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Encyclopedia > Documentary hypothesis
A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis.
A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis.

The documentary hypothesis proposes that the Five Books of Moses (the Torah, or first five books of the Old Testament) represent a combination of documents from four major identifiable sources dating from various periods between the early 8th and late 5th centuries BCE. Historians and academics in the fields of linguistics and source criticism have identified the following potential sources: Image File history File links Modern_documentary_hypothesis. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tora redirects here. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... An historian is someone who writes history, a written accounting of the past. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ...

  • the J, or Yahwist, text
  • the E, or Elohist, text (edited with J to form a combined JE text)
  • the P, or Priestly, text
  • the D, or Deuteronomist, text (which had two further major edits, resulting in sub-texts known as Dtr1 and Dtr2).

The hypothesis may further postulate the combination of the sources into their current form by an editor known as R (for Redactor) who also made small additions.


The specific identity of each author remains unknown, (although a supposition can identify R as Ezra), but textual elements identify each author with a specific background and with a specific period in Jewish history. Thus scholars associate J with the Aaronid priesthood (Levite priests claiming descent from Aaron) in the kingdom of Judah in the early 8th century BCE, E with the equivalent Mushite priesthood (priests claiming descent from Moses) of the rival kingdom of Israel, JE with the kingdom of Judah following the destruction of Israel by the Assyrian Empire in the 720s BCE, P with the centralising religious reforms instituted by king Hezekiah of Judah (reigned ca 716 BCE to 687 BCE), and D with the later reforms of Hezekiah's grandson, Josiah (reigned ca 641 BCE to 609 BCE). R's association with Ezra would link in a key figure in the re-establishment of Jewish cultural identity following the return to Jerusalem of Jewish exiles from the Babylonian captivity in the 5th century BCE. Ezra is a personal name derived from Hebrew, written variously as עֶזְרָא ( Standard Hebrew ), Ê¿Ezra, ( Tiberian Hebrew ), Ê¿Ezrâ: short for עַזְרִיאֵל My help/court is God, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Azriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Azrîʾēl, Arabic: عزير. // Once there once an ezra who ate two pies the kill barney with jake burton Unless otherwise... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Golden age in Armenia Assyria... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ supported of the LORD, Standard Hebrew YoÅ¡iyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... Ezra is a personal name derived from Hebrew, written variously as עֶזְרָא ( Standard Hebrew ), Ê¿Ezra, ( Tiberian Hebrew ), Ê¿Ezrâ: short for עַזְרִיאֵל My help/court is God, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Azriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Azrîʾēl, Arabic: عزير. // Once there once an ezra who ate two pies the kill barney with jake burton Unless otherwise... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War...

Contents

The hypothesis

Background to the hypothesis

Modern studies into the authorship of the Bible — the identity, period and motivation of its author(s) — began in the 19th century. The authorship and dating of the constituent parts of Judeo-Christian scriptures — with the possible exception of some of Paul's letters — remain very much open topics among Biblical scholars. The theory known as the documentary hypothesis offers an account of the origins of the first five books — Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.[1] With the exception of a couple of fragments (found among the Dead Sea scrolls, discussed below), no Bible texts that we currently have predate about 200 BCE. Nor are they mentioned by historians outside Israel. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Major areas considered by scholars supporting the documentary hypothesis include:

  1. The variations in the divine names in Genesis;
  2. The secondary variations in diction and in style;
  3. The parallel or duplicate accounts (doublets);
  4. The continuity of the various sources;
  5. The political assumptions implicit in the text;
  6. The interests of the author(s).

Many portions of the Torah seem to imply more than one author. Doublets and triplets repeat stories with different points of view. Notable repetitions include: At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Diction, in its original and primary meaning, is the term for a writer or speakers distinctive choices in vocabulary and style of expression. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... Categories: Stub ... A source text is text (usually written but sometimes oral) from which information or ideas are derived. ...

  • the creation-accounts in Genesis. The creation-story in Genesis first describes a somewhat evolutionary process, starting with the creation of the Earth, then the lower forms of life, then animals, and finally man and woman (created together). It then begins the story again, but this time with the creation of man first, then animals to assuage man's loneliness, and when this fails, the creation of Eve from Adam's rib;
  • in the flood story Noah takes his family into the ark twice;
  • the stories of the covenant between God and Abraham;
  • the naming of Isaac;
  • the three strikingly similar narratives in Genesis about a wife confused for a sister;
  • the two stories of the revelation to Jacob at Bet-El;
  • three different versions of how the town of Be'ersheba got its name;
  • Exodus 38:26 mentions "603,550 men over 20 years old included in the census" immediately after passage of the Red Sea, while Numbers 1:44–45 cites the precisely identical count, "The tally of Israelites according to their paternal families, those over 20 years old, all fit for service. The entire tally was 603,550", in a census taken a full year later, "on the first [day] of the second month in the second year of the Exodus" (Numbers 1:1);
  • the story of the flood in Genesis appears to claim that two of all kinds of animal went on the ark, but also that seven of certain kinds went on, and that the flood lasted a year, but also lasted only 40 days;
  • the Ten Commandments appear in Exod 20, but in a slightly different wording in Deut 5. A second, almost completely different set of Ten Commandments appears in Exod 34;
  • Numbers 25 describes the rebellion at Peor and refers to daughters of Moab, but the same chapter portrays one woman as a Midianite;
  • Moses' wife, though often identified as a Midianite (and hence Semitic), appears in the tale of Snow-white Miriam as a "Cushite" (Ethiopian), and hence black ;
  • in some locations God appears friendly and capable of errors and regret, and walks the earth talking to humans, but in others God seems unmerciful and distant;
  • a number of places or individuals have multiple names. For instance, some passages give the name of the mountain that Moses climbed to receive the commandments as Horeb and others as Sinai, Moses' father-in-law has at least two names in the Hebrew original (יֶתֶר, יִתְרוֹ, and רְעוּאֵל), etc.
  • Samuel 1 relates that Saul committed suicide by falling on his sword. In Samuel 2, an Amalekite tells David that he slew Saul upon request. Yet another reference in Samuel 2 states that a group of Philistines killed Saul.

