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Encyclopedia > Doctorate
Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. From Rudolph Ackermann's History of Oxford, 1814.
Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. From Rudolph Ackermann's History of Oxford, 1814.

A doctorate is an academic degree that indicates a high, if not the highest, level of academic achievement. A terminal degree in most countries, some Central and Eastern European countries place the doctorate second only to the habilitation. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (548x658, 57 KB) Aquatint of a Doctor in divinity at the University of Oxford. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (548x658, 57 KB) Aquatint of a Doctor in divinity at the University of Oxford. ... Aquatint is an intaglio printmaking technique. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Rudolph Ackermann (April 20, 1764 - March 30, 1834) was an Anglo-German inventor and publisher. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... A terminal degree is the generally accepted highest academic degree in a field of study. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ...


The term doctorate comes from the Latin docere, meaning "to teach", shortened from the full Latin title licentia docendi, meaning "license to teach." This was translated from the equivalent Arabic term ijazat attadris, which was a distinction granted to certain Islamic scholars, thus qualifying them to teach.[citation needed] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ...

Contents

Types of doctorate

Since the Middle Ages, there has been considerable evolution and proliferation in the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities throughout the world, and practices vary from one country to another. Parenthetically, while one earning a doctorate is usually entitled to be addressed as "doctor," depending on the type of doctorate earned and the doctor's industry, usage of the title varies widely. See the main article for Doctor (title) for more information. This article is about the use and history of doctor as a title. ...


Broadly speaking, doctorates may be loosely classified into the following categories:

Academic doctors gather before the April 2008 Commencement exercises at Brigham Young University.
Academic doctors gather before the April 2008 Commencement exercises at Brigham Young University.

, Brigham Young University (BYU), located in Provo, Utah, is a private coeducational school completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. ...

Research doctorates

Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of both mastery of research methods (as evidenced in class grades and a comprehensive examination) and academic research that is ideally publishable in a peer-reviewed academic journal, but that will minimally be assessed by submission and defense of a thesis or dissertation.[1] The best-known degree of this type is that of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) awarded throughout the world; others include the U.S. degrees of Doctor of Engineering (DEng) and Doctor of Science (DSc or ScD), the UK Engineering Doctorate (EngD), and the German degree of Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr.rer.nat.). Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Scientific journals are one type of academic journal An academic journal is a regularly-published, peer-reviewed publication that publishes scholarship relating to an academic discipline. ... A thesis committee (or, at some universities, specifically for the doctorate, a dissertation committee) is a committee that evaluates a graduate students thesis. ... A dissertation or thesis is a document that presents the authors research and findings and is submitted in support of candidature for a degree or professional qualification. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The Doctor of Engineering (DEng or EngD) is an academic degree awarded on the basis of advanced study and research in engineering. ... D.Sc. ... An Engineering Doctorate (EngD) is a postgraduate degree awarded by twenty universities[1] in the United Kingdom. ...


The minimum time required to earn a doctorate varies by country, and can be a short as three years (excluding bachelor's and master's studies). However, some candidates can take anywhere from five to ten years to complete. The median number of years to completion of doctoral degrees for all fields in the US is seven years.[2] Students are discouraged from taking unnecessarily long to graduate by having their financial support (stipends, research funds, etc.) relinquished. Additionally, while in the past doctoral applicants were required to first complete a master's degree, many programs will now accept students straight out of undergraduate studies.[3][4] A stipend is a form of payment or salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Higher doctorates

In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Scandinavian, Commonwealth nations or former USSR countries, there is a higher tier of research doctorates, awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a very high standard. Examples include the Doctor of Science (DSc/ScD) and Doctor of Letters (DLitt/LittD) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the Danish doctorate (doktorgrad; e.g. dr.theol., doctor theologiæ, Latin for Doctor of Theology). For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... D.Sc. ... Doctor of Letters (Latin: Litterarum doctor; D.Litt. ...


The German habilitation postdoctoral qualification is sometimes regarded as belonging to this category, even though, strictly speaking, the habilitation is not an academic degree, but rather a professional license to teach at a German university. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ...


Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris causa when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's achievements and contributions to a particular field. Honoris causa (plural: Causae) is a Latin term meaning for the sake of honor, abbreviated as . ...


