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Encyclopedia > Documentary film

Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to "document" reality. Although "documentary film" originally referred to movies shot on film stock, it has subsequently expanded to include video and digital productions that can be either direct-to-video or made for a television series. Documentary, as it applies here, works to identify a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, and mode of audience reception" that is continually evolving and is without clear boundaries.[1] For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New media refers to forms of human and media communication that have been transformed by the creative use of technology to fulfil the basic social need to interact and transact. ... A film that is released direct-to-video (also straight-to-video) is one which has been released to the public on home video formats first rather than first being released in movie theaters. ... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ...

Contents

Defining documentary

The word "documentary" was first applied to films of this nature in a review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana (1926), published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926 and written by "The Moviegoer", a pen name for documentarian John Grierson. Robert Joseph Flaherty (February 16, 1884, Iron Mountain, Michigan, United States - July 23, 1951, Dummerston, Vermont) was a filmmaker who directed and produced the first feature length documentary (Nanook of the North) in 1922. ... Moana is a (1926) documentary film directed by Robert J. Flaherty, the creator of Nanook of the North. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The original New York Sun began publication September 3, 1833, as a morning newspaper, and an evening edition began in 1887. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Grierson (April 26, 1898 - February 19, 1972) is often considered the father of British and Canadian documentary film. ...


In the 1930s, Grierson further argued in his essay First Principles of Documentary that Moana had "documentary value". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form; that the "original" actor and "original" scene are better guides than their fiction counterparts to interpreting the modern world; and that materials "thus taken from the raw" can be more real than the acted article. In this regard, Grierson's views align with Vertov's contempt for dramatic fiction as "bourgeois excess," though with considerably more subtlety. Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, though it presents philosophical questions about documentaries containing stagings and reenactments. The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...


In his essays, Dziga Vertov argued for presenting "life as it is" (that is, life filmed surreptitiously) and "life caught unawares" (life provoked or surprised by the camera). Dziga Vertov Dziga (Dzyga) Vertov (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) January 2, 1896–February 12, 1954) was a Russian pioneer documentary film and newsreel director. ...


History

Pre-1900

The film maker John Grierson used the term documentary in 1926 to refer to any nonfiction film medium, including travelogues and instructional films. The earliest "moving pictures" were, by definition, documentaries. They were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or a factory of people getting off work. Early film (pre-1900) was dominated by the novelty of showing an event. These short films were called "actuality" films. (The term "documentary" was not coined until 1926.) Very little storytelling took place before the turn of the century, due mostly to technological limitations, namely, that movie cameras could hold only very small amounts of film. Thus many of the first films are a minute or less in length, as made by Auguste and Louis Lumière. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Auguste (left) and Louis Lumière. ...


1900-1920

Travelogue films were very popular in the early part of the 20th century. Some were known as "scenics". Scenics were among the most popular sort of films at the time.[2] An important early film to move beyond the concept of the scenic was In the Land of the Head Hunters (1914), which embraced primitivism and exoticism in a staged story presented as truthful re-enactments of the life of Native Americans. Travel literature is literature which records the people, events, sights and feelings of an author who is touring a foreign place for the pleasure of travel. ... Scenic is the first full-length album by Denver Harbor, released on October 12, 2004 on Universal Records. ... In the Land of the Head Hunters (also called In the Land of the War Canoes) is a 1914 documentary film showing the lives of the Kwakiutl Indians of British Columbia. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... Exoticism (from exotic) is a trend in art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations since the late 19th-century. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ...


Also during this period Frank Hurley's documentary film about the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition South was released(1919). It documented the failed Antarctic expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1914. Chateau Wood, Ypres, 1917 by Frank Hurley James Francis Frank Hurley (1885 - 1962) was an official photographer with the Australian Imperial Force during World War I. Hurley travelled on a number of expedititions to the Antarctic including Douglas Mawsons 1911 expedition. ... The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was the fourth British Antarctic exploration of the 20th century, and aimed, but ultimately failed, to be the first to cross the Antarctic continent from one side to the other. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Irish explorer who was knighted for the success of the 1907-09 British Antarctic Expedition under his command. ...


1920s

Romanticism

Nanook of the North movie poster.
Nanook of the North movie poster.