However, classical rabbinical and other interpretations claim to have accounted for all of the above difficulties. Note also that Orthodox Judaism regards the Torah as all but impossible to understand without the insight of the Oral Torah. On the other hand, many supporters of the documentary hypothesis disagree and view these arguments as apologetic. See the section on #Debates on the hypothesis below. Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) Abraham (Hebrew: , Standard Avraham Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Geez: , ) is a figure in the Bible and Quran who is by believers regarded as the founding patriarch of the Israelites and of the Nabataean people in Jewish, Christian and... An angel prevents Abraham from sacrificing Isaac Tedla in this illumation from a 14th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... This article is about the modern settlement; see Bethel (Israel) for the biblical site. ... Beersheba or Beer Sheva ( Hebrew באר שבע; Arabic بئر السبع Biʾr as-Sabʿ) is a city in Israel. ... Possible Exodus Routes. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in Greek and many other cultural myths. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Ritual Decalogue is one of the two very different lists within the Torah that are known as the Decalogue or Ten Commandments (the name decalogue (δέκα λόγοι) merely means ten sayings). ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Moabite language is an extinct Hebrew Canaanite dialect, spoken in Moab (modern-day northwestern Jordan) in the early first millennium BC. Most of our knowledge about Moabite comes from the Mesha Stele, as well as the El-Kerak Stela; this is sufficient to show that it was extremely similar... In the Bible, Midian (Hebrew: מִדְיָן, Standard Midyan Tiberian ; Arabic مدين; Strife; judgment) is a son of Abraham and his concubine Keturah (who according to midrash is Hagar). ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Miriam. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... According to the Book of Genesis and 1 Chronicles, Amalek (עֲמָלֵק; Standard Hebrew ʿAmaleq, Tiberian Hebrew ʿĂmālēq) was the son of Eliphaz and the grandson of Esau (Gen. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ...


The modern hypothesis

The hypothesis proposes that a redactor (referred to as R) composed the Torah by combining four earlier source texts (J, E, P and D), specifically: Diagram of the documentary hypothesis. ... The Torah redactor (R) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, the figure who assembled hypothetical source texts of the Torah—the Deuteronomist text (D), the Priestly text P, and JE (an earlier joining of the Jahwist text [J] and the Elohist text [E])—into a single work. ... Tora redirects here. ...

  • J — the Jahwist. J describes a human-like God called Yahweh and has a special interest in Judah and in the Aaronid priesthood. J has an extremely eloquent style. J uses an earlier form of the Hebrew language than P.
  • E — the Elohist. E describes a human-like God initially called El (which sometimes appears as Elohim according to the rules of Hebrew grammar), and called Yahweh subsequent to the incident of the burning bush. E focuses on biblical Israel and on the Shiloh priesthood. E has a moderately eloquent style. E uses an earlier form of the Hebrew language than P.
  • P — the Priestly source. P describes a distant and unmerciful God, sometimes referred to as Elohim or as El Shaddai. P partly duplicates J and E, but alters details to suit P's opinion, and also consists of most of Leviticus. P has its main interest in an Aaronid priesthood and in King Hezekiah. P has a low level of literary style, and has an interest in lists and dates.
  • D — the Deuteronomist. D consists of most of Deuteronomy. D probably also wrote the Deuteronomistic history (Josh, Judg, 1 & 2 Sam, 1 & 2 Kgs). D has a particular interest in the Shiloh priesthood and in King Josiah. D uses a form of Hebrew similar to that of P, but in a different literary style.

The hypothesis postulates that various collections of remembered traditions took written form both in biblical Israel (producing E) and in Judah (producing J) shortly after their separation into two kingdoms (ca 930 BCE). Rival priesthoods allegedly wrote these collections: the priests of Shiloh (in Israel) wrote E; while the Aaronid priests (in Judah) wrote J. The literary scholar Harold Bloom in The Book of J proposed a female author for J, and some who accept this view have argued[citation needed] the case for seeing such an author not as a priest(ess) but as a mere member of the tribe of Judah; many small details in the J source allegedly convey typical female perspectives from the era, not those of males. The king of Israel had removed the priests of Shiloh (Levite like the Aaronids) from power and set up an alternate religion instead. E allegedly reflects these circumstances by describing stories appearing to condemn the changes (such as referring to a Golden Calf — the symbol of the new version of the religion). The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew [perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Ra, Warrior Lion], Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Elohist (E) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... Hebrew grammar is partly analytical, expressing such forms as dative, ablative, and accusative using prepositional particles rather than morphological cases. ... Burning bush at St. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Shiloh (Hebrew: ) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as a city and as denoting a person. ... The Priestly Source (P) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... El Shaddai (Hebrew: אל שדי) is one of the Judaic names of God. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... The Deuteronomist (D) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... The Books of Samuel (Hebrew: Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל), are part of the Tanakh (part of Judaisms Hebrew Bible) and also of the Old Testament (of Christianity). ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ... Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ supported of the LORD, Standard Hebrew YoÅ¡iyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC 940s BC - 930s BC - 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC Events and trends 935 BC - Death of Zhou gong wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin: imagery influenced by the Greco-Roman bacchanal In the Hebrew Bible the golden calf was an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites during Mosess unexpectedly long absence. ...


The hypothesis then goes on to state that after the fall of Israel to the Assyrians (ca 720 BCE), the refugees from Israel brought E to Judah, and in the interests of assimilating those refugees into the general population, an unknown scribe combined the text with J to produce JE. Producing JE, in preference to keeping the texts separate, had the presumed goal of assimilating the refugees rather than having them form a separate subversive nation within Judah. In the circumstances, scholars speculate, the writer of JE may have thought it necessary to retain as much as possible of both J and E, in order to avoid readers and listeners complaining about missing or different texts and thus causing schisms. An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... JE is an intermediate source text postulated by the documentary hypothesis for the torah. ...


The hypothesis suggests that, because of the centralising religious reform instituted by King Hezekiah (reigned ca 715–687 BCE), the Aaronid priests created a text (P), which rewrote JE in a light favourable to them and to the changes. In addition to performing this change, they removed a few intolerable stories (such as that of the golden calf), and added a few stories. Within the text the author also added a body of laws (constituting most of Leviticus) supported by the Aaronids. Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin: imagery influenced by the Greco-Roman bacchanal In the Hebrew Bible the golden calf was an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites during Mosess unexpectedly long absence. ...


A few generations later, scholars believe, the Shiloh priesthood wrote a law-code more favourable to themselves and conspired with King Josiah (reigned ca 640–609 BCE) to have it "found" in the Temple so that he could base reforms on it (Hezekiah's descendants had previously undone Hezekiah's reforms). A scribe connected to the Shiloh group subsequently created a text (Dtr1) describing the span of time intervening between Moses and Josiah's rule, embedding the law code at the start in the framework of Moses' dying words. Shiloh (Hebrew: ) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as a city and as denoting a person. ... Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ supported of the LORD, Standard Hebrew YoÅ¡iyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ...


