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Encyclopedia > Doctors' Trial
Karl Brandt at the Doctors' Trial
Karl Brandt at the Doctors' Trial


The Doctors' Trial (officially United States of America v. Karl Brandt, et al.) was the first of 12 trials for war crimes that the United States authorities held in their occupation zone in Nuremberg, Germany after the end of World War II. These trials were held before U.S. military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms. The trials are collectively known as the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials", formally the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals" (NMT). Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial Copyright (probably) This work is copyrighted. ... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial Copyright (probably) This work is copyrighted. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg, Polish: Norymberga) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Chief prosecutor Telford Taylor opens the prosecution case in the Krupp Trial The Subsequent Nuremberg Trials (or, more formally, the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT)) were a series of twelve U.S. military trials for war crimes against surviving members of the military, political, and...


Twenty of the 23 defendants were medical doctors (Brack, Rudolf Brandt, and Sievers being Nazi officials) and all were accused of having been involved in Nazi human experimentation. Nazi human experimentation was medical experimentation on large numbers of people by the German Nazi regime in its concentration camps during World War II. // Two Nazi doctors at the Dachau concentration camp preside over a cold water immersion experiment on a prisoner. ...


The judges in this case, heard before Military Tribunal I, were Walter B. Beals (presiding judge) from Washington, Harold L. Sebring from Florida, and Johnson T. Crawford from Oklahoma, with Victor T. Swearingen, a former special assistant to the Attorney General of the United States, as an alternate judge. The Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Telford Taylor and the chief prosecutor James M. McHaney. The indictment was filed on October 25, 1946; the trial lasted from December 9 that year until August 20, 1947. Of the 23 defendants, seven were acquitted and seven received death sentences; the remainder received prison sentences ranging from 10 years to life imprisonment. “Washington State” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Telford Taylor Telford Taylor (February 24, 1908 - May 22, 1998) was a U.S. lawyer best known for his role in the Counsel for the Prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II, his opposition against Senator McCarthy in the 1950s, and his outspoken criticism of the U.S... In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal charge of having committed a most serious criminal offense. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Indictment

The accused faced four charges:

  1. Conspiracy to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity as described in counts 2 and 3;
  2. War crimes: performing medical experiments, without the subjects' consent, on prisoners of war and civilians of occupied countries, and participation in the mass murder of concentration camp inmates.
  3. Crimes against humanity: committing crimes described under count 2 also on German nationals.
  4. Membership in a criminal organization, the SS.

The SS had been declared a criminal organization by the IMT. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ...


All defendants pled not guilty.


The tribunal largely dropped count 1, stating that the charge was beyond its jurisdiction.