With Robert J. Flaherty's Nanook of the North in 1922, documentary film embraced romanticism; Flaherty went on to film a number of heavily staged romantic films, usually showing how his subjects would have lived 100 years earlier and not how they lived right then (for instance, in Nanook of the North Flaherty did not allow his subjects to shoot a walrus with a nearby shotgun, but had them use a harpoon instead). Image File history File links Promotional poster for the documentary Nanook of the North. ... Image File history File links Promotional poster for the documentary Nanook of the North. ... Robert Joseph Flaherty (February 16, 1884, Iron Mountain, Michigan, United States - July 23, 1951, Dummerston, Vermont) was a filmmaker who directed and produced the first commercially successful feature length documentary film (Nanook of the North) in 1922. ... Nanook of the North is a silent documentary film by Robert J. Flaherty, released in 1922. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Romantics redirects here. ...


Some of Flaherty's staging, such as building a roofless igloo for interior shots, was done to accommodate the filming technology of the time. Igloo An igloo (Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᒡᓗ, house, plural: iglooit or igluit), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ...


The city symphony

The continental, or realist, tradition focused on humans within human-made environments, and included the so-called "city symphony" films such as Berlin, Symphony of a City (of which Grierson noted in an article[3] that Berlin represented what a documentary should not be), Rien que les Heures, and Man with the Movie Camera. These films tend to feature people as products of their environment, and lean towards the avant-garde. Berlin: Symphony of a Great City (German: Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Großstadt), is a 1927 German silent film directed by Walter Ruttmann, is a prominent example of the city symphony genre. ... Opening shot A street in the morning Mikhail Kaufman acts as a cameraman in search of the best shot The Man with the Movie Camera, sometimes The Man with a Movie Camera, The Man with a Camera, or Living Russia (Chelovek s kino-apparatom, in Russian: ) is an experimental 1929...


Newsreel tradition

The newsreel tradition is important in documentary film; newsreels were also sometimes staged but were usually re-enactments of events that had already happened, not attempts to steer events as they were in the process of happening. For instance, much of the battle footage from the early 20th century was staged; the cameramen would usually arrive on site after a major battle and re-enact scenes to film them. A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


"Cinema truth", part one

Dziga Vertov was central to the Russian Kino-Pravda ("cinema truth") newsreel series of the 1920s. Vertov believed the camera -- with its varied lenses, shot-counter shot editing, time-lapse, ability to slow motion, stop motion and fast-motion -- could render reality more accurately than the human eye, and made a film philosophy out of it. Dziga Vertov Dziga (Dzyga) Vertov (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) January 2, 1896–February 12, 1954) was a Russian pioneer documentary film and newsreel director. ... Kino-Pravda was a newsreel series by Dziga Vertov, Elizaveta Svilova, and Mikhail Kaufman. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


1930s-1940s: wartime propaganda

The propagandist tradition consists of films made with the explicit purpose of persuading an audience of a point. One of the most notorious propaganda films is Leni Riefenstahl's film Triumph of the Will. Frank Capra's Why We Fight series was a newsreel series in the United States, commissioned by the government to convince the U.S. public that it was time to go to war. In Canada the Film Board, set up by Grierson, was created for the same propaganda reasons. It also created newsreels that were seen by their national governments as legitimate counter-propaganda to the psychological warfare of Nazi Germany (orchestrated by Joseph Goebbels). The Why We Fight Series depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ... Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ... This article is about the film director. ... Prelude to War depicts the Nazi propaganda machine. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... John Grierson (April 26, 1898 - February 19, 1972) is often considered the father of British and Canadian documentary film. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


In Britain, Humphrey Jennings succeeded in blending propaganda with a poetic approach to documentary with films such as Fires Were Started and A Diary for Timothy. Humphrey Jennings, (August 19, 1907 Walberswick, Suffolk - September 24, 1950 Greece), was a British film-maker and one of the founders of the Mass Observation organization. ... Fires Were Started (1943) is a British film written and directed by Humphrey Jennings. ... A Diary for Timothy (1945) is a British film written and directed by Humphrey Jennings. ...