Dtr1 presented Josiah as a parallel to Moses, an ideal king whose reforms would save Judah. But Josiah died in battle with the Egyptian army (ca 609 BCE). Subsequent kings undid his reforms, and shortly afterward Babylon destroyed Judah, burnt the Temple, and killed the royal family (ca 586 BCE). The scribe who created Dtr1 made minor additions (Dtr2) to the text to reflect the additional history, and to iron out the flaws in their original presentation of Josiah and the permanence of Judah (by implying that the destruction came as a result of the undoing of Josiah's reforms). The resultant text became known as D. Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ...


When Persia conquered Babylon (539 BCE), the Persian king Cyrus II sent the exiled élite of Judah back to their homeland, empowering Ezra to dictate the religion. JE and P contained rival histories and rival religious views, and P and D contained rival law-codes. The Jews had to keep both sets of texts in order to avoid alienating each group in the new melding of the nation, and thus to avoid a power struggle or the setting up a nation within a nation. But they also had motivation to iron out the differences: so that people had certainty as to the law-code and to their history. Someone joined the texts together, making only minor additions and changes, creating the Torah, and Ezra read it out. Anyone who disagreed had the Persian king to answer to. The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiya, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: KÅ«ruÅ¡[1], modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (ca. ... Ezra is a personal name derived from Hebrew, written variously as עֶזְרָא ( Standard Hebrew ), Ê¿Ezra, ( Tiberian Hebrew ), Ê¿Ezrâ: short for עַזְרִיאֵל My help/court is God, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Azriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Azrîʾēl, Arabic: عزير. // Once there once an ezra who ate two pies the kill barney with jake burton Unless otherwise... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ...


A Minimalist variant

Israel Finkelstein has criticised Biblical scholars and suggested that the combined Davidic and Solomonic Empires existed only in legend. On the basis of an archaeological exploration of the size of Jerusalem in the 10th century, he suggests that power centred in Samaria until the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 720 BCE, and that following the fall of Israel, Jerusalem expanded by 500% to become a city, rather than a small market town. This expansion Finkelstein sees as due to the enormous number of refugees who fled south to escape from the wrath of Sargon of Assyria. Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... King Solomon Latin name (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה, (Shelomo) (Shlomo pronounced with Yiddish accent)Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: سليمان, Sulayman; all essentially meaning peace) is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel. ... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... Sargon may refer to: Sargon of Akkad (Šarrukînu, also known as Sargon the Great, Sargon I), Mesopotamian king, founder of the city of Agade and the Akkadian dynasty, unifier of Sumer and Akkad (2334 BC - 2279 BC). ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ...


Interpreting the E source within this political context leads to the suggestion that it reflected the views of Shilohite priests, refugees living in Jerusalem, who criticised the policies and actions of the previous kings of Israel, which they saw as directly responsible for the disastrous collapse of Israel.


The J source in this scenario offers a Judean response to the more sophisticated E account, written possibly in the early part of the reign of Hezekiah (ca. 716–687 BCE), and intended to give the Levitical Aaronite priesthood of Jerusalem priority over the Mushite Shilohite refugees from the north. P then resulted from a gathering of materials following the debacle at the end of Hezekiah's rule, and formed part of a political struggle between the traditionalists and modernisers. The traditionalists (those opposed to Hezekiah's centralism and wishing to return to the pre-Hezekiah situation), made alliance with the pro-Assyrian faction surrounding Hezekiah's successful son, King Manasseh (reigned ca. 687–642 BCE)). The modernisers eventually achieved pre-eminence under Manasseh's grandson, King Josiah (reigned ca. 641–609 BCE). Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ... This entry incorporates text from the public domain Eastons Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897. ... Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ supported of the LORD, Standard Hebrew YoÅ¡iyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ...


Finkelstein's Minimalist school allows for much later redaction than in other versions of the documentary hypothesis. For example, on the basis of the Elephantine papyri, it would seem that the Jewish temple remained largely polytheistic as late as 409 BCE during the reign of Darius II. Thomas L. Thompson, for instance, on the basis of chronological synchronism that posits a central role in the Torah for the 480 years between the Exodus and the construction of the Temple, and then down to the rebuilding of the temple and the Maccabean revolt, suggests that a major redaction of the textual material occurred during the early Hasmonean monarchy. A Jewish community at Elephantine, the island in the Nile at the border of Nubia, was probably founded as a military installation in about 650 BCE during Manassehs reign to assist Pharaoh Psammetichus I in his Nubian campaign. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a... Thomas L. Thompson is a Baháí[1] American biblical theologian, born Jan 7, 1939 in Detroit Michigan. ... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (Hebrew: Hashmonai) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BCE to 37 BCE was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BCE. // The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is recorded in the books...


Secondary hypothesis

The secondary hypothesis of the documentary hypothesis suggests that two schools of writers put together the biblical text of the Old Testament: the priests of Shiloh and the Aaronid priesthood.


The priests of Shiloh have associations with the following texts:

  • E (the Elohist source of the Torah)
  • the Deuteronomistic law code (Deuteronomy 12–26)
  • the Deuteronomistic history (most of the material in: Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, I and II Samuel, I and II Kings; compiled from older sources)
  • the Book of Jeremiah

The Aaronid priests have associations with the following texts: Bold text The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is a book that is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ...

  • J (the Jahwist source of the Torah)
  • P (the Aaronid rewriting of JE)
  • the book of generations (used by R in the Torah)
  • the book of journeys (used by R in the Torah)
  • the Aaronid law code (Lev)
  • the Books of Chronicles (compiled from older sources)
  • the Book of Ezekiel

The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ...

History of the hypothesis

Traditional Jewish and Christian beliefs

The traditional Jewish view holds that God revealed his will to Moses at Mount Sinai in a verbal fashion, and that Moses transcribed this dictation verbatim, and that the Pentateuch itself, except for passages dealing with events after the revelation, reflects this transcription exactly[citation needed]. Based on the Talmud (tractate Git. 60a), some believe that God may have revealed the Torah piece-by-piece over the 40 years that the Israelites reportedly wandered in the desert. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... View from the summit of Mount Sinai Sinai Peninsula, showing location of Jabal Musa Mount Sinai (Arabic: طور سيناء), also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gebel Musa or Jabal Musa (Moses Mountain) by the Bedouins, is the name of a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...


