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Encyclopedia > Doctor of Laws

Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. Plural abbreviations in Latin are formed by doubling the letter, hence the double "L". Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... It has been suggested that Professional degree be merged into this article or section. ... Equality and the balancing of our interests under law is symbolised by a blindfold and weighing scales For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Contents

Commonwealth usage

In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand,Europe, and the United States (but see below) the degree is a higher doctorate usually awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications that contain significant and original contributions to the study of law. Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award a Doctor of Civil Law degree instead. In Germany the Doctor is the highest degree in law awarded as Dr.iur (Doctor iuris) based on a dissertation. In Canada, LL.D and Doctor of Civil Law degrees are awarded as substitute of Ph.D. in law. In Czech Republic the Doctor is awarded as JUDr (Juris utrisque doctor) also based upon research and completion of a dissertation. In South Africa, the LL.D. is awarded by many university law faculties as the highest degree in law, also based upon research and completion of a Ph.D. equivalent dissertation like in most european countries. The LL.D. may also be awarded as an honorary degree based upon a person's contributions to society. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... To publish is to make publicly known, and in reference to text and images, it can mean distributing paper copies to the public, or putting the content on a website. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ...


Malta

In Malta, the European Union's smallest member state, the LL.D. is a doctorate-level academic degree in law requiring at least three years of full time study at the University of Malta[1], Malta's national university. Students are required to complete coursework in a number of core areas of law, as well as to submit a thesis which is to be "an original work on the approved subject or other contribution to the knowledge showing that he/she has carried out sufficient research therein" [2]. It confers the title of Doctor, which in Malta is rigorously used to address a holder of the degree. The LL.D. is one of the requirements for admission to the profession of advocate in Malta (an advocate, as opposed to a legal procurator, has rights of representation in superior courts), but it is also the highest degree usually obtained by faculty members teaching law, and is the highest degree held by the University of Malta[3] law faculty's current dean, Prof. Dr. Ian Refalo [4]. The University of Malta is the highest teaching institution in the Republic of Malta. ... It has been suggested that Barrister#Advocates in Scotland be merged into this article or section. ... The University of Malta is the highest teaching institution in the Republic of Malta. ...


In Malta, practising lawyers are of three designations - notaries, legal procurators and advocates. A one-year full time taught post-graduate diploma of Notary Public (N.P.) is required for admission to the profession of notary public, while a taught post-graduate diploma of Legal Procurator (L.P.) is required for admission to the profession of legal procurator. A legal procurator is a lawyer in Malta that has rights of audience in the lower courts, a profession that was existent in Malta as early, and even prior to 1553[5]. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree, also offered by the university, is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. All three professions also require members to be holders of a warrant issued by the President of Malta, obtainable after a minimum of one year of work experience in that profession, and examination. It is not possible for a Maltese lawyer to hold a warrant in more than one of the professions at a time. An Embossed Notary Seal. ... A legal procurator is a lawyer in Malta who assists advocates in lawsuits in courts of various levels. ... A legal procurator is a lawyer in Malta who assists advocates in lawsuits in courts of various levels. ... An undergraduate degree (sometimes called a first degree or simply a degree) is the most common and primary academic degree available and is normally studied at a higher education institution, such as a university. ...


Notable holders of the LL.D. degree include Dr. Guido de Marco (former President of the United Nations General Assembly and former President of Malta), Dr. George Borg Olivier (first post-independence Prime Minister of Malta), and Dr. Lawrence Gonzi (current Prime Minister of Malta). Guido de Marco (born July 22, 1931) was President of Malta from 1999 to 2004. ... George Borg Olivier (5 July 1911 - 29 October 1980) was three times the Prime Minister of Malta (1950 to 1955 and 1962 to 1971). ... Lawrence Gonzi Lawrence Gonzi (born July 1, 1953) is the Prime Minister and finance minister of Malta. ...


United States

In the United States, the LL.D. is now almost always an honorary degree. The Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D.) or S.J.D. sometimes awarded as Doctor of the Science of Law, is the degree awarded for research in the form of a dissertation, the equivalent to a Ph.D. in law. An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ... This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ...


Most people who pursue the J.S.D. either are or intend to pursue a senior career as a law professor or other legal scholar, as the Juris Doctor (JD) is the professional degree required for contemporary law practice in the United States and the J.S.D. is not required for professional practice, but as a JD and usually an LLM are prerequisites, individuals aspiring to the J.S.D. already possess the JD and the advanced law degree of LL.M. Moreover, other graduate degrees in law (e.g., LL.M.) exist for advanced study of law in areas such as international law, human rights law, tax law, and intellectual property. In the United States, a law school is an institution where students obtain a professional education in law. ... Juris Doctor (Latin for Teacher of Law) or J.D. is a degree in law offered by universities in a number of countries. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree that allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law. ...


Italy

In Italy, "Doctor of Law" is the title given to anybody who graduates from university having completed a normal course of undergraduate studies. These can be compared to the British Bachelor of Laws degree. The degree of Bachelor of Laws (or Baccalaureate of Laws) is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ...


See also


Juris Doctor (Latin for Teacher of Law) or J.D. is a degree in law offered by universities in a number of countries. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree that allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law. ... The degree of Bachelor of Laws (or Baccalaureate of Laws) is the principal academic degree in law in most common law countries other than the United States, where it has been replaced by the Juris Doctor degree. ... Doctor of Canon Law (Latin: Juris Canonici Doctor; J.C.D.) is the doctoral-level terminal degree in the studies of canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Academic degrees
v  d  e
Associate's degrees (U.S.) AA, AAS, ABA, ABS, AOS, AS, ASN
Foundation degrees (U.K.) FdA, FdEd, FdEng, FdMus, FdBus, FdSc, FdTech
Bachelor's degrees AB or BA, BAccty, BAdm, BAgrEc, BArch, BBA, BBus, BCom or BComm, BCS, BCL, STB, BD, BDent, B.Ed., BEc, BEng or BE, BSBME, BFA, BHE, BHK, BJ, BLibStud, BMath, BMus, BSN, BPE, BPharm, BS or BSc, BSocSci, BTech, LLA, LLB, MB ChB or MB BS or BM BS or MB BChir or MB BCh BAO, MA (Cantab.), MA (Dubl.), MA (Hons), MA (Oxon.)
Master's degrees MA, MS or MSc, MSt, MALD, MApol, MPhil, MRes, MFA, MTh, MTS, MDiv, MEd, MBA, MBT, MComm, MPA, MPD, MPS, MSN, MProfStuds, MJ, MSW, MPAff, MLIS, MLitt, MPH, MPM, MPP, MPT, MRE, MTheol, LLM, MEng, MSci, MBio, MChem, MPhys, MMath, MMus, MESci, MGeol, MTCM, MSSc, BCL (Oxon), BPhil (Oxon), ThM
Licentiate degrees: Lic Arts, LDS, JCL, STL, SSL, LSS
Specialist degrees EdS, SSP, CAS
Engineer's degrees AE, BE, BME, CE, CE, ChE, EE, CpE, ECS, EnvE, MSE, ME, NavE, NuclE, Ocean E, SysE, Eng
First-professional degrees AuD, DC, DCM, DDS, DMD, JD, MD (US), ND, OD, DO, PharmD, DP, PodD, DPM, MDiv, MHL, DVM
Doctoral degrees PhD, EdD, DEng, EngD, DBA, DD, JCD, SSD, JUD, DSc, DLitt, DA, DMH, MD, DMA, DMus, DCL, ThD, DrPH, DPT, DPhil, PsyD, DSW, LLD, LHD, JSD, SJD, JuDr, STD, DMin

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