1950s-1970s

"Cinema truth," part two

Cinéma vérité is a term similar to "Kino-Pravda", coined by Jean Rouch for his own work and as a homage to Vertov. Just as "Kino-Pravda" means literally "cinema-truth" in Russian, so does cinéma vérité mean "cinema truth" in French -- although the latter relies very little on Vertovian special techniques. That said, one cannot deny that cinéma vérité (or the closely related direct cinema) was dependent on some technical advances in order to exist: light, quiet and reliable cameras, and portable sync sound. This article is about filmmaking. ... Jean Rouche (31 May 1917 - 18 February 2004) was a French motion-picture director and ethnologist. ... Direct cinema is a documentary genre that was born between 1958 et 1962 in North America, chiefly in Canada (Quebec) and in the United States. ...


Cinéma vérité and similar documentary traditions can thus be seen, in a broader perspective, as a reaction against studio-based film production constraints. Shooting on location, with smaller crews, would also happen in the French New Wave, the filmmakers taking advantage of advances in technology allowing smaller, handheld cameras and synchronized sound to film events on location as they unfolded. François Truffauts New Wave film Jules et Jim The New Wave (French: la Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ...


Although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there are important differences between cinéma vérité (Jean Rouch) and the North American "Direct Cinema" (or more accurately "Cinéma direct", pioneered among others by French Canadian Michel Brault, Pierre Perrault, Americans [Robert Drew]Richard Leacock, Frederick Wiseman and Albert and David Maysles). Jean Rouche (31 May 1917 - 18 February 2004) was a French motion-picture director and ethnologist. ... Direct cinema is a documentary genre that was born between 1958 et 1962 in North America, chiefly in Canada (Quebec) and in the United States. ... Richard Leacock (born July 18, 1921, London) is a documentary film director and one of the pioneers of Direct Cinema. ... Frederick Wiseman (born 1 January 1930 in Boston, Massachusetts, USA) is an American documentary filmmaker. ... David and Albert Maysles Brothers Albert and David Maysles were a documentary filmmaking team whose films include Salesman, Gimme Shelter and Grey Gardens. ...


The directors of the movement take different viewpoints on their degree of involvement. Kopple and Pennebaker, for instance, choose non-involvement (or at least no overt involvement; Kopple is heard using her status as a filmmaker to scare off the leader of the strikebreakers in Harlan County), and Perrault, Rouch, Koenig, and Kroitor favor direct involvement or even provocation when they deem it necessary.


The films Primary and Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment (both produced by Robert Drew), Harlan County, USA (directed by Barbara Kopple), Dont Look Back (D. A. Pennebaker), Lonely Boy (Wolf Koenig and Roman Kroitor), Chronicle of a Summer (Jean Rouch) and Golden Gloves (Gilles Groulx) [3][4] are all frequently deemed cinéma vérité films. Primary is a 1960 cinema verite documentary film. ... Robert Lincoln Drew (born February 15, 1924) in Toledo, Ohio) is an American writer and director. ... Harlan County, USA is a 1976 documentary film documenting the efforts of 180 coal miners on strike in Harlan County, Kentucky in 1974. ... Barbara Kopple (born July 30, 1946) is an American film director primarily known for her work in documentary film. ... Dont Look Back (sic) is a 1967 documentary film by D.A. Pennebaker that covers Bob Dylans 1965 concert tour of England. ... D.A. Pennebaker is a documentary filmmaker. ... Lonely Boy could refer to: Lonely Boy (Paul Anka song) Lonely Boy (Andrew Gold song) Lonely Boy is also the name of a song written by George Gershwin and performed by such artists as Michael Feinstein Category: ... Roman Kroitor is a Canadian inventor who co-worked to invent IMAX. He worked on the short film Universe. ... Jean Rouch (1917-2004) created many process driven film works. ... Jean Rouche (31 May 1917 - 18 February 2004) was a French motion-picture director and ethnologist. ... Golden Gloves The Golden Gloves is the name given to annual competitions for amateur boxing in the United States. ... Gilles Groulx ( 30 May 1931, Montréal, Quebec, Canada - 22 August 1994) grew up in a working-class family with 14 children. ... This article is about filmmaking. ...


The fundamentals of the style include following a person during a crisis with a moving, often handheld, camera to capture more personal reactions. There are no sit-down interviews, and the shooting ratio (the amount of film shot to the finished product) is very high, often reaching 80:1. From there, editors find and sculpt the work into a film. The editors of the movement, Werner Nold, Charlotte Zwerin, Muffie Myers, Susan Froemke, and Ellen Hovde are often overlooked, but their input to the film is so vital that they were often given co-director credits.