The Pentateuch itself does not imply as much. The expression "God said to Moses" shows only the Divine origin of the Mosaic laws, but does not prove that Moses himself codified in the Pentateuch the various laws promulgated by him. It does, on the other hand, ascribe to Moses the literary authorship of at least four sections, partly historical, partly legal, partly poetical. The voice of tradition, however, both Jewish and Christian, proclaimed the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch so unanimously and constantly that down to the 17th century it did not allow the rise of any serious doubt. (See a 1911 Roman Catholic account of the Pentateuch's authenticity.) Torah, (תורה) is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or especially law. It primarily refers to the first section of the Tanakh–the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, or the Five Books of Moses, but can also be used in the general sense to also include both the Written... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Rabbinical biblical criticism

The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

Classical Judaism notes a number of exceptions to the Mosaic authorship account. Over the millennia, scribal errors have crept into the text of the Torah. The Masoretes (7th to 10th centuries CE) compared all extant variations and attempted to create a definitive text. Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra and Joseph Bonfils observed that some phrases in the Torah present information that people should only have known after the time of Moses. Ibn Ezra hinted, and Bonfils explicitly stated, that Joshua (or perhaps some later prophet) wrote short phrases in the Torah. Other rabbis have different views or explainations. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The Masoretes (baalei masorah) were scribes based primarily in at least three places, Tiberias (the best known); Eretz Yisrael, or the land of Israel; and Babylonia. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ...


The Talmud (tractate Sabb. 115b) states that a peculiar section in the Book of Numbers (10:35–36, surrounded by inverted Hebrew letter nuns) in fact forms a separate book. On this verse a midrash on the book of Mishle states that "These two verses stem from an independent book which existed, but was suppressed!" Another (possibly earlier) midrash, Ta'ame Haserot Viyterot, states that this section actually comes from the book of prophecy of Eldad and Medad. The Talmud says that God dictated four books of the Torah, but that Moses wrote Deuteronomy in his own words (Talmud Bavli, Meg. 31b). The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The Book of Proverbs is one of the books of the Ketuvim of the Tanakh and of the Writings of the Old Testament. ...


Individual rabbis and scholars have on occasion pointed out that the Torah showed signs of non-Mosaic origins in some passages: Rabbi, in Judaism, means ‘teacher’, or more literally ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbī is derived from a recent (18th...

  • Rabbi Judah ben Ilai held that Joshua must have written the final verses of the Torah (Talmud, B. Bat. 15a and Menah. 30a, and in Midrash Sipre. 357).
  • Parts of the Midrash retain evidence of the redactional period during which Ezra redacted and canonized the text of the Torah as it survives today. A rabbinic tradition states that at this time (440 BCE), Ezra edited the text of the Torah, and found ten places in the Torah where lacked certainty as to how to fix the text; these passages appear marked with special punctuation marks called the eser nekudot. (Ezra's minimal redaction corrected ten textual variants between three texts.)
  • In the middle ages, Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra (ca 1092–1167 CE) and others noted that several text sequences in the Torah apparently could not have originated in Moses' lifetime. For example, see Ibn Ezra's comments on Gen 12:6; 22:14; Deut 1:2; 3:11; and 34:1, 6. Rabbi Joseph Bonfils elucidated Ibn Ezra's comments in his commentary on Ibn Ezra's work.
  • In the 12th century CE the commentator R. Joseph ben Isaac, known as the Bekhor Shor, noted close similarities between a number of wilderness narratives in Exodus and Numbers, in particular, the incidents of water from the rock and the stories about manna and the quail. He hypothesised that both of these incidents actually happened once, but that parallel traditions about these events eventually developed, both of which made their way into the Torah.
  • In the 13th century CE Rabbi Hezekiah ben Manoah (known as the Hizkuni) noticed the same textual anomalies that Ibn Ezra had noted; thus R. Hezekiah's commentary on Gen 12:6 notes that this section "is written from the perspective of the future".
  • In the 15th century, Rabbi Yosef Bonfils, while discussing the comments of Ibn Ezra, noted: "Thus it would seem that Moses did not write this word here, but Joshua or some other prophet wrote it. Since we believe in the prophetic tradition, what possible difference can it make whether Moses wrote this or some other prophet did, since the words of all of them are true and prophetic?"
  • Martin Buber reports how his friend and co-translator of Scripture Franz Rosenzweig jokingly used to expand the sigil R for the redactor to Rabbenu — "Our Master" (a common epithet for Moses).

For more information on these issues from an Orthodox Jewish perspective, see Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations, edited by Shalom Carmy (Jason Aronson, Inc.), and Handbook of Jewish Thought, Volume I, by Aryeh Kaplan (Moznaim Pub.) Rabbi Judah ben Ilai was a Talmudic scholar and a Tana, or writer of the Mishna, who lived in the second century. ... Redaction generally refers to the editing of text to turn it into a form suitable for publication, or to the result of such an effort. ... Ezra is a personal name derived from Hebrew, written variously as עֶזְרָא ( Standard Hebrew ), ʿEzra, ( Tiberian Hebrew ), ʿEzrâ: short for עַזְרִיאֵל My help/court is God, Standard Hebrew ʿAzriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew ʿAzrîʾēl, Arabic: عزير. // Once there once an ezra who ate two pies the kill barney with jake burton Unless otherwise... Rabbi Abraham Ben Meir Ibn Ezra (also known as Ibn Ezra, or Abenezra) (1092 or 1093-1167), was one of the most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the Middle Ages. ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Hezekiah ben Manoah (13th century) (known as the Hizkuni, Hebrew: חזקוני) was a French rabbi and exegete. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 – 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. ... Franz Rosenzweig (1886 - 1929) was one of the most influential modern Jewish religious thinkers. ... The term sigil may refer to: A seal (device) or signet ring. ... Aryeh Kaplan (1934 - 1983) was a noted rabbi and author, who had a background in both physics and Judaism. ...


The Enlightenment

A number of Enlightenment Christian writers expressed doubts about the traditional Christian view. For example, in the 16th century, Carlstadt noticed that the style of the account of the death of Moses matched the style of the preceding portions of Deuteronomy, suggesting that whoever wrote about the death of Moses also wrote larger portions of the Torah. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 – December 24, 1541), better known as Andreas Karlstadt, was a Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation. ...


By the 17th century some commentators argued outright that Moses did not write most of the Pentateuch. For instance, in 1651 Thomas Hobbes in chapter 33 of Leviathan, argued that the Pentateuch dated from after Mosaic times on account of Deut 34:6 ("no man knoweth of his sepulchre to this day"), Gen 12:6 ("and the Canaanite was then in the land"), and Num 21:14 (referring to a previous book of Moses's deeds). Other skeptics include Isaac de la Peyrère, Spinoza, Richard Simon, and John Hampden. Nevertheless, these people found their works condemned and even banned; the authorities forced de la Peyrère and Hampden to recant, whereas an attempt was made on Spinoza's life. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... “Hobbes” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Isaac La Peyrère, or Pererius, (1596-1676) was a French Millenarian and formulator of Pre-Adamite theory. ... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ... Richard Simon (May 13, 1638 - April 11, 1712), was a French biblical critic. ... John Hampden as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book John Hampden (circa 1595—1643) was an English politician, the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before...