Defendants

Name Function Charges Sentence
    1 2 3 4  
Hermann Becker-Freyseng Stabsarzt in the Luftwaffe (Captain, Medical Service of the Air Force); and Chief of the Department for Aviation Medicine of the Chief of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe I G G   20 years' imprisonment, commuted to 10 years
Wilhelm Beiglböck Consulting Physician to the Luftwaffe I G G   15 years' imprisonment, commuted to 10 years
Kurt Blome Deputy [of the] Reich Health Leader (Reichsgesundheitsführer); and Plenipotentiary for Cancer Research in the Reich Research Council I I I   acquitted
Viktor Brack Oberführer (Senior Colonel) in the SS and Sturmbannführer (Major) in the Waffen SS; and Chief Administrative Officer in the Chancellery of the Fuhrer of the NSDAP (Oberdienstleiter, Kanzlei des Führers der NSDAP) I G G G death
Karl Brandt Personal physician to Adolf Hitler; Gruppenführer in the SS and Generalleutnant (Major General) in the Waffen SS; Reich Commissioner for Health and Sanitation (Reichskommissar für Sanitäts- und Gesundheitswesen); and member of the Reich Research Council (Reichsforschungsrat) I G G G death
Rudolf Brandt Standartenführer (Colonel); in the Allgemeine SS; Personal Administrative Officer to Reichsführer SS Himmler (Persönlicher Referent von Himmler); and Ministerial Counsellor and Chief of the Ministerial Office in the Reich Ministry of the Interior I G G G death
Dr. med. Fritz Fischer Sturmbannführer (Major) in the Waffen SS; and Assistant Physician to the defendant Gebhardt at the Hospital at Hohenlychen I G G G lifetime imprisonment, commuted to 15 years
Karl Gebhardt Gruppenführer in the SS and Generalleutnant (Major General) in the Waffen SS; personal physician to Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler; Chief Surgeon of the Staff of the Reich Physician SS and Police (Oberster Kliniker, Reichsarzt SS und Polizei); and President of the German Red Cross I G G G death
Karl Genzken Gruppenführer in the SS and Generalleutnant (Major General) in the Waffen SS; and Chief of the Medical Department of the Waffen SS (Chef des Sanitätsamts der Waffen SS) I G G G lifetime imprisonment, commuted to 20 years
Siegfried Handloser Generaloberstabsarzt (Lieutenant General, Medical Service); Medical Inspector of the Army (Heeressanitätsinspekteur); and Chief of the Medical Services of the Armed Forces (Chef des Wehrmachtsanitätswesens) I G G   lifetime imprisonment, commuted to 20 years
Waldemar Hoven Hauptsturmführer (Captain) in the Waffen SS; and Chief Doctor of the Buchenwald concentration camp I G G G death
Joachim Mrugowsky Oberführer (Senior Colonel) in the Waffen SS; Chief Hygienist of the Reich Physician SS and Police (Oberster Hygieniker, Reichsarzt SS und Polizei); and Chief of the Hygienic Institute of the Waffen SS (Chef des Hygienischen Institutes der Waffen SS) I G G G death
Herta Oberheuser Physician at the Ravensbrück concentration camp; and Assistant Physician to the defendant Gebhardt at the Hospital at Hohenlychen I G G   20 years' imprisonment, commuted to 10 years
Adolf Pokorny Physician, Specialist in Skin and Venereal Diseases I I I   acquitted
Helmut Poppendick Oberfuehrer (Senior Colonel) in the SS; and Chief of the Personal Staff of the Reich Physician SS and Police (Chef des Persönlichen Stabes des Reichsarztes SS und Polizei) I I I G 10 years imprisonment, commuted to none
Hans Wolfgang Romberg Doctor on the Staff of the Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation I I I   acquitted
Gerhard Rose Generalarzt of the Luftwaffe (Brigadier General, Medical Service of the Air Force); Vice President, Chief of the Department for Tropical Medicine, and Professor of the Robert Koch Institute; and Hygienic Adviser for Tropical Medicine to the Chief of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe I G G   lifetime imprisonment, commuted to 20 years
Paul Rostock Chief Surgeon of the Surgical Clinic in Berlin; Surgical Adviser to the Army; and Chief of the Office for Medical Science and Research (Amtschef der Dienststelle Medizinische Wissenschaft und Forschung) under the defendant Karl Brandt, Reich Commissioner for Health and Sanitation I I I   acquitted
Siegfried Ruff Director of the Department for Aviation Medicine at the German Experimental Institute for Aviation (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt); still researching and publishing in the field of aviation as late as 1989[1] I I I   acquitted
Konrad Schäfer Doctor on the Staff of the Institute for Aviation Medicine in Berlin I I I   acquitted
Oskar Schröder Generaloberstabsarzt (Lieutenant General Medical Service); Chief of Staff of the Inspectorate of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe (Chef des Stabes, Inspekteur des Luftwaffe-Sanitätswesens); and Chief of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe (Chef des Sanitätswesens der Luftwaffe) I G G   lifetime imprisonment, commuted to 15 years
Wolfram Sievers Standartenführer (Colonel) in the SS; Reich Manager of the "Ahnenerbe" Society and Director of its Institute for Military Scientific Research (Institut für Wehrwissenschaftliche Zweckforschung); and Deputy Chairman of the Managing Board of Directors of the Reich Research Council I G G G death
Georg August Weltz Oberfeldarzt in the Luftwaffe (Lieutenant Colonel, Medical Service, of the Air Force); and Chief of the Institute for Aviation Medicine in Munich I I I   acquitted

