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Encyclopedia > Doctor of Optometry

Optometry is the health care profession concerned with examination, diagnosis, and treatment of the eyes and related structures, and with determination and correction of vision problems using lenses and other optical aids [1]. A health profession is a profession in which a person exercises skill or judgment or provides a service related to: (a) the preservation or improvement of the health of individuals, or (b) the treatment or care of individuals who are injured, sick, disabled, or infirm. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... A lens is: a part of the eye an optical device that may be used in a camera or in a telescope; see lens (optics) or Category:Lenses. ...

An optometrist (Greek: optos meaning seen or visible and metria meaning measurement) is an eye care professional who is a primary care practitioner for most vision and ocular health concerns. Optometrists are trained to diagnose, manage, and treat a multitude of visual and ocular health-related concerns, including, but not limited to, fitting and prescribing spectacles and contact lenses, diagnosing and treating (excluding surgery) muscular abnormalities, treating minor ocular injuries, diagnosing and treating diseases such as glaucoma and diagnosing others such as diabetic retinopathy. In Oklahoma, optometrists have successfully lobbied for legislative rights to perform certain laser procedures. Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... An eyepiece, or ocular lens, is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ... Oklahoma is a state in the southern United States, lying mostly in the lower Great Plains, and its U.S. postal abbreviation is OK; others abbreviate the states name Okla. ...

Optometrists are experts in determining one's refractive error and prescribing the appropriate correction, however, in the United States they may also be the gateway into eye care for several eye problems. Optometrists perform comprehensive eye exams and in some cases are capable of diagnosing and treating many of the most common eye disorders whether it be visual or physical. When warranted the appropriate referral is made to a more specialized practitioner.

In the United States, ophthalmologist and optometrist are specific terms referring to specific state licensing and courses of professional study. Optometrists are eye doctors who complete optometry school (a 4 year graduate program) and receive the Doctor of Optometry (OD) degree. They are required to receive board certification, and some go on to complete post-graduate residencies. Ophthalmologists are medical doctors (MD or DO) who have completed medical school followed by a 3-4 year residency in ophthalmology. Some ophthalmologists further their education with advanced training (a fellowship) in a specific subspecialty of ophthalmology. The American Optometric Association characterizes optometrists as "primary eye care providers." Ophthalmogists are trained to perform eye surgery ranging from minor procedures to advanced surgical interventions while optometrists are not. Recently, changes in some states' laws have led to an overlap in the capabilities of the two professions to treat eye disease with pharmacological agents. Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... This article is about academic degrees. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... A typical modern surgery operation Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia meaning hand work) is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ...

In the United Kingdom optometrists have completed a 3 or 4 year undergraduate honours degree followed by a minimum of a one-year "pre-registration period" where they complete supervised practice under the supervision of an experienced qualified practitioner. During this year the Pre-Registration candidate will sit a number of quarterly assessments and on successfully passing all of these assessments a final one-day set of exams. Following successful completion of these assessments and having completed one year's supervised practice the candidate qualifies for membership of The College of Optometrists and is eligible to register as an optometrist with the General Optical Council.

Registration with the GOC is mandatory to practice in the UK. Members of the College of Optometrists may use the suffix MCOptom.



There are currently nine sub-specialty residencies offered by various schools of optometry in the United States [2] [3]:

Training in binocular vision and orthoptics sub-specialties are often integrated into either pediatric or vision therapy programs. The College of Optometrists in Vision Development provides board certification for eye doctors in vision therapy, behavioral and developmental vision care, and "visual rehabilitation" [4]. The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber and provides most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and consequently helps the eye to focus. ... A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... Low vision is alternatively a general term used to describe lowered visual acuity, and a specific legal term in Canada and the US used to designate someone with vision of 20/70 or less in the better eye with correction. ... This is a partial list of eye diseases and disorders. ... Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ... Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... Refractive eye surgery is any eye surgery used to improve the refractive state of the eye and decrease dependency on glasses or contact lenses. ... Does laser surgery hurt? Eye surgery, also known as ophthalmic surgery or ocular surgery, is a surgical procedure performed on the eye or its adnexa typically by an ophthalmologist . ... Vision therapy, also known as visual therapy or visual training, is a broadly-defined set of treatment programs related to the improvement of visual health and comfort. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... Orthoptics, which literally means straightening of the eyes, dates back to the 1850s. ... The College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) is a non-profit, international membership association of eye care professionals including optometrists, optometry students, and vision therapists. ...