The French scholar and physician Jean Astruc first introduced the terms Elohist and Jehovist (or Elohistic and Jehovistic) in a little book titled Conjectures sur les memoires originaux, dont il parait que Moses s'est servi pour composer le livre de la Genèse ("Conjectures on the original documents that Moses appears to have used in composing the Book of Genesis"), anonymously printed in 1753. Astruc noted that the first chapter of Genesis uses only the word "Elohim" for God, while other sections use the word "Jehovah". The second and third chapters combine the title and the name, giving rise to a new conception of the Deity as Jehovah Elohim ("Lord-God", as commonly translated in many English Bibles today). He speculated that Moses may have compiled the Genesis account from earlier documents, some perhaps dating back to Abraham, and may have combined these into a single account. So he began to explore the possibility of detecting and separating these documents and assigning them to their original sources. He did this, taking it as axiomatic that one can analyze scriptural documents in the same manner as secular ones, and assuming that the varying use of terms indicated different writers. Jean Astruc (Sauves, Auvergne, March 19, 1684 - Paris, May 5, 1766) was a famous professor of medicine at Montpellier and Paris, who wrote the first great treatise on syphilis and venereal diseases, and with a small anonymously published book played a fundamental part in the origins of critical textual analysis... The Elohist (E) is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The word Jehovist derives from the formation of the documentary hypothesis, where it describes a purported writer of one interwoven portion of the torah, known as the Jahwist, who preferentially used the Tetragrammaton for the name of God, rather than choosing El, or derivatives such as Elohim. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Using "Elohim" and "Yahweh" as a criterion, Astruc used columns titled respectively "A" and "B", and also isolated other passages. The A and B narratives he regarded as originally complete and independent narratives. This work gave birth to the practice of Biblical textual criticism that became known as higher criticism. Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ...


J. G. Eichhorn brought Astruc's book to Germany and further differentiated the two chief documents through their linguistic peculiarities in 1787. However, neither he nor Astruc denied Mosaic authorship, nor analyzed beyond the book of Exodus. Johann Gottfried Eichhorn (October 16, 1752 - June 27, 1827), was a German theologian. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


H. Ewald recognized that the documents that later came to be known as "P" and "J" left traces in other books. F. Tuch showed that "P" and "J" also appeared recognizably in Joshua. Joshua praying God to stop the Sun by Gustave Doré In Jewish mythology, Joshua or Yehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian: , Israeli: Yəhoshúa) was an Israelite leader who succeeded Moses. ...


W. M. L. de Wette (17801849) joined this hypothesis to one asserted by 17th-century commentators by stating that the author(s) of the first four books of the Pentateuch did not write the Book of Deuteronomy. In 1805 he attributed Deuteronomy to the time of Josiah (ca. 621 BCE). Soon other writers also began considering the idea. By 1823 Eichhorn abandoned claiming Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch. Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette (January 12, 1780 - June 16, 1849), was a German theologian. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ supported of the LORD, Standard Hebrew Yošiyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC Events and Trends 627 BC - Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur_etel_ilani (approximate... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


19th-century theories

About 1822 Friedrich Bleek commented about the original relationship of Joshua to the Pentateuch in its continuation of the narrative in Deuteronomy, of which it formed the conclusion. The letters "J" for Jahwist and "E" Elohist then became associated with the documents. 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrich Bleek (July 4, 1793 - February 27, 1859), German Biblical scholar, was at Ahrensbök, in Holstein, a village near Lübeck. ...


H. Hupfeld followed K. D. Ilgen in identifying two separate documents that used "Elohim". In 1853 Hupfeld set forth Genesis chapters 1 to 19 and 20 to 50 as providing the two separate Elohistic source documents. He also emphasized the importance of the redactor of these documents. He followed the arrangement of the documents as: First Elohist, Second Elohist, Jehovist, Deuteronomist: J, E, and D. Hermann Hupfeld (March 31, 1796 – April 24, 1866), German Orientalist and Biblical commentator, was born at Marburg, where he studied philosophy and theology from 1813 to 1817. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Genesis (Hebrew: ‎, Greek: Γένεσις, meaning birth, creation, cause, beginning, source or origin) is the first book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ...


Karl Heinrich Graf showed that many individual features distinguished Leviticus chapters 17 to 26 from the priestly document. He suggested a fifth document, which August Klostermann named the "Holiness Code" (because this body of laws featured the declaration of God's holiness, Israel's duty to be holy as his people, and extremely frequent use of the word holy). Karl Heinrich Graf (February 28, 1815 - July 16, 1869), German Old Testament scholar and orientalist, was born at Mulhausen in Alsace. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... The Holiness Code appears at Leviticus 17-26, and is so called due to its highly repeated use of the word Holy. ...


Julius Wellhausen

In 1886 the German historian Julius Wellhausen published Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels ("Prolegomena to the History of Israel"). In this book he stated: "according to the historical and prophetical books of the Old Testament the priestly legislation of the middle books of the Pentateuch was unknown in pre-exilic time, and that this legislation must therefore be a late development."(2) The letter "P", for priestly, became associated with this view. Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 - January 17, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. ...


Wellhausen argued that the Bible provides historians with an important source, but that they cannot take it literally. He argued that a number of people wrote the "hexateuch" (including the Torah or Pentateuch, and the book of Joshua) over a long period. Specifically, he narrowed the field to four distinct narratives, which he identified by the aforementioned Jahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomist and Priestly accounts. He also proposed a Redactor, who edited the four accounts into one text. (Some see the redactor as Ezra the scribe.) Using earlier propositions, he argued that each of these sources has its own vocabulary, its own approach and concerns, and that the passages originally belonging to each account can be distinguished by differences in style (especially, the name used for God, the grammar and word usage, the political assumptions implicit in the text, and the interests of the author). Tora redirects here. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Joshua praying God to stop the Sun by Gustave Doré In Jewish mythology, Joshua or Yehoshua (Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian: , Israeli: Yəhoshúa) was an Israelite leader who succeeded Moses. ...

  • The "J" source: In this source God's name always appears as YHVH, which scholars transliterated in modern times as Yahveh (German spelling: Jahwe; earlier translators in English used the transliteration Jehovah).
  • The "E" source: In this source God's name always comes in the form Elohim (Hebrew for "God", or "Power") until the revelation of God's name to Moses, after which God's name becomes YHVH.
  • The "D" or "Dtr" source: The source that wrote the book of Deuteronomy, as well as the books of Joshua, Judges, First and Second Samuel and First and Second Kings.
  • The "P" source: The priestly material. Uses Elohim and El Shaddai as names of God.