Professional doctorates

Professional doctorates are awarded in certain fields where most holders of the degree are not engaged primarily in scholarly research, but rather in a profession, such as law, medicine, music, or ministry. Examples include the U.S. degrees of Doctor of Medicine (MD) and Doctor of Jurisprudence (JD), the Dutch Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng), and the Czech degrees of Doctor of Dental Medicine (MDDr.) and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (MVDr.). A first professional degree is a type of academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing practical skills over theory and analysis. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years...


The term Professional Doctorate is also used to refer to research doctorates with a focus on applied research. Among others, these include the Doctor of Education (EdD), Doctor of Applied Linguistics (DAppLing), and Doctor of Business Administration (DBA).[5] The degree of Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.) is a research doctorate that focuses upon business practice. ...


Honorary doctorates

Main article: Honorary degree

When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to a doctoral degree honoris causa (i.e., "for the sake of the honor"), the university waiving the usual formal requirements for bestowal of the degree.[6][7] Some universities (e.g., Cornell University[8], the University of Virginia[9]) do not award honorary degrees, feeling the bestowal unethical. An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... Cornell redirects here. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ...


Country-specific practice

Main article: List of doctoral degrees awarded by country

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Argentina

Similar to other countries, in Argentina the doctorate (doctorado)[10] is the highest. The intention is that candidates produce true and original contributions in a specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[11] The doctoral candidate's work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor is received after a successful defense of the candidate’s dissertation.[12] Currently, there are approximately 2,151 postgraduate careers in the country, of which 14% were doctoral degrees.[13] Doctoral programs in Argentina are overseen by the Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria, which is a decentralized agency in Argentina’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.[14]


Germany

There are no first-degree doctorates. Medical students can obtain a "Dr.med" after one semester of mostly undergraduate research or data evaluation. The "Dr med" is thus equivalent to a masters degree. A genuine research doctorate usually takes three to five years to complete. Apart from that, Germany uses different titles, which are written in front of the first name for addresses (within texts, the abbreviation "Dr." is common) and ccompany the person's name (unlike in German-speaking Switzerland). This is a list of the types of doctorates encountered most often. For each title the subject is indicated in which it is mostly awarded. (There are exceptions from this, depending on the rules and traditions of the degree-awarding university.). Some believe that in Germany the title "Dr." is part of a person's name and that these people have a right to be addressed with the title. This misunderstanding comes forth from the fact that "Dr." is the only academic degree that can be mentioned in one's identity card. But this does not make it part of the name. In Southern Germany and Austria it is more common to address somebody with the title than in the North. It can also depend on the occasion and of course of the individual person whether to use the title or not. The proper expression is "Herr Doktor" (male) or "Frau Doktor" (female). Doktors may not address other Doktors with the title, because that would give the impression that one were preferring, or even insisting on, being called Doktor oneself, which could be seen as somewhat arrogant. When officially writing to a person with several titles, it would be proper to begin with the "highest" title and then list lesser titles, e.g. Prof. Dr. Dr. Schmidt. The salutation begins with Sehr geehrter Herr Professor / Sehr geehrte Frau Professor. There are different opinions on whether dropping the Herr or Frau in such occasions is appropriate.


Upon the completion of a second dissertation or Habilitationsschrift a senior doctorate (dr. habil.) is awarded. This senior doctorate is known as the habilitation. It is not a degree, but an additional qualification. This or an equivalent professional experience is - traditionally - the necessary prerequisite for a position of Privatdozent and Professor. Now, with the BA/MA-model and the Juniorprofessoren to be introduced, this has already changed partially. Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ...


All Doctorates Degree holders are reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14th 1994")[15]


Spain

Doctor Degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998)[16], Decreto Real (in Spanish). They are granted by the University on behalf of the King, and its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO [17]. According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph.D. programs, and less than 10% of 1st year Ph.D. students are finally granted a Doctorate[18].


All doctoral programs are of research nature. A minimum of 5 years of study are required, divided into 2 stages:


1) A 3-year long period of studies, which concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 Professors. If the projects receives approval from the university, he/she will receive a "Diploma de Estudios Avanzados" (part qualified doctor).


2) A 2-year (or longer) period of research. Extensions may be requested for up to 10 years. The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to Science. If approved by his "thesis director", the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any Doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted (Unsatisfactory, Pass, "Cum laude", and "Summa cum laude"). Those Doctors granted their degree "Summa Cum Laude" are allowed to apply for an "Extraordinary Award".


A Doctor Degree is required in order to apply to a teaching position at the University.


The social standing of Doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Doctors and Grandees/Dukes can take seat and cover their heads before the King[19]. All Doctorate Degree holders are reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain ("Bonn Agreement of November 14th 1994")[20].


