart. ... Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a hormone system that helps regulate long-term blood pressure and blood volume in the body. ... Total peripheral resistance refers the cumulative resistance of the thousands of arterioles in the body, or the lungs, respectively. ... Myocardial Contractility: is a term used in to describe the performance of cardiac muscle. ... Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ...


Cardiomyopathy, or disease of the heart muscle, is also seen in dogs and is associated with large breeds (the exception being Cocker Spaniels, a medium-sized breed). Dilated cardiomyopathy is seen in Great Danes, Irish Wolfhounds, St. Bernards, Dobermanns, Boxers, and other large breeds. Dobermanns, in addition to heart muscle failure, are prone to ventricular arrhythmias. Boxers often present with weakness and fainting due solely to arrhythmias - there is no heart muscle failure at the time of diagnosis. They do, however, eventually develop congestive heart failure, if they do not die suddenly due to an arrhythmia.[29] Cocker Spaniel refers to two different breeds of dogs, both of which are commonly called simply Cocker Spaniel in their countries of origin: American Cocker Spaniel English Cocker Spaniel Categories: | ... Dilated cardiomyopathy or DCM (also known as congestive cardiomyopathy), is a disease of the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) in which a portion of the myocardium is dilated, often without any obvious cause. ... The Irish Wolfhound is a breed of dog (a sighthound) bred to hunt. ... The Dobermann (alternatively spelled Doberman in the U.S.) or Doberman Pinscher is a breed of domestic dog. ... Originally from Germany, The Boxer is a breed of stocky, medium-sized, short-haired dog, decended from the now extinct Bullenbeisser. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ...


Other diseases

Other diseases affecting dogs include endocrine diseases, immune-mediated diseases, and reproductive diseases. Diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and hypothyroidism are the most common endocrine diseases. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is a devastating disease that causes severe anemia in dogs through destruction by the immune system. It has been associated with vaccinations and certain drugs, although many cases are idiopathic. A similar but less severe immune disease is immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, characterized by destruction of platelets by the immune system. Symptoms include bruising and petechiae (pinpoint bruising, often seen in the mouth). Common reproductive diseases include pyometra (distension of the uterus with pus), mammary tumors, and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Major endocrine glands. ... Immune-mediated diseases are conditions which result from abnormal activity of the bodys immune system. ... Diabetes mellitus strikes 1 in 400 cats and a similar number of dogs, though recent veterinary studies[1] note that it is becoming more common lately. ... Addisons disease(also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is one type of hemolytic anemias caused by excessive hemolyisis and it is identified by auto-antibodies that react with RBCs. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Idiopathic means arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause. ... Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) of no known cause (idiopathic). ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... minor Petechia A petechia (IPA pronunciation: ), plural petechiae (IPA pronunciation: ) is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor hemorrhage (broken capillary blood vessels). ... Pyometra is a disease of the uterus in bitches (female dogs). ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... A mammary tumor is a tumor originating in the mammary gland. ... For other uses of the acronym BPH, see BPH (disambiguation). ...


Toxic substances

Dangerous foods

Some foods commonly enjoyed by humans are dangerous to dogs:

  • Dogs love the flavor of chocolate, but chocolate in sufficient doses is lethally toxic to dogs (and horses and possibly cats). Chocolate contains theobromine, a chemical stimulant that, together with caffeine and theophylline, belongs to the group of methylxanthine alkaloids. Dogs are unable to metabolize theobromine effectively. If they eat chocolate, the theobromine can remain in their bloodstreams for up to 20 hours, and these animals may experience fast heart rate, hallucinations, severe diarrhea, epileptic seizures, heart attacks, internal bleeding, and eventually death. A chocolate bar can be sufficient to make a small dog extremely ill or even kill it. Approximately thirty grams of baking chocolate per kilogram (1/2 ounce per pound) of body weight is enough to be poisonous. In case of accidental intake of chocolate by especially a smaller dog, contact a veterinarian or animal poison control immediately; it is commonly recommended to induce vomiting within two hours of ingestion. Large breeds are less susceptible to chocolate poisoning, but still are far less tolerant of the substance than humans are.
Note:Carob treats are often available as dog treats; these are unrelated to chocolate and are safe.
  • It has recently been confirmed that grapes and raisins can cause acute kidney failure in dogs (see also grape and raisin toxicity in dogs). The exact mechanism is not known, nor is there any means to determine the susceptibility of an individual dog. While as little as one raisin can be toxic to a susceptible ten pound dog, many other dogs have eaten as much as a pound of grapes or raisins at a time without ill effects. The dog usually vomits a few hours after consumption and begins showing signs of renal failure three to five days later.
  • Onions, and to a significantly lesser extent garlic, contain thiosulfate which causes hemolytic anemia in dogs (and cats). Thiosulfate levels are not affected by cooking or processing. Small puppies have died of hemolytic anemia after being fed baby food containing onion powder. Occasional exposure to small amounts is usually not a problem, but continuous exposure to even small amounts can be a serious threat. Garlic is also known to cause diarrhoea and vomiting.
  • Macadamia nuts can cause stiffness, tremors, hyperthermia, and abdominal pain. The exact mechanism is not known. Most dogs recover with supportive care when the source of exposure is removed.
  • Alcoholic beverages pose much the same temptation and hazard to dogs as to humans. A drunk dog displays behavior analogous to that of an intoxicated person. (However, beer presents another problem; see below.)
  • Hops, a plant used in making beer, can cause malignant hyperthermia in dogs, usually with fatal results. Certain breeds, such as Greyhounds, seem particularly sensitive to hop toxicity, but hops should be kept away from all dogs. Even small amounts of hops can trigger a potentially deadly reaction, even if the hops are "spent" after use in brewing.
  • Xylitol is a sugar substitute used in chewing gum, chewable vitamins, candy, toothpaste, and other products. Although empirical studies (1, 2, 3) indicate xylitol may be safe for dogs, there have been cases of foods, candies and gums containing xylitol causing toxic or even fatal liver damage in dogs and should be avoided (1, 2, 3).
  • Some dogs have food allergies just as humans do; this is particular to the individual dog and not characteristic of the species as a whole. An example is a dog becoming physically ill from salmon; many humans likewise have seafood allergies.
  • If dogs eat the pits of fruits such as peaches and apricots, they can get cyanide poisoning due to cyanogenic glycosides.

For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Theobromine, also known as xantheose,[1] is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Santorio Santorio (1561-1636) in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medecina, first published 1614 Metabolism (from μεταβολισμος(metavallo), the Greek word for change), in the most general sense, is the ingestion and breakdown of complex compounds, coupled... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carob trees near Mehmetcik, Northern Cyprus Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) is a species native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... Raisins Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... Grape and raisin toxicity in the dog is a potential health threat to dogs that have eaten grapes or raisins. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... It has been suggested that thiosulfate ion be merged into this article or section. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Species Macadamia integrifolia Macadamia tetraphylla The macadamia nut is the fruit of a tree native to the east coast of Australia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alcoholic beverages. ... Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Malignant hyperthermia (MH or MHS for malignant hyperthermia syndrome, or malignant hyperpyrexia due to anesthesia) is a rare life-threatening condition that is triggered by exposure to drugs used for general anaesthesia, such as volatile anaesthetics or the depolarizing muscle relaxant suxamethonium chloride. ... This article needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Xylitol, also called wood sugar or birch sugar, is a five-carbon sugar alcohol that is used as a sugar substitute. ... In medicine, food allergy is hypersensitivity to dietary substances, leading to various types of gastrointestinal complaints. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ...

Common household substances

Some common household chemicals are particularly dangerous to dogs:

  • Antifreeze, due to its sweet taste, poses an extreme danger of poisoning to a dog (or cat) that either drinks from a spill or licks it off its fur. The antifreeze itself is not toxic, but is metabolized in the liver to a compound which causes kidney failure, and eventual seizures, and death. By the time symptoms are observed, the kidneys are usually too damaged for the dog to survive so acting quickly is important. Immediate treatment is to administer apomorphine or peroxide solution in an effort to get the animal to vomit up as much of the antifreeze as possible. Next, it is critical to immediately get the animal to a veterinarian. Fomepizole (Antizol Vet® by Orphan Medical) is considered the preferred treatment for treating ethylene glycol toxicoses in dogs. Ethanol can also be used in cats and dogs, however it does have several unfavorable side effects. Ethanol occupies the enzymes in the dog's liver, long enough for the unmetabolized antifreeze to be passed out harmlessly through the kidneys. Dogs should not be allowed access to any place in which an antifreeze leak or spill has happened until the spill is completely cleaned out. Even a very small amount such as a tablespoon can easily prove fatal. Some brands of antifreeze that contain propylene glycol instead of ethylene glycol are marketed as being less harmful or less attractive to animals.
  • Mouse and rat poison is commonly found in the house or garage. Dogs readily eat these poisons, which look like small green blocks and are very attractive to them. The poisons work by depleting stores of Vitamin K in the body, without which blood can not clot properly. Symptoms of poisoning include depression, weakness, difficulty breathing, bruising, and bleeding from any part of the body. These symptoms often take 3 to 4 days to show up. A blood test will show that the blood is not clotting properly. If the poison has only recently been ingested (within 2 to 3 hours), the dog should be given apomorphine or hydrogen peroxide to make it vomit. Activated charcoal can be given to absorb any remaining poison in the gastrointestinal tract. Then the dog is given Vitamin K supplementation for 3 to 4 weeks, depending on the type of poison. At the end of treatment, the clotting times should be tested again. The prognosis is good in these cases. However, if the dog is already showing signs of poisoning, it is too late to try and remove the poison from the body. A whole blood transfusion or plasma is given to treat the anemia and to try and control bleeding. Vitamin K is also given. The prognosis is poor in these cases.
  • Zinc toxicity, mostly in the form of the ingestion of US pennies minted after 1982, is commonly fatal in dogs where it causes a severe hemolytic anemia. [30]

Antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines, and for many other heat transfer applications, such as electronics cooling and chillers for HVAC. Compounds are added to water to reduce the freezing point of the mixture to below the lowest temperature that the system is likely to be exposed to, and... Apomorphine is a type of dopaminergic agonist, a morphine derivative. ... A rat in urban environment Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Apomorphine is a type of dopaminergic agonist, a morphine derivative. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , ,, , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... This article is about the clotting of blood. ... Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Chemical structure of cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a form of Vitamin D, also called vitamin D3. ... Hypercalcaemia (or Hypercalcemia) is an elevated calcium level in the blood. ... Hyperphosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of phosphate in the blood. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... The United States one-cent coin is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ...

Over the counter medications

A veterinarian should be checked before any OTC medicine is used. However, poisoning with pain medications is common. Aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil), and naproxen (Aleve) can all cause severe symptoms in dogs, including vomiting blood, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Specifically, aspirin can cause metabolic acidosis, acetaminophen can cause liver disease, ibuprofen can cause kidney disease, and naproxen can cause ulcers in the stomach, which can perforate. Treatment depends on the symptoms. This article is about the drug. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ... Each caplet in this bottle of Extra Strength Tylenol contains a 500 mg dose of acetaminophen (paracetamol). ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... Naproxen (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for the reduction of mild to moderate pain, fever, inflammation and stiffness caused by conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, injury (like fractures), menstrual cramps, tendonitis, bursitis, and the treatment of primary... In medicine, metabolic acidosis is a state in which the blood pH is low (under 7. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ...


Contact your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center in case of possible exposure.


Public health risks

Sarcoptes scabiei
Sarcoptes scabiei

Most diseases that affect dogs or humans are not transferable between the two species. There are some exceptions of zoonoses. The most well known zoonosis is rabies, a viral infection transmitted through a bite. A common bacterial zoonosis is leptospirosis, transmitted through urine. Some of the most important zoonoses are parasitic. Zoonotic intestinal parasites transmitted through contact with feces include Toxocara canis (the canine roundworm), which causes toxocariasis, viscera larval migrans, and ocular larva migrans, and hookworms, which can cause cutaneous larva migrans. Zoonotic skin parasites include scabies, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The most common zoonotic fungal disease is ringworm, caused in this case by Microsporum canis. Image File history File links Canine_scabies_mite. ... Image File history File links Canine_scabies_mite. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... Toxocara canis is a species of nematode which infects both dogs and humans. ... Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection with the dog or cat roundworm, Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, respectively. ... Visceral larva migrans is a condition in children caused by the migratory larvae of nematodes like Toxocara vitulloram, Toxocara canis etc. ... Ocular larva migrans is the ocular form of the larva migrans syndrome that occurs when toxocara canis larvae invade the eye. ... Species Species N. americanus and A. duodenale The hookworm is a parasitic worm (nematode) that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. ... Cutaneous larva migrans is a skin disease in humans are caused by a parasitic larvae called Ancylostoma braziliense. ... Binomial name De Geer, 1778 Sarcoptes scabiei is a parasitic arthropod which burrows into human skin and causes scabies. ... This article is about the fungal infection. ...