Famous cinéma vérité/direct cinema films include Les Raquetteurs [5], Showman, Salesman, The Children Were Watching, Primary, Behind a Presidential Crisis, and Grey Gardens.


Political weapons

In the 1960s and 1970s, documentary film was often conceived as a political weapon against neocolonialism and capitalism in general, especially in Latin America, but also in a changing Quebec society. La Hora de los hornos (The Hour of the Furnaces, from 1968), directed by Octavio Getino and Fernando E. Solanas, influenced a whole generation of filmmakers. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Neocolonialism is the term describing international economic arrangements wherein former colonial powers maintained control of colonies and dependencies after World War II. Neocolonialism can obfuscate the understanding of current colonialism, given that some colonial governments continue administrating foreign territories and their populations in violation of United Nations resolutions[1] and... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Octavio Getino (born in August 6, 1935 in León, Spain[1]) is an Argentinean film director who is best known for co-founding, along with Fernando Solanas, the school of Third Cinema. ... Fernando Ezequiel Pino Solanas (b. ...


Modern documentaries

One of 150 DV cameras used by Iraqis to film themselves and create the 2004 film Voices of Iraq.
One of 150 DV cameras used by Iraqis to film themselves and create the 2004 film Voices of Iraq.

Box office analysts have noted that this film genre has become increasingly successful in theatrical release with films such as Bowling for Columbine, Super Size Me, Fahrenheit 9/11, March of the Penguins and An Inconvenient Truth being among the most prominent examples. Compared to dramatic narrative films, documentaries typically have far lower budgets. This has made them attractive to film companies because even a limited theatrical release can be highly profitable. Fahrenheit 9/11 set a new record for documentary profits, earning more than US$228 million in ticket sales and selling more than 3 million DVDs.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Voices of Iraq is a 2004 documentary film about Iraq. ... The term box office can refer to either: A place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to a venue The amount of business a particular production, such as a movie or theatre show, does. ... Bowling for Columbine is a controversial documentary film written, directed, produced by, and starring Michael Moore. ... Super Size Me is an Academy Award-nominated 2004 documentary film, directed by and starring Morgan Spurlock, an American independent filmmaker. ... Fahrenheit 9/11 is a controversial, award-winning documentary film by American left-wing filmmaker Michael Moore which presents a critical look at the presidency of George W. Bush, the War on Terrorism, and its coverage in the American news media. ... March of the Penguins is an Academy Award-winning documentary film by Luc Jacquet, co-produced by Bonne Pioche and the National Geographic Society. ... An Inconvenient Truth is an American Academy Award-winning documentary film about climate change, specifically global warming, presented by former United States Vice President Al Gore and directed by Davis Guggenheim. ... Fahrenheit 9/11 is a controversial, award-winning documentary film by American left-wing filmmaker Michael Moore which presents a critical look at the presidency of George W. Bush, the War on Terrorism, and its coverage in the American news media. ...


The nature of documentary films has changed in the past 20 years from the cinema verité tradition. Landmark films such as The Thin Blue Line by Errol Morris, which incorporated stylized re-enactments, and Michael Moore's Roger and Me, which placed far more interpretive control in the hands of the director. Indeed, the commercial success of the documentaries mentioned above may owe something to this narrative shift in the documentary form, leading some critics to question whether such films can truly be called documentaries; critics sometimes refer to these works as "mondo films" or "docu-ganda."[5] However, directorial manipulation of documentary subjects has been noted since the work of Flaherty, and may be endemic to the form. The Thin Blue Line is a 1988 documentary film concerning the murder of a Texas police officer who had stopped a car for a routine traffic citation. ... Errol Morris Errol Morris (born February 5, 1948) is an American Academy Award winning documentary film director. ... Michael Francis Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American political-activist, a film director, author, social commentator, and political humorist. ... Movie Poster for Michael Moores documentary Roger and Me Roger & Me is a 1989 American documentary film directed and reported by independent filmmaker/journalist Michael Moore. ... Mondo film is a documentary film, more precisely a pseudo-documentary, usually depicting sensational topics and scenes. ...


The recent success of the documentary genre, and the advent of DVDs, has made documentaries financially viable even without a cinema release. Yet funding for documentary film production remains elusive, and within the past decade the largest exhibition opportunities have emerged from within the broadcast market, making filmmakers beholden to the tastes and influences of the broadcasters who have become their largest funding source.[6] Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ...