United Kingdom

All doctorates (except for those awarded honoris causa) granted by British universities are research doctorates in the sense described above, in that their main (and in many cases only) component is the submission of a thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university.


Even the relatively new 'vocational doctorates' such as the EngD, EdD, DSocSci and DClinPsych require the submission of a body of original research of a similar length to a PhD thesis. In the case of the EngD, however, this might be in the form of a portfolio of technical reports on different research projects undertaken by the candidate as opposed to a single, long monographical thesis. Another important difference is that traditional PhD programs are mostly academic-oriented and normally require full-time study at the university, whereas, in an EngD program, the candidate typically works full-time for an industrial sponsor on application-oriented topics of direct interest to the partner company and is jointly supervised by university faculty members and company employees. An Engineering Doctorate (EngD) is a postgraduate degree awarded by twenty universities[1] in the United Kingdom. ... D.Sc. ...


The PhD itself is a comparatively recent introduction to the UK, dating from 1917. It was originally introduced in order to provide a similar level of graduate research training as was available in several other countries, notably Germany and the USA. Previously, the only doctorates available were the higher doctorates, awarded in recognition of an illustrious research career.


The universities of Oxford and Sussex denote the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with the postnominal initials DPhil. The University of York also did this for some years, switching to the more conventional PhD quite recently. The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Sussex (also known colloquially as Sussex Uni) is an English campus university which is situated next to the East Sussex village of Falmer, and is four miles from Brighton. ... This article is about the British university. ...


Higher doctorates in the United Kingdom

Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-refereed context. Most universities restrict candidacy to graduates or academic staff of several years' standing. The most common doctorates of this type are those in Divinity (DD), Medicine (MD or DM), Laws (LLD), Civil Law (DCL), Music (DMus or MusD), Letters (DLitt or LittD) and Science (DSc or ScD). Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Doctor of Letters (Latin: Litterarum doctor; D.Litt. ... D.Sc. ...


Of these, the DD historically ranked highest, theology being the senior faculty in the mediaeval universities. The degree of Doctor of Canon Law was next in the order of precedence, but (except for a brief revival during the reign of Mary Tudor) did not survive the Protestant reformation[21], a consequence of the fact that the teaching of canon law at Cambridge and Oxford was forbidden by Henry VIII, founder of the Church of England. The DMus was, historically, in an anomalous situation, since a candidate was not required to be a member of Convocation (that is, to be a Master of Arts). The DLitt and DSc are relatively recent innovations, dating from the latter part of the 19th century. Doctor of Canon Law (Latin: Juris Canonici Doctor; J.C.D.) is the doctoral-level terminal degree in the studies of canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Mary Tudor can refer to any of the following: Mary Tudor (queen consort of France) Mary I of England Category: ... Reformation redirects here. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The specifically English church originates primarily from events in the late 6th century in the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Kent, and the mission of Saint Augustine. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... A Convocation (Latin calling together, translating the Greek ecclesia) is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ...


Honorary doctorates in the United Kingdom

Most British universities award degrees honoris causa in order to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field. Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the achievements of the candidate. However, some universities, in order to differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, have introduced the degree of Doctor of the University (DUniv) for these purposes, and reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research. An Honorary Degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is an extra-ordinary academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ...


United States

Research doctorate in the United States

Yale University awarded the first doctorate in the U.S.
Yale University awarded the first doctorate in the U.S.

The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). This degree was first awarded in the U.S. at the 1861 Yale University commencement. The University of Pennsylvania followed shortly thereafter in 1870, while Harvard (1872) and Princeton (1879) also followed suit.[22] Image File history File linksMetadata Woolsey_Hall,_Yale_University. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Woolsey_Hall,_Yale_University. ... Yale redirects here. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Yale redirects here. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


The requirements for obtaining Ph.D.s and other research doctorates in the U.S. typically entail successful completion of pertinent classes, passing of a comprehensive examination, and defense of a dissertation.[23]


Professional doctorates in the United States

In the United States, there are numerous degrees which incorporate the word "doctor" and are known as "professional doctorates." Such fields include audiology, chiropractic, dentistry, law, medicine, occupational therapy, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, physical therapy, podiatry, psychology, veterinary medicine, and many others that usually require such degress for licensure. Generally, these degrees are considered "first professional degrees." Audiology is the branch of science that studies hearing, balance, and their disorders. ... Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ... Optometry is a doctoral-degree health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. ... For other uses, see Pharmacy (disambiguation). ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... Podiatry, more appropriately podiatric medicine is a field of healthcare devoted to the study and treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, and the knee, leg and hip (collectively known as the lower extremity). ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Licensure refers to the granting of a license (in the US, whilst, elsewhere the term registration is used), usually to work in a particular profession. ... A first professional degree is a type of academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing practical skills over theory and analysis. ...