Preventive medicine

Vaccinations

Main article: Vaccination of dogs

Depending on the location of the dog, highly recommended vaccines include rabies, canine parvovirus, canine distemper, and infectious canine hepatitis (using canine adenovirus type 2 to avoid reaction). Vaccination for other diseases, including leptospirosis, Lyme disease, Bordetella bronchiseptica, parainfluenza virus, and canine coronavirus, are used after determining the risk of contact with these pathogens. Programs supporting regular vaccination of dogs have contributed both to the health of dogs and to the public health. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease in dogs. ...


Dentistry

Dental disease is one of the most common diseases in dogs. Accumulation of plaque and subsequently tartar leads to gingivitis and then periodontitis (gum disease). Periodontitis leads to loss of the bony attachment of the teeth and tooth loss. Preventive measures include tooth brushing and dental scaling and polishing. Cavities are uncommon in dogs. A dental disease is a disease which affects the teeth or gums. ... Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ... Calculus (dark yellow colour) can be seen on almost all teeth near the gums In dentistry, calculus or tartar refers to hardened plaque on the teeth, formed by the presence of saliva, debris, and minerals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Periodontitis, formerly known as Pyorrhea, is the name of a collection of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues that surround and support the teeth. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Dental hygienist scaling a patients teeth Tooth scaling involves the mechanical use of a dental instrument that scrapes away bacterial plaque and calculus from the tooth. ... This article is about dental caries in non-humans. ...


Nutrition and obesity

Human food such as ice cream can lead to ill health and obesity in dogs.
Human food such as ice cream can lead to ill health and obesity in dogs.

Feeding table scraps to a dog is generally not recommended, at least in excess. Dogs get ample correct nutrition from their natural, normal diet. Otherwise, just as in humans, their diet must consist of the appropriate mix of nutrients, carbohydrates, and proteins, with the appropriate mix to provide all of the minerals and vitamins that they need. A human diet is not ideal for a dog: the concept of a "balanced" diet for a facultative carnivore like a dog is not the same as in an omnivorous human. Wild and feral dogs can usually get all the nutrients needed from a diet of whole prey and raw meat. In addition, the scraps often consist of fat rather than meat protein, which in excess is no better for dogs than it is for humans. While not all human delicacies are acutely toxic to dogs (see above), many have the same chronically unfortunate results as they do for humansLastly, many people overfeed their dogs by giving them table scraps and human food such as ice cream. Dogs will usually eat all the scraps and treats they are fed, which is more than often too much food.. Image File history File links Bichon would enjoy some ice cream, but wisely refuses it. ... Image File history File links Bichon would enjoy some ice cream, but wisely refuses it. ... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Pigs are omnivores. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...

This Australian Cattle Dog's obesity is a sign of Cushing's disease.
This Australian Cattle Dog's obesity is a sign of Cushing's disease.

The result of too much food is obesity, an increasingly common problem in dogs in Western countries, which can cause numerous health problems just as it does in humans, although dogs are much less susceptible to the common cardiac and arterial consequences of obesity than humans are. Image File history File links Lightblueheeler. ... Image File history File links Lightblueheeler. ... The Australian Cattle Dog (ACD), also known as the Queensland Heeler, Blue Heeler, and Red Heeler, is a breed of herding dog developed in Australia for controlling cattle. ... Cushings syndrome or hypercortisolism is an endocrine disorder caused by excessive levels of the endogenous corticosteroid hormone cortisol. ... This page is about the muscular organ, the Heart. ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ...


Additionally, the feeding of table scraps directly from the table (as opposed to taking scraps after the meal, and giving them in the dog's food dish as a treat) can lead to trained begging behavior on the part of the dog, or even encourage the dog to reach up and take food directly from the table (another trained response). These are normally seen as undesirable behavioral traits in a dog.


Obesity can be a sign of other serious ailments such as Cushing's Disease which is characterized by weight gain, appetite increase and lethargy in primarily older dogs. Cushings syndrome or hypercortisolism is an endocrine disorder caused by excessive levels of the endogenous corticosteroid hormone cortisol. ...