Modern documentaries have some overlap with television forms, with the development of "reality television" that occasionally verges on the documentary but more often veers to the fictional or staged. The making-of documentary shows how a movie or a computer game was produced. Usually made for promotional purposes, it is closer to an advertisement than to classical documentary. Reality television is a genre of television programming which presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and features ordinary people instead of professional actors. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about computer and video games. ...


Modern lightweight digital video cameras and computer-based editing have greatly aided documentary makers, as has the dramatic drop in equipment prices. The first film to take full scale advantage of this change was Martin Kunert and Eric Manes' Voices of Iraq, where 150 DV cameras were sent into Iraq during the war and passed out to Iraqis to record themselves. Mr. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Voices of Iraq is a 2004 documentary film about Iraq. ...


Other documentary forms

Compilation films

Compilation films were pioneered in 1927 by Esfir Schub with The Fall of the Romanov Dynasty. More recent examples include Point of Order (1964), directed by Emile de Antonio about the McCarthy hearings and The Atomic Cafe which is made entirely out of found footage that various agencies of the U.S. government made about the safety of nuclear radiation (e.g., telling troops at one point that it's safe to be irradiated as long as they keep their eyes and mouths shut). Similarly, The Last Cigarette combines the testimony of various tobacco company executives before the U.S. Congress with archival propaganda extolling the virtues of smoking. Documentary Films are protected works of journalism protected under the first amendment. Esfir Shub (1894 to 1953) was a Soviet film director and editor. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Emile de Antonio Emile de Antonio (1919-December 16, 1989) was a director and producer of documentary films, usually detailing political or social events circa 1960s - 1980s. ... The Atomic Café is an acclaimed documentary film created from a broad range of archival of film from the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s - including newsreel clips, television news footage, U.S. government-produced films (including military training films), advertisements, television and radio programs. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ...


Film Schools

The Asian Academy of Film & Television is the pioneer most Film school in this part of the world. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Nichols, Bill. 'Foreword', in Barry Keith Grant and Jeannette Sloniowski (eds.) Documenting The Documentary: Close Readings of Documentary Film and Video. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1997
  2. ^ Miriam Hansen, Babel and Babylon: Spectatorship in American Silent Film, 2005.
  3. ^ Grierson, John. 'First Principles of Documentary', in Kevin Macdonald & Mark Cousins (eds.) Imagining Reality: The Faber Book of Documentary. London: Faber and Faber, 1996
  4. ^ [1] Slate, "Paranoia for Fun and Profit: How Disney and Michael Moore cleaned up on Fahrenheit 9/11". May 3, 2005.
  5. ^ Wood, Daniel B.. "In 'docu-ganda' films, balance is not the objective", Christian Science Monitor, June 2, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-06-06. 
  6. ^ [2] Indiewire, "FESTIVALS: Post-Sundance 2001; Docs Still Face Financing and Distribution Challenges". February 8, 2001.

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

// Safi Faye Sorious Samura, (Cry Freetown, Return to Freetown, Exodus, Living with Hunger, Living with Refugees) S.N. Padhaan Rajeev Tripathi Suma Josson Anand Patwardhan Artavazd Ashoti Peleshyan Susumu Hani David Perlov (Israel) Shinsuke Ogawa Jyunichi Ushiyama Maheen Zia (Pakistan) Noriaki Tsuchimoto Kazuo Hara Mubasher Lucman Ruby Yang Wayne Coles... A Docudrama or Docu-Drama is a type of work (usually a movie or television show) that combines elements of Documentary and Drama, to some extent showing real events and to some extent using actors performing set pieces to take dramatic liberty with events. ... This is a list of movie-related topics. ... 14 Up in America (1998, Phil Joanou) 14 Up Born in the USSR (1998, Sergei Miroshnichenko) 7 Up in South Africa (1992, Angus Gibson) 21 Up (1977, Michael Apted) 28 Up (1985, Michael Apted) 35 Up (1991, Michael Apted) 42 Up (1998, Michael Apted) Age 7 in America (1991, Phil... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Mondo film is a documentary film, more precisely a pseudo-documentary, usually depicting sensational topics and scenes. ... A nature documentary is a documentary film about animals, plants, or other non-human living creatures, usually concentrating on film taken in their natural habitat. ... Political Cinema in the narrow sense of the term is a cinema which portrays current or historical events or social conditions in a partisan way in order to inform or to agitate the spectator. ... Reality film, or reality movie, has come to describe a genre of films that have resulted from reality television,[1] such as The Real Cancun, MTVs film version of The Real World, which was originally titled Spring Break: The Reality Movie. ... The term womens cinema usually refers to the work of women film directors. ...