Wellhausen argued that from the style and point of view of each source one could draw inferences about the times of writing of that source (in other words, the historical value of the Bible lies not in it revealing things about the events it describes, but rather in revealing things about the people who wrote it). He argued that in the progression evident in these four sources, from a relatively informal and decentralized relationship between people and God in the J account, to the relatively formal and centralized practices of the P account, one could see the development of institutionalized Israelite religion. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...


Subsequent scholars have questioned (and to a large degree rejected) a number of Wellhausen's specific interpretations, including his reconstruction of the order of the accounts as J-E-D-P. Biblical scholars today suggest that he organized the narrative to culminate with P because he believed that the New Testament followed logically in this progression. (This assumption prompted the Jewish scholar Solomon Schechter to refer to Wellhausen's theories as "Higher Antisemitism"). In the 1950s the Israeli historian Yehezkel Kaufmann published The Religion of Israel, from Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile, in which he argued for the order of the sources as J, E, P, and D. John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Solomon Schechter (1847-1915) was a Romanian Jewish rabbi, academic scholar, and educator, most famous for his roles as founder and President of the United Synagogue of America, President of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, and architect of the American Conservative Jewish movement. ... // Recovering from World War I and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... Title page from Yehezkel Kaufmanns History of the Religion of Israel. ...


Wellhausen resigned his post as professor of biblical studies, stating that his hypotheses had started to make his students (trainees for the Evangelical, i.e., Protestant, ministry) unsuitable as ministers. The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ...


The modern era

Other scholars quickly responded to the documentary understanding of the origin of the five books of Moses, and within a few years it became the predominant hypothesis. While subsequent scholarship has dismissed many of Wellhausen's specific claims, most historians still accept the general idea that the five books of Moses had a composite origin. History studies the past in human terms. ...


Note that the term "documentary hypothesis" does not necessarily refer to one specific hypothesis. Rather, this name applies to any understanding of the origin of the Torah that recognizes (basically) four sources redacted together into a final version. One could claim that one redactor wove together four specific texts, or one could hold that the entire nation of Israel slowly created a consensus work based on various strands of the Israelite tradition, or anything in between. Gerald A. Larue writes:

Back of each of the four sources lie traditions that may have been both oral and written. Some may have been preserved in the songs, ballads, and folktales of different tribal groups, some in written form in sanctuaries. The so-called 'documents' should not be considered as mutually exclusive writings, completely independent of one another, but rather as a continual stream of literature representing a pattern of progressive interpretation of traditions and history [2]

Richard Elliot Friedman

In recent years researchers have made attempts to separate the J, E, D, and P portions. Richard Elliott Friedman's Who Wrote The Bible? contains opinions as to the possible identity of each of those authors and, more important, why they wrote what they wrote. Harold Bloom then wrote The Book of J, in which his co-author, Hebrew translator David Rosenberg, claims to have reconstructed the book that J wrote (though, certainly, some of J's original contribution could have become lost in the consolidation, if one accepts the four-author hypothesis). Bloom (picking up on Friedman's earlier speculation) also indicates a belief indentifying J as a woman, but other scholars do not accept this. Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... David Iokhelevich Rozenberg, Russian: (November 15/27, 1879, Šateikiai/Шатейкяй, Vilna district (guberniya), Russia - February 17, 1950, Moscow), was a Lithuania-born Soviet economist. ...


More recently, Friedman published The Hidden Book in the Bible, in which he argues that J wrote not only the portions of the Torah commonly attributed to J, but also sections of Judges, Joshua and First and Second Samuel (which Bloom and earlier Biblical scholars attributed to another source, the Court History of David), which contained the bulk of the accounts of the life of King David, with a close thematic interrelationship between the earlier and later portions of what Friedman presents as a single united work by one author of Shakespearean literary ability. According to most modern Biblical critics, this is one of the source documents of the Hebrew Bible. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ...


Friedman has also published The Bible with Sources Revealed (2003), his own translation of the Torah with the material from each source (as he sees them) in a different color of ink or a different typeface.


The hypothesis of female authorship

Some modern scholars argue for the possibility of female authorship based on (for example) the fact that an upper-class woman (in Judah especially) may have had greater status and access to education than a lower-class man at that time,[3] making female authorship at least possible. Scholars have particularly singled out the J source as a candidate for female authorship (see above for discussion of the J source, especially the work of Bloom and Rosenberg in The Book of J[4] ). However, Richard Friedman in Who wrote the Bible? notes that while these ideas leave the door open to female authorship, they do not constitute a proof of it either way. Richard Friedman is the name of: Richard Elliott Friedman, contemporary Bible scholar Richard S. Kinky Friedman, songwriter and candidate for Governor of Texas Category: ...


Debates on the hypothesis

Various views of opponents

Opponents of the hypothesis

Fundamentalist Jews and Christians reject the documentary theory entirely, and accept the traditional view that the whole Torah is the work of Moses. For most Orthodox Jews and most traditional Christians, the divine origins of the five books of Moses in its entirety is accepted as a given; divine origins and the documentary hypothesis are considered by them as incompatible. Some conservatives have criticized because they believe it is not evidentially supported. Some Christians, such as the translators of the New International Version of the Bible believe that Moses was the author of much of the text, and was the editor and compiler of the rest of the text. In addition, as noted earlier Biblical scholars Kenneth Kitchen and Gleason Archer have sharply criticized and rejected the documentary hypothesis using various lines of argument. [1][2][3][4][5]. Also, W.F. Albright, stated that even the most ardent proponents of the documentary hypothesis must admit that there is no tangible, external evidence for the existence or the history of the J, E, D, P sources which are alleged to exist. Dr. Yohanan Aharoni, in his work Canaanite Israel during the Period of Israeli Occupation states that archaeological discoveries show that later authors or editors could not have put together or invented these stories hundreds of years after they happened. [6] Also, Roger N. Whybray, George W. Coats, and Claus Westermann contend that the Joseph story in Genesis 37-50 was a unity. [7] In 1999, Josh McDowell wrote a work entitled New Evidence that Demands a Verdict in which he reviews the arguments of scholars who believe the Documentary hypothesis is invalid. McDowell cites the objections of early scholars such as Umberto Cassuto and cites newer scholars such as Kenneth Kitchen as well. Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ... Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891–September 19/September 20, 1971) was an evangelical American Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Umberto Cassuto, also known as Moshe David Cassuto, (1883 - 1951), was born in Florence, Italy. ... Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006). ...