A modern trend in canine diets is raw feeding of whole meats, bones and little filler material. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Coprophagia

Main article: coprophagia

Many dogs have a fondness for eating feces. Some consume their own or other dogs' feces; others seem to prefer cat feces (which, due to the feline digestive system, are high in protein and consumed by many animals in the wild), and will raid a kitty litter box for "treats". This can be unsafe for the dog's health if the animal producing the feces has any diseases or parasites or has recently ingested drugs that might be poisonous. Coprophagia is the consumption of feces, from the Greek copros (feces) and phagein (eat). ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... A litter box and a package of filler A litter box, sometimes called a sandbox, sand box, litter tray, litter pan, catbox, or cat box is an indoor feces and urine disposal box for cats (as well as rabbits and other pets that naturally or through training will make use...


Reproductive health

Main article: Canine reproduction

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Spaying and neutering

Main article: Neutering

Spaying (females only) and neutering (both genders but more usually males) refers to the sterilization of animals, usually by removal of the male's testicles or the female's ovaries and uterus, in order to eliminate the ability to procreate, and reduce sex drive. Neutering has also been known to reduce aggression in male dogs, but has been shown to occasionally increase aggression in female dogs.[31] Neutering, from the Latin neÅ­ter (of neither type), is the removal of an animals reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part of it. ... Sterilization can mean: Sterilization (surgical procedure) - an operation which renders an animal or human unable to procreate Sterilization (microbiology) - the elimination of microbiological organisms It can also mean the death of sperm cells due to radiation. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // For ovary as part of plants see ovary (plants) An ovary is an egg-producing reproductive organ found in female organisms. ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ...


Animal control agencies in the United States and the ASPCA advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be spayed or neutered so that they do not have undesired puppies.[32] American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (usually referred to as the ASPCA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to preventing the abuse of animals. ...


Because of the overpopulation of dogs in some countries, puppies born to strays or as the result of accidental breedings often end up being killed in animal shelters. Spaying and neutering can also decrease the risk of hormone-driven diseases such as mammary cancer, as well as undesired hormone-driven behaviors. However, certain medical problems are more likely after neutering, such as urinary incontinence in females[33] and prostate cancer in males.[34] The hormonal changes involved with sterilization are likely to somewhat change the animal's personality, however, and some object to spaying and neutering as the sterilization could be carried out without the excision of organs. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ...


It is not essential for a female dog to either experience a heat cycle or have puppies before spaying, and likewise, a male dog does not need the experience of mating before neutering.


Female cats and dogs are seven times more likely to develop mammary tumors if they are not spayed before their first heat cycle. [35] The high dietary estrogen content of the average commercial pet food as well as the estrogenic activity of topical pesticides [citation needed] may be contributing factors in the development of mammary cancer, especially when these exogenous sources are added to those normal estrogens produced by the body. Dog food containing soybeans or soybean fractions have been found to contain phytoestrogens in levels that could have biological effects when ingested longterm.[36] A mammary tumor is a tumor originating in the mammary gland. ... The oestrus cycle (also Å“strus or estrous cycle) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females (humans and great apes are the only mammals who undergo a menstrual cycle instead). ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal/+human cells and bodies. ...


Tobacco smoke

Dogs, just like humans, are affected by passive smoking. Tobacco smoke used to fill the air of Irish pubs before the smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking (also known as secondhand smoking, involuntary smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS exposure) occurs when smoke from one persons burning tobacco product (or the...


See also

Aging in dogs covers the impact of aging in the domestic dog (Canis Lupus Familiaris), common medical and clinical issues arising, and life expectancy. ...