I — Indicted   G — Indicted and found guilty This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Commutation of sentence involves the reduction of legal penalties, especially of terms of imprisonment. ... Wilhelm Beiglböck pleading not guilty at the Doctors Trial. ... Kurt Blome was a high-ranking Nazi scientist before and during the Second World War. ... In 1929, Viktor Brack became a member of the NSDAP and the SS. In 1936, he was supervising operation of the office 2 (Amt 2) in the Chancellery of the Führer in Berlin, that office examined complaints received by the Führer from all parts of Germany. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Brandt at the Doctors Trial Karl Brandt (January 8, 1904 – June 2, 1948) was the personal physician to Adolf Hitler and headed the administration of the Nazi euthanasia programme from 1939. ... Rudolf Brandt (June 2, 1909, Frankfurt an der Oder - June 2, 1948), was a SS officer and civil servant. ...   (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... Fritz Fischer was born on 5th October, 1912 in Berlin. ... Karl Gebhardt (November 23, 1897 – June 2, 1948) was a German medical doctor; personal physician of Heinrich Himmler and one of the main coordinators and perpetrators of surgical experiments performed on inmates of the concentration camps at Ravensbrück and Auschwitz. ... Karl Genzken (born on June 8, 1895 in Preetz, Holstein), a physician, he conducted human experiments on prisoners of several concentration camps. ... Siegfried Handloser (25th March, 1895 - 3rd July, 1954) was a Doctor, Prof. ... Waldemar Hoven Waldemar Hoven (February 10, 1903 – June 2, 1948) was chief Doctor for the Buchenwald Concentration Camp, where he was responsible for euthanizing prisoners with injections of either phenol or gasoline. ... Gate with the words Jedem das Seine (Each to his own) Buchenwald concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (the Etter Mountain) located near Weimar, Thuringia, Germany, in July 1937. ... Joachim Mrugowsky (August 15, 1905, Rathenow/Havel) – (June 2, 1948) Hygienist. ... Hertha Oberheuser is sentenced to 20 years imprisonment at the Doctors Trial Herta Oberheuser (born on May 15, 1911 in Cologne, died in 1978) was a doctor at the Ravensbrück concentration camp. ... View of the barracks at Ravensbrück Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp located 90 km north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück in northern Germany. ... Adolf Pokorny was born on July 26, 1895 in Vienna. ... Helmut Poppendick born on (1st June, 1902, Hude. ... Gerhard Rose was an expert on tropical medicine who was tried for war crimes at the end of World War II. Roses studed at the University of Breslau and the University of Berlin. ... Paul Rostock (January 18, 1892 - June 17, 1956) - German official, surgeon, and university professor. ... REDIRLink titleBold textItalic textECT Insert textMedia:Example. ... Emblem The Nazi Deutsches Ahnenerbe – Studiengesellschaft für Geistesurgeschichte was founded by Heinrich Himmler, Hermann Wirth, and Walter Darré on July 1, 1935 as a research foundation. ...


Those sentenced to death were hanged on June 2, 1948 in Landsberg prison, Bavaria. Hanging to Music. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Entrance of the Landsberg Prison Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 30 miles (45 km) west of Munich. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ...


Generally, the difference between receiving a prison term and the death sentence was membership of "an organization declared criminal by the judgement of the International Military Tribunal", the SS. SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop...


References

  1. ^ Ruff, Siegfried, et al. Sicherheit und Rettung in der Luftfahrt. Koblenz : Bernard & Graefe, c1989.

See also

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... This article is about the Declaration of Geneva pertaining to the medical profession. ... The Declaration of Helsinki, developed by the World Medical Association, is a set of ethical principles for the medical community regarding human experimentation. ... Medical ethics is the study of moral values as they apply to medicine. ... Medical torture describes the involvement and sometimes active participation of medical professionals in acts of torture, to either to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments which will enhance torture, or as torturers in their own right. ... The Hippocratic Oath is an oath traditionally taken by physicians pertaining to the ethical practice of medicine. ... Nazi eugenics pertains to Nazi Germanys nazism and race social policies that placed the improvement of the race through eugenics at the centre of their concerns and targeted those humans they identified as Life Unworthy of Life, including but not limited to: criminal, degenerate, dissident, feeble-minded, homosexual, idle... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitues a war crime. ... Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ...

Further reading

Articles
  • Hanauske-Abel, H. (1996). Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and National Socialism in 1933 BMJ 1996; 313: 1453-1463
  • Pellegrino, E. (1997). The Nazi Doctors and Nuremberg: Some Moral Lessons Revisited ACP 15 August 1997; 127: 4: 307-308.
  • Seidelman, W. (1996). Nuremberg lamentation: for the forgotten victims of medical science BMJ 1996; 313: 1463-1467

The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of doctors of internal medicine (internists) -- physicians who specialize in the prevention, detection and treatment of illnesses in adults. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ...

External links


The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Milch Trial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (428 words)
The Milch Trial (or officially, The United States of America vs. Erhard Milch) was the second of the twelve trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Nuremberg after the end of World War II.
In the Milch trial, former Field Marshal of the Luftwaffe Erhard Milch was accused of having committed war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Telford Taylor, the Chief Trial Counsel was Clark Denny.
Doctors' Trial - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1076 words)
Twenty of the 23 defendants were medical doctors (Brack, Rudolf Brandt, and Sievers being Nazi officials) and all were accused of having been involved in Nazi human experimentation.
The Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Telford Taylor, the chief prosecutor in this case was James M. McHaney.
The indictment was filed on October 25, 1946; the trial lasted from December 9 that year until August 20, 1947.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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