Over the last century an entire literature has developed within these conservative scholarship and religious communities, dedicated to the refutation of higher biblical criticism in general, and the documentary hypothesis in particular. They have had a tendency to focus on the extra-literary analysis of Pentateuchal scholars such as the oral traditionalists. Recent defenders of the classical view include Rabbi David Zwi Hoffman (known for his responsa titled "Melamed le-Ho'il") of Berlin. Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Rabbi David Zvi Hoffman or Rev David Tzvi Hoffman (1843-1921)Master of Jewish learning and secular studies, one of the first Jews to receive a doctorate from a German University, important defender of Jewish tradition, master of Biblical Criticism. ...


The oral traditionalists, the first of whom was Hermann Gunkel, viewed the Torah originally as a form of saga, much like the Iliad or Odyssey, passed down by word of mouth by an illiterate people. More recently, this point of view has been represented by Scandinavian scholar Ivan Engnell, who believes the whole of the Torah was transmitted orally to the post-exilic period, at which point it was written down in a single document by an author whose attributes match those ascribed to the author that the theory refers to as P.


The view of Heidelberg professor Rolf Rendtorff is that larger chunks of narrative, within the texts the theory calls J and E, evolved independently of other parts of each of these texts, and were not part of a large text like J or E. This view proposes that the narrative was only combined editorially at a later stage, by a Deuteronomic redactor. In this synthesis, he allows for a post-exilic P source, but far reduced from the notions of Wellhausen. Heidelberg and the other cities of the Neckar valley The castle (Schloss) above the town Main Street (Hauptstrasse) Shopping district View from the so called alley of philosophers (Philosophenweg) towards the Old Town, with Heidelberg Castle, Heiliggeist Church and the Old Bridge Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg...


A more critical analysis that rejects the partitioning scheme of Wellhausen includes that of Hans Heinrich Schmid, whose 1976 work, Der sogenannte Jahwist or translated, The So-called Yahwist, almost completely eliminates the J document and, according to Blenkinsopp, if taken to its logical extreme, eliminates all narrative sources other than the Deuteronomic author. Furthermore, some studies have showed literary consistency throughout the Pentateuch, such as a 1980 computer study at Hebrew University in Israel which concluded that the Pentateuch was most likely written by a single author. [8] 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


Various views of supporters

Bible scholars supporting the documentary hypothesis continue to debate the specifics — as commonly happens in the fields of archaeology, history and science.


While accepting the documentary hypothesis as correct in outline, some scholars believe that the Wellhausen School overemphasized the use of written sources to the neglect of the oral traditions that underlay the sources. The oral traditionalists, starting with Hermann Gunkel (the "father of form criticism"), viewed the narratives of the Torah as originally stories handed down orally in the form of sagas, much like the Iliad or Odyssey, passed down via word of mouth by an illiterate people. Eventually scribes wrote these oral traditions down. Translated and abridged from the German version of wikipedia. ... Form criticism is a method of biblical criticism applied as a means of analyzing the typical features of texts, especially their conventional forms or structures, in order to relate them to their sociological contexts. ... Look up saga in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Form and tradition history do not necessarily contradict the documentary hypothesis; one could use these methods to try to reconstruct the oral history behind Wellhausen's written sources. On the other hand, one can take oral tradition as an alternative to written sources. The Scandinavian scholar Ivan Engnell has espoused this point of view: he believes that the Hebrew people transmitted the whole of the Torah orally into the post-exilic period, at which point an author — whose attributes match those ascribed to the Redactor R of the documentary hypothesis — wrote it down in a single document.


The Heidelberg professor Rolf Rendtorff expresses the view that larger chunks of narrative within the texts that the documentary hypothesis calls J and E evolved independently of other parts of each of these texts, and did not form part of a large text like J or E. This view proposes that a Deuteronomic redactor combined the narratives editorially only at a later stage. In this synthesis, Rendtorff allows for a post-exilic P source, but one far reduced from the notions of Wellhausen. The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) is one of the most prestigious universities of Germany. ...


Some critical analysis rejects the partitioning scheme of Wellhausen. For example Hans Heinrich Schmid, in his 1976 work, Der sogenannte Jahwist ["The So-called Yahwist"], almost completely eliminates the J document. According to Blenkinsopp (1992), this approach — if taken to the logical extreme — eliminates all narrative sources other than the Deuteronomic author. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Other modifications to the documentary hypothesis appeared in the mid-1970s in the work of John Van Seters, and continued into the 1980s and 1990s. Dating the J material to the period of the exile (6th century BCE), but maintaining its focus as identity-creation, Van Seters' work continues to use the terminology established in the 18th and 19th centuries, but holds a different view regarding the compositional process. While Schmid and other European scholars continue to think in terms of documents and redactors, Van Seters proposes a process of supplementation in which subsequent groups modify earlier compositions to include their points of view and to change the focus of the narratives. John Van Seters is a notable scholar on the Ancient Near East. ...


The modifications to the documentary hypothesis suggested by Van Seters and others have provided challenges for biblical scholars, particularly in the United States of America. Many see the supplementary model as incompatible with the established views of the documentary models of composition. They correctly see a challenge to the early dating for composition and the problematic control of documentary materials, for which the literary evidence appears harder and harder to maintain.


References

John Rogerson provides an authoritative and readable overview in Old Testament Criticism in the Nineteenth Century: England and Germany (1985).