References

  1. ^ Rabies:Introduction. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  2. ^ Rupprecht, Charles E. (2007). Prevention of Specific Infectious Diseases: Rabies. Traveler's Health:Yellow Book. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  3. ^ Rabies Epidemiology. World Health Organization (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  4. ^ Dunlop, Robert H.; Williams, David J. (1996). Veterinary Medicine:An Illustrated History. Mosby. ISBN 0-8016-3209-9. 
  5. ^ a b Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C. (1995). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 4th ed., W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-6795-3. 
  6. ^ Questions and Answers about Rabies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  7. ^ Lobetti, Remo (2003). Canine Parvovirus and Distemper. Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  8. ^ Canine Parvovirus. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  9. ^ Information sheet: Canine distemper virus. UC Davis Koret Shelter Medicine Program. Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  10. ^ Infectious Canine Hepatitis: Introduction. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  11. ^ Carter, G.R.; Flores, E.F.; Wise, D.J. (2006). Herpesviridae. A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology. Retrieved on 2006-06-08.
  12. ^ Media Briefing on Canine Influenza. CDC (Sept. 26, 2005). Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  13. ^ Heuter, Kerry J.,Langston, Cathy E. (2003). "Leptospirosis: A re-emerging zoonotic disease". The Veterinary Clinics of North America 33: 791-807. 
  14. ^ Brucellosis in Dogs: Introduction. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  15. ^ (May 2007) "Lyme disease recognized in 48 states". Veterinary Forum 24 (5): 17. Veterinary Learning Systems. 
  16. ^ (May 2007) "Forget everything you know about ticks". Veterinary Forum 24 (5): 44-56. Veterinary Learning Systems. 
  17. ^ Dermatophytosis: Dogs and Cats. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  18. ^ Probst, Sarah (1999). Blastomycosis--Fungal Disease Common in Outdoor Dogs. Pet Columns. UIUC College of Veterinary Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  19. ^ Histoplasmosis. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  20. ^ Coccidioidomycosis. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  21. ^ Canine Inherited Disorders Database. University of Prince Edward Island (2001). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  22. ^ Aortic Stenosis. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  23. ^ Canine Atopy. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-18.
  24. ^ a b Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  25. ^ Modiano J, Breen M, Burnett R, Parker H, Inusah S, Thomas R, Avery P, Lindblad-Toh K, Ostrander E, Cutter G, Avery A (2005). "Distinct B-cell and T-cell lymphoproliferative disease prevalence among dog breeds indicates heritable risk". Cancer Res 65 (13): 5654-61. PMID 15994938. 
  26. ^ Raghavan M, Knapp DW, Dawson MH, Bonney PL, Glickman LT (2004). "Topical flea and tick pesticides and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 225 (3): 389-94. PMID 15328714. 
  27. ^ Glaucoma. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  28. ^ Degenerative Valve Disease. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  29. ^ Cardiomyopathies. The Merck Veterinary Manual (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  30. ^ Stowe CM, Nelson R, Werdin R, et al: Zinc phosphide poisoning in dogs. JAVMA 173:270, 1978
  31. ^ Heidenberger E, Unshelm J (1990). "[Changes in the behavior of dogs after castration]" (in German). Tierärztliche Praxis 18 (1): 69-75. PMID 2326799. 
  32. ^ Top 10 reasons to spay/neuter your pet. American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  33. ^ Arnold S (1997). "[Urinary incontinence in castrated bitches. Part 1: Significance, clinical aspects and etiopathogenesis]" (in German). Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 139 (6): 271-6. PMID 9411733. 
  34. ^ Johnston SD, Kamolpatana K, Root-Kustritz MV, Johnston GR (2000). "Prostatic disorders in the dog". Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60-61: 405-15. PMID 10844211. 
  35. ^ Morrison, Wallace B. (1998). Cancer in Dogs and Cats (1st ed.). Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-06105-4. 
  36. ^ Cerundolo R, Court MH, Hao Q, Michel KE (2004). "Identification and concentration of soy phytoestrogens in commercial dog foods". Am. J. Vet. Res. 65 (5): 592-6. PMID 15141878. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “WHO” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The College of Veterinary Medicine is a graduate school at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Dog health - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2676 words)
Although dogs do not seem to be as susceptible to such diseases as humans, similar rickettsial diseases have been spread by dogs to humans through such mechanisms as a dog killing an infected rabbit, then shaking itself off in the house near enough to its owners to fatally infect most of the family.
Dogs who have experienced such an attack are very susceptible to another which is usually more severe, and this is one case where the most medical intervention usually proves the best choice, normally involving abdominal surgery to tack the dog's stomach down in several places to prevent recurrence.
Elderly dogs are susceptible to an unusual form of intense vertigo, the cause of which is unknown; the affected dog is unable to stand up and remains sprawled on the floor, the eyes displaying intense nystagmus, for typically a few days.
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