Documentary film festivals

Please refer to the article on Documentary film festivals for more information. Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...


Documentary Film Awards

The Academy Award for Documentary Feature is one of the most prestigious awards for documentary films. ... Channel 4 logo The Channel 4 Sheffield Pitch is an annual competition sponsored by British public-service television broadcaster Channel 4, which seeks to offer one new documentary maker the chance to make a film for the company. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Significant institutes dealing with documentary

American Film Foundation is an award-winning production company based in Southern California. ... Airing weekly on PBS and distributed by ITVS, the Emmy award-winning series Independent Lens is like an independent film festival in your living room. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... NFTS Logo The National Film and Television School (NFTS) is considered the most important film school in the United Kingdom. ... The D-Word is a worldwide online community for professionals in the documentary film industry. ...

Further reading

  • Ian Aitken (ed) Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film, Routledge, 2005
  • Documentary Film Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
  • Erik Barnouw, Documentary. A History of the Non-Fiction Film, Oxford University Press 1993 - still a useful introduction
  • Sheila Curran Bernard, Documentary Storytelling, Focal Press 2003
  • Julianne Burton (ed.), The social documentary in Latin America, Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press 1990
  • Dave Saunders, Direct Cinema: Observational Documentary and the Politics of the Sixties, London, Wallflower Press 2007
  • Jonathan Dawson, "Dziga Vertov"; http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/directors/03/vertov.html
  • Bill Nichols, Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary, Indiana University Press 1991
  • Bill Nichols, Introduction to documentary, Indiana University Press, 2001
  • Paul Rotha, Documentary diary; an informal history of the British documentary film, 1928-1939, New York, Hill and Wang 1973
  • Janet Walker and Diane Waldeman, Feminism and Documentary, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press 1999.
  • Markus Nornes, Japanese Documentary Film: The Meiji Era through Hiroshima,University of Minnesota Press 2003
  • Markus Nornes, Forest of Pressure: Ogawa Shinsuke and Postwar Japanese Documentary Film,University of Minnesota Press 2007
  • Jim Leach (ed.), Candid eyes: essays on Canadian documentaries, University of Toronto Press, 2003
  • David A. Goldsmith, The Documentary Makers: Interviews with 15 of the Best in the Business, RotoVision, 2003
  • Ellis, Jack C. and Betsy A. McLane, "A New History of Documentary Film",Continuum International, 2005

Erik Barnouw (*1908, in Den Haag; † 2001 in Fair Haven, Vermont, USA) was an american media historian. ... Bill Nichols is an American historian and theoretician of documentary film. ... Bill Nichols is an American historian and theoretician of documentary film. ... Paul Rotha (*June 3th, 1907- March 7th 1984) was a socialist british film maker and film historian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Documentaries about documentary filmmakers

  • Devotion. A film about Ogawa Productions, Director: Barbara Hammer, 2000

Barbara Hammer is a lesbian filmmaker in the genre of experimental films. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film (502 words)
Documentary film dates back to the last decades of the nineteenth century and has been practiced since then in every region of the world.
Diverse in form and subject matter, documentary film can have many missions as well, at times created to inform, intrigue, teach, enlighten, convert, outrage, accuse, and also to serve as perfect propaganda.
Bringing together all aspects of documentary film, this accessible three volume set is an essential and comprehensive resource for scholars, students, and the interested general reader.
Documentary Resource (1587 words)
Today the word 'documentary' is used to describe any film or programme which includes some factual element, from investigative programmes on child abuse or illegal immigration to 'fly on the wall' documentaries such as 'Airport'.
In essence such films were supposed to be a record of 'real people' and their activities in which there was an attempt to capture the truth of their lives and experiences.
Most of these film makers also believed that their films should serve society by revealing to the general public the plight of the poor, the dispossessed or the badly housed.
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