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Encyclopedia > Doctor of Science

D.Sc., Sc.D., S.D., or Dr.Sc. are common abbreviations for the Latin Scientiae Doctor, meaning Doctor of Science. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


North America

In the United States, the Doctor of Science is a doctoral degree equivalent to the Ph.D.. The first North American Sc.D. was inaugurated by Harvard University in 1872 - when graduate studies first began at Harvard and the Ph.D. degree first introduced there [1]. The Doctor of Science degree is earned with the approval of a committee on the basis of original research, publications, and is awarded predominantly in doctoral level science and technology programs such as engineering, information systems, and medical and health sciences. (A more recent use is in physical and occupational therapy). Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...


Although much rarer than the Ph.D., the Doctor of Science degree has long been awarded by institutions such as Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Washington University in St. Louis, The George Washington University, Boston University, and Queen's University. Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... The Johns Hopkins University is an internationally prestigious private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Washington University in St. ... The George Washington University (GWU) is a private university in Washington, D.C., founded in 1821 as The Columbian College. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Queens University, generally referred to simply as Queens, is a coeducational, non-sectarian, public university located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. ...


Nonetheless, the Sc.D. has largely been replaced by the Ph.D. degree even in these institutions. For instance, the doctoral degree in biostatistics at Harvard has recently been changed from Sc.D. to Ph.D. - even though the degree structure and requirements have remained identical. As well, doctoral programs at the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health and Massachusetts Institute of Technology that offer the Sc.D degree also offer the Ph.D. degree - and requirements for obtaining the two degrees are identical. Currently, doctoral-level research programs that offer the Sc.D. but not the Ph.D. degree include several doctoral programs at Harvard University and Boston University, as well as the engineering programs at the Washington University in St. Louis and The George Washington University. Biostatistics or biometry is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology. ... The Johns Hopkins University is an internationally prestigious private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Washington University in St. ... The George Washington University (GWU) is a private university in Washington, D.C., founded in 1821 as The Columbian College. ...


The Commonwealth of Nations and Ireland

In Ireland and the countries of the Commonwealth, such as the United Kingdom and India, the degree of Doctor of Science is one of the Higher Doctorates, typically having precedence after Divinity, Laws or Civil Law, Medicine, and Letters, and above Music. The degree is conferred on a member of the university who has a proven record of internationally recognised scholarship. A candidate for the degree will usually be required to submit a selection of their publications to the board of the appropriate faculty, which will decide if the candidate merits this accolade. The degree will only exceptionally be awarded to a scholar under the age of forty. The status of the degree has declined because it is not widely understood, but in former times the doctorate in science was regarded as a greater distinction than a professorial chair and hence a professor who was also a D.Sc. would be known as Doctor. The Doctor of Science may also be awarded as an honorary degree, that is, given to individuals who have made extensive contributions to a particular field and not for specific academic accomplishments. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A doctorate is an academic degree of the highest level. ...


German language areas

In Switzerland, the Dr.Sc. is a doctoral degree awarded by the two Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology, only. The Swiss Dr.Sc., like the D.Sc. in the US, is equivalent to the Ph.D, is earned with the approval of a committee on the basis of original research, publications, and extensive applied professional contributions and is awarded in doctoral level science and technology programs. Since 2004 the Dr.Sc. is the only doctoral degree awarded by the ETH Zurich. In the French-speaking part of Switzerland the Dr.Sc. is called Doctorat ès sciences techniques, abbreviated dr. ès. sc. and awarded by the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne. Despite the somewhat different name it is considered to be the same degree since Dr.Sc. is the formal name of the degree in the German and English languages. ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The ETH Zurich, often called Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, is a science and technology university in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. ... The École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne in Switzerland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In Austria, Germany and the German-speaking part of Switzerland, there are some doctoral degrees with very similar names, these are the:

  • Dr.sc.inf.med. - Doctor scientiarum informaticarum medicæ, Doctor of Science in Medical Informatics
  • Dr.sc.inf.biomed. - Doctor scientiarum informaticarum biomedicæ, Doctor of Science in Biomedical Informatics
  • Dr.sc.math. - Doctor scientiarum mathematicarum, Doctor of Mathematics
  • Dr.scient.med - Doctor scientiæ medicæ, Doctor of Medical Sciences
  • Dr.sc.mus. - Doctor scientiae musicae, Doctor of Musicology
  • Dr.sc.nat. - Doctor scientiae naturalis, Doctor of Natural Sciences
  • Dr.sc.oec. - Doctor scientiarum oeconomicarum, Doctor of Economics
  • Dr.sc.pol. - Doctor scientarium politicarum, Doctor of Political Sciences
  • Dr.sc.soc. - Doctor scientiae socialis, Doctor of Social Sciences

All these doctoral degrees are equivalent to the Ph.D but are considered to be separate degrees and should not be confused with the actual Dr.Sc.. Until German Reunification, universities in East Germany also awarded the Dr.Sc.. However, the East German Dr.Sc. wasn't equivalent to the Ph.D since it was adopted to replace the German Habilitation and therefore was equivalent to this German qualification. After reunification the Habilitation was reintroduced at universities in eastern Germany. Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. ... Electronic patient chart of a HIS Medical Informatics is the name given to the discipline that exists at the intersection of information technology and medicine. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Musicology is reasoned discourse concerning music (Greek: μουσικη = music and λογος = word or reason). In other words: the whole body of systematized knowledge about music which results from the application of a scientific method of investigation or research, or of philosophical speculation and rational systematization to the facts, the processes and the... The term natural science as the way in which different fields of study are defined is determined as much by historical convention as by the present day meaning of the words. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is the systematic study of the allocation and transfer of power in decision making. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English... GDR redirects here. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Doctor Science Knows (2027 words)
One of the best illustrations of how subtractive masculinity works is in a old, not all that good science fiction story, "The Last Man" (written by Wallace West in 1929, anthologized in The Pocket Book of Science Fiction).
It took a while, but I'd say most scientists are now content with the idea that there are things that are in principle uncertain, that one way to learn is to get proved wrong, and that your ideas about the world are going to change.
"Doctor Science" is sort of a joke, sort of not.
USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels (742 words)
In some subjects it is the custom to begin a program leading eventually to the doctorate immediately upon receiving a bachelor's or first professional degree, while in others it is still customary to earn a master's degree before enrolling for a doctorate.
All doctoral programs require that certain technical skills be mastered in the first stage, including foreign languages (ancient or modern), mathematical and computer skills, or other specialized professional competencies relevant to the field being studied.
You should remember that first-professional doctoral degrees are not research doctorates in those fields.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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