Schools of optometry


There are 3 Australian educational institutions offering degrees in optometry:

The University of Melbourne   The Old Quad Building, formerly Old Law The University of Melbourne, located in Melbourne, Victoria, is the second oldest university in Australia, behind the University of Sydney, and is one of the countrys most prestigious universities. ... University of New South Wales The University of New South Wales is a university in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Queensland University of Technology (QUT) QUT Kelvin Grove Campus Queensland University of Technology George Street entrance to the Gardens Point campus Parliament House can be seen on the right of frame Graduation at QUT Gardens Point Queensland University of Technology (QUT) is one of Australias largest universities, located in...

New Zealand

There is 1 New Zealand educational institution that offers a degree in optometry:

The University of Auckland is New Zealands largest research-based university. ...


There are 2 Canadian educational institutions offering degrees in optometry:

The University of Waterloo, also known as UW or simply Waterloo, is a medium-sized research-intensive public university in the city of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ... The Université de Montréal (UdeM) (University of Montreal) is one of four universities in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ...

United Kingdom

There are 8 United Kingdom educational institutions offering degrees in optometry:

Anglia Ruskin University, formerly known as Anglia Polytechnic University, is a university in the United Kingdom, with campuses in Cambridge and Chelmsford. ... Aston University is a small university situated in Birmingham in the United Kingdom with a strong science and technology emphasis. ... The University of Bradford is a university in Bradford, West Yorkshire in the United Kingdom. ... Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a university in Cardiff. ... City University could be City University of Hong Kong City University, London City University of New York City University, Washington or Dublin City University Oakland City University Oklahoma City University New Jersey City University Osaka City University This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Glasgow Caledonian University is a University in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The University of Manchester in Manchester, England is a university that was formed from the merger of the Victoria University of Manchester (commonly known as the University of Manchester before the merger) and UMIST (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology) on 1 October 2004. ... The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-site university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest university on the island of Ireland. ...

United States

There are 17 American educational institutions offering doctorate level programs in optometry. The programs generally have an undergraduate degree as a prerequisite, and then run four years addressing academic and clinical topics.

University of Alabama at Birmingham (also known as UAB) is a public, coeducational university located in Birmingham, Alabama. ... University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (also known as California, Cal, UCB, UC Berkeley, The University of California, or simply Berkeley) is a public coeducational university situated east of the San Francisco Bay in Berkeley, California, overlooking the Golden Gate. ... The University of Missouri System is one of two public state university systems in the state of Missouri. ... Partial view of the University of Houston campus looking northwest to Downtown Houston Motto Founded 1927 School type Flagship State University President Jay Gogue, Ph. ... Indiana University Bloomington is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... http://www. ... Ferris State University is an institute of higher learning whose main campus is located in Big Rapids, Michigan in Mecosta County. ... Northeastern State University (NSU) is located in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, with branches in Broken Arrow and Muskogee. ... Nova Southeastern University is a not-for-profit, independent university, founded in 1964 in Fort Lauderdale-Davie, Florida, USA. The university serves large numbers of adult students and a growing population of traditional undergraduates. ... The Ohio State University The Ohio State University is currently the third largest university in the United States and currently ranked by US News as the best public university in Ohio and the twenty-first best public university in the nation. ... Pacific University is a located in Forest Grove, Oregon about 40 minutes west of Portland, Oregon. ... The Southern College of Optometry, located at 1245 Madison Avenue in Memphis, Tennessee, is dedicated to the study of optometry, the field of medicine dedicated to not only the performance of refractive eye examinations and the fitting of necessary corrective lenses or vision therapy, but also the diagnosis and treatment... The State University of New York State College of Optometry was established in 1971 as a result of a legislative mandate of New York State, USA. It is located in Manhattan, New York City. ...


Currently there are 3 educational institutions offering degrees in optometry:

// Background The International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM) was first conceived in 1982 by then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad during a special meeting between OIC leaders to establish an international institution for tertiary education based on Islamic principles (the Islamization of Knowledge). ... The International University College Of Technology Twintech (IUCTT) is a private publicly-funded university college in Malaysia. ...

See also

An eyeglass prescription is a written order by an ophthalmologist or an optometrist to an optician for eyeglasses. ...

External links

  • Comprehensive Optometry Site (AU)
  • American Academy of Optometry
  • American Optometric Association
  • College of Optometrists (UK)
  • The General Optical Council
  • Optometrists Network
  • Review of Optometry
  • Optometry as career
  • Optometry discussion group
  • VisionSimulations.com | What the world looks like to people with various diseases and conditions of the eye



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