  • Allis, Oswald T. The Five Books of Moses, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., Phillipsburg, New Jersey, USA, 1949, pages 17 and 22.
  • Archer, Gleason. A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago: Moody, 1994.
  • Blenkinsopp, Joseph The Pentateuch : an introduction to the first five books of the Bible, Doubleday, NY, USA 1992. ISBN 038541207X
  • Bloom, Harold and Rosenberg, David The Book of J, Random House, NY, USA 1990. ISBN 0-8021-4191-9.
  • Campbell, Joseph "Gods and Heroes of the Levant: 1500–500 B.C." The Masks of God 3: Occidental Mythology, Penguin Books, NY, USA, 1964.
  • Cassuto, Umberto. The Documentary Hypothesis and the Composition of the Pentateuch, Magnes, 1961. ISBN 965-223-479-6.
  • Cassuto, Umberto. The Documentary Hypothesis (Contemporary Jewish Thought), Shalem, 2006. ISBN 965-7052-35-1.
  • Clines, David J. A. The Theme of the Pentateuch. JSOTSup. 10. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1978.
  • Dever, William G. What Did The Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, USA, 2001. ISBN 0-8028-4794-3
  • Finkelstein, Israel and Silberman, Neil A. The Bible Unearthed, Simon and Schuster, NY, USA, 2001. ISBN 0-684-86912-8
  • Fox, Robin Lane, The Unauthorized Version. A classics scholar offers a measured view for the layman.
  • Friedman, Richard E. Who Wrote The Bible?, Harper and Row, NY, USA, 1987. ISBN 0-06-063035-3. This work does not constitute a standard reference for the Documentary Hypothesis, as Friedman in part describes his own theory of the origin of one of the sources. Rather, it offers an excellent introduction for the layman.
  • Friedman, Richard E. The Hidden Book in the Bible, HarperSan Francisco, NY, USA, 1998.
  • Friedman, Richard E. The Bible with Sources Revealed, HarperSanFrancisco, 2003. ISBN 0-06-053069-3.
  • Garrett, Duane A. Rethinking Genesis: The Sources and Authorship of the First Book of the Bible, Mentor, 2003. ISBN 1-85792-576-9.
  • Kaufmann, Yehezkel, Greenberg, Moishe (translator) The Religion of Israel, from Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile, University of Chicago Press, 1960.
  • Larue, Gerald A. Old Testament Life and Literature, Allyn & Bacon, Inc, Boston, MA, USA 1968
  • McDowell, Josh More Evidence That Demands a Verdict: Historical Evidences for the Christian Scriptures, Here's Life Publishers, Inc. 1981, p. 45.
  • McDowell, Josh The New Evidence That Demands a Verdict, Thomas Nelson Inc.,Publishers. 1999, pages: 411, 528.
  • Mendenhall, George E. The Tenth Generation: The Origins of the Biblical Tradition, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
  • Mendenhall, George E. Ancient Israel's Faith and History: An Introduction to the Bible in Context, Westminster John Knox Press, 2001. ISBN 0-664-22313-3
  • Nicholson, Ernest Wilson. The Pentateuch in the Twentieth Century: The Legacy of Julius Wellhausen, Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0198269587
  • Rogerson, J. Old Testament Criticism in the Nineteenth Century: England and Germany, SPCK/Fortress, 1985.
  • Spinoza, Benedict de A Theologico-Political Treatise Dover, New York, USA, 1951, Chapter 8.
  • Tigay, Jeffrey H. "An Empirical Basis for the Documentary Hypothesis" Journal of Biblical Literature Vol.94, No.3 Sept. 1975, pages 329–342.
  • Tigay, Jeffrey H., (ed.) Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, USA 1986. ISBN 081227976X
  • Van Seters, John. Abraham in History and Tradition Yale University Press, 1975.
  • Van Seters, John. In Search of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History Yale University Press, 1983.
  • Van Seters, John. Prologue to History: The Yahwist as Historian in Genesis Westminster/John Knox, Louisville, Kentucky, 1992. ISBN 0664219675
  • Van Seters, John. The Life of Moses: The Yahwist as Historian in Exodus–Numbers Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox, 1994. ISBN 0-664-22363-X
  • Wiseman, P. J. Ancient Records and the Structure of Genesis Thomas Nelson, Inc., Nashville, TN, USA 1985. ISBN 0-8407-7502-4
  • Whybray, R. N. The Making of the Pentateuch: A Methodological Study JSOTSup 53. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1987.

Gleason Leonard Archer (May 22, 1916 – April 27, 2004) was a Biblical scholar, theologian, educator, and author. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 31, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. ... Umberto Cassuto, also known as Moshe David Cassuto, (1883 - 1951), was born in Florence, Italy. ... Umberto Cassuto, also known as Moshe David Cassuto, (1883 - 1951), was born in Florence, Italy. ... William G. Dever is an American archaeologist, specialising in the history of Israel and the Near East in Biblical times, who was Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona from 1975 to 2002. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... Neil Asher Silberman is an archaeologist who serves as director of the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium. ... Robin Lane Fox (born 1946) is an English academic and historian, currently a Fellow of New College, Oxford, and University Reader in Ancient History. ... Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ... Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ... Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ... Joslin Josh McDowell is a Christian apologist, evangelist, and writer. ... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ...

See also

Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Source Criticism is an aspect of historical criticism, a method of literary study used especially in the field of biblical criticism that seeks to understand a literary piece better by attempting to establish the sources used by the author and/or redactor who put the literary piece together. ... Textual criticism or lower criticism is a branch of philology or bibliography that is concerned with the identification and removal of errors from texts. ... The article concerns the historicity of the Bible. ... With the exception of a couple of fragments (found among the Dead Sea scrolls, discussed below), no Bible texts that we currently have predate about 200 BCE. Nor are they mentioned by historians outside Israel. ... Umberto Cassuto, also known as Moshe David Cassuto, (1883 - 1951), was born in Florence, Italy. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Richard Elliot Friedman, Introduction to The Bible with Sources Revealed, 2003 (see bibliography section).
  2. ^ Larue, Gerald A. Old Testament Life and Literature, Allyn & Bacon, Inc, Boston, MA, USA 1968.
  3. ^ Richard Freidman, Who wrote the Bible?
  4. ^ Bloom, Harold and Rosenberg, David The Book of J, Random House, NY, USA 1990. ISBN 0-8021-4191-9

External links

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Criticisms

  • "On Bible Criticism and Its Counterarguments: A Short History" — on the SimpleToRemember.com Judaism Online website
  • Smith, Colin: "A Critical Assessment of the Graf-Wellhausen Documentary Hypothesis", June 2002. Retrieved from the Alpha and Omega Ministries website on 26 July 2006.
  • "The Documentary Source Hypothesis". On Robin Brace's "My Christian World" site (2003). Retrieved 2006-12-27
  • Who Wrote The First 5 Books of the Bible? — articles on the GospelPedlar website from 1895 to 1964
  • Doug Beaumont, "Did Moses Write the Pentateuch?" (The souldevice.org website apparently no longer serves this article as of 6 November 2006.)
  • "Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch — Tried and True" — article by Eric Lyons and Zach Smith from ApologeticsPress (2003). Retrieved on 2006-08-08.
  • Don Closson, "Did Moses Write the Pentateuch?" — from Probe Ministries
  • John Ankerberg and John Weldon, "Biblical Archaeology — Silencing the Critics — Part 2". Retrieved from the Ankerberg Theological Research Institute site, 2006-12-27.
  • Russell Grigg, "Did Moses really write Genesis?" — on the "Answers in Genesis" Christian apologetic ministry website
  • Dei Verbum — "On Divine Revelation", available on the Vatican's website

July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ...

Alternative hypotheses

  • Curt Sewell, "The Tablet Theory of Genesis Authorship"
  • The Wiseman Hypothesis
  • Gordon Wenham, "Pentateuchal Studies Today" — from Themelios 22.1 (October 1996): 3–13.

 
 

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