The primary difference between a professional doctorate (such as in the fields of medicine and law) and a research doctorate is that the former are, with few exceptions, not a terminal degree - that is, it is not the highest level of academic achievement in that field. In addition, the professional degree usually does not focus primarily upon research, which is the central component of doctoral and most master's level research degrees. In addition, the research doctorate will require the creation of an original idea adding to the body of knowledge in the field, which is not a requirement of the professional doctorate. Some law schools and a small number of medical schools require that the candidate perform original research and write a formal research paper; all accredited law schools have a writing requirement, but some allow it to be satisfied by a professional, as opposed to an academic-research, writing.[24] Even when not a requirement, most medical students still conduct some form of academic research before residency, often leading to publication. The typical minimum term for such a degree (M.D.) is 4 years past postsecondary education. In addition, in many academic fields (such as law) the professional degree is the norm for academic and research careers. A terminal degree is the generally accepted highest academic degree in a field of study. ... Post-secondary education is a form of secondary education that is taken after first attending a secondary school, such as a high school. ...


Professional doctorates in Korea and Japan

As part of a reform plan adopted in 2004, South Korea is creating a system of American-style graduate law schools which will award a Juris Doctor (professional doctoral) degree. Only graduates of these law schools, scheduled to matriculate their first students in 2009, will be eligible to take the bar exam.[25] In Japan, a similar reform was started in 2004 and the degree of Juris Doctor is awarded to graduates of three year graduate studies in law.


References

  1. ^ http://www.americangraduateeducation.com/folder1/subfolder4/doctorate_programs.htm
  2. ^ http://www.americangraduateeducation.com/folder1/subfolder4/doctorate_programs.htm
  3. ^ http://www.owen.vanderbilt.edu/vanderbilt/Programs/phd/phd-admissions/index.cfm
  4. ^ http://www.mgmt.purdue.edu/programs/phd/admissions/
  5. ^ http://www.hbs.edu/doctoral/programs/dbavsphd.html
  6. ^ https://berkley-u.edu/hon_deg.html
  7. ^ http://www.cmu.edu/cmnews/extra/040510_doctorates.html
  8. ^ Dear Uncle Ezra - Questions for Thursday, May 15, 2003 - Cornell University
  9. ^ [http://www.virginia.edu/registrar/records/05-06gradrec/chapter4/chapter4-1.htm#honorary University Regulations: Academic Regulations: Graduate Record 2005-2006
  10. ^ http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=29&apps=16&id=428&act=ver#
  11. ^ http://www.gfme.org/global_guide/pdf/13-18%20Argentina.pdf
  12. ^ http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=29&apps=16&id=428&act=ver&idioma=en
  13. ^ http://www.gfme.org/global_guide/pdf/13-18%20Argentina.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.coneau.edu.ar/index.php?item=3&apps=64&idioma=en
  15. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento
  16. ^ http://www.upm.es/laupm/organos_gobierno/normativa/NormativaDoctorado0203.pdf (in Spanish)
  17. ^ Base de Datos TESEO
  18. ^ http://sandevid.com/uploads/media/DOCTORADO_Y_TESIS_DOCTORALES_POR_SEXO_56e4d2_06.pdf
  19. ^ Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta
  20. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento
  21. ^ W N Hargreaves-Mawdsley, A History of Academical Dress in Europe Until the End of the Eighteenth Century, Oxford (1963) pages 103 and 115
  22. ^ http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/97-04-21-01.all.html
  23. ^ http://math.arizona.edu/gradprogram/handbook/phdrequirements.html
  24. ^ [[The 'upper level writing requirement' was set by the ABA in 2001. It may be satisfied in some schools by another form of legal writing, such as legislative drafting. American Bar Association, Standards for Approval of Law Schools § 302(a)(2) (available at http://www.abanet.org/legaled/standards/20072008StandardsWebContent/Chapter%203.pdf)]]
  25. ^ 25 universities approved to open law schools, Korea.Net, http://www.korea.net/news/news/newsView.asp?serial_no=20080130006 (Jan. 30, 2008).

See also


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