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Encyclopedia > Doctor Jekyll
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
Cover of the Penguin Classics edition
Author Robert Louis Stevenson
Country Scotland
Language English
Publisher Longmans, Green & co.
Released January 1886
For other uses, see Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (disambiguation).

Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde[1] is a novella written by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson and first published in 1886. It is about a London lawyer who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr Henry Jekyll[2], and the misanthropic Edward Hyde. The work is known for its vivid portrayal of the psychopathology of a split personality; in mainstream culture the very phrase "Jekyll and Hyde" has come to signify wild or polar behaviour. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... Penguin Books is a British publisher founded in 1935 by Allen Lane. ... Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ... See also: 1885 in literature, other events of 1886, 1887 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde may refer to: Books: The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, the original 1886 novella by Robert Louis Stevenson Film adaptations: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... A novella is a short novel; a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress the manifestation of behaviours and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... This article is about the album by Cassidy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was an immediate success and one of Stevenson's best-selling works. Stage adaptations began in Boston and London within a year of its publication and it has gone on to inspire scores of major film and stage performances. Boston is a town and small port c. ...

Contents

Background

In the early autumn of 1885 Stevenson's thoughts turned to the idea of the duality of man's nature, and how to incorporate the interplay of good and evil into a story. One night he had a dream, and on wakening had the idea for two or three scenes that would appear in Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. "In the small hours of one morning," says Mrs. Stevenson, "I was awakened by cries of horror from Louis. Thinking he had a nightmare, I awakened him. He said angrily 'Why did you wake me? I was dreaming a fine bogey tale.' I had awakened him at the first transformation scene." The word duality has a variety of different meanings in different contexts: In several spiritual, religious, and philosophical doctrines, duality refers to a two-fold division also called dualism. ... In religion, ethics, and philosophy, goodness and evil, or simply good and evil, refers to the concept of all human desires and behaviours as conforming to a dualistic spectrum —wherein in one direction are those aspects which are wisely reverent of life and continuity (good), and wherin the other direction... In religion and ethics, evil refers to the bad aspects of the behaviour and reasoning of human beings —those which are deliberately void of conscience, and show a wanton desire for destruction. ... In common current usage, the term nightmare refers to dreams of particular intensity, with content that the sleeper finds disturbing, related either to physiological causes, such as a high fever, or to psychological ones, such as unusual trauma or stress in the sleepers life. ...


Lloyd Osbourne, Stevenson's stepson, remembers "I don't believe that there was ever such a literary feat before as the writing of Dr. Jekyll. I remember the first reading as if it was yesterday. Louis came downstairs in a fever; read nearly half the book aloud; and then, while we were still gasping, he was away again, and busy writing. I doubt if the first draft took so long as three days."


As was the custom, Mrs Stevenson would read the draft and offer her criticisms in the margins. Louis was confined to bed at the time from a haemorrhage, and she left her comments with the manuscript and Louis in the bedroom. She said in effect the story was really an allegory, but Louis was writing it just as a story. After a while Louis called her back into the bedroom and pointed to a pile of ashes: he had burnt the manuscript in fear that he would try to salvage it, and in the process forcing himself to start over from scratch writing an allegorical story as she had suggested. Scholars debate if he really burnt his manuscript or not. Other scholars suggest her criticism was not about allegory, but about inappropriate sexual content. Whatever the case, there is no direct factual evidence for the burning of the manuscript, but it remains an integral part of the history of the novel. Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than (and in addition to) the literal. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ...


Stevenson re-wrote the story again in three days. According to Osbourne "The mere physical feat was tremendous; and instead of harming him, it roused and cheered him inexpressibly." He refined and continued to work on it for 4 to 6 weeks afterward.


The manuscript was initially sold as a paperback for one shilling in the UK and one dollar in the USA. Initially stores would not stock it until a review appeared in The Times, on 25 January 1886, giving it a favourable reception. Within the next six months close to forty thousand copies were sold. By 1901 it was estimated have sold over 250,000 copies. Its success was probably due more to the "moral instincts of the public" than perception of its artistic merits, being widely read by those who never otherwise read fiction, quoted in pulpit sermons and in religious papers. The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ...


Plot summary

Richard Mansfield was best known for his dual role depicted in this double exposure. The stage adaptation opened in London in 1887, a year after the publication of the novella. Picture 1895.
Enlarge
Richard Mansfield was best known for his dual role depicted in this double exposure. The stage adaptation opened in London in 1887, a year after the publication of the novella. Picture 1895.

The story begins when the lawyer Gabriel John Utterson hears from his cousin Richard Enfield of an ambiguous, solitary, violent man called Hyde. This Hyde is said to have simply walked over a girl whom he met on the road, leaving her bruised and terrified; whereupon Enfield ordered him, backed by several other people, to pay a fine to the girl's family. Hearing this tale, Utterson is perturbed; a friend of his, Dr Henry Jekyll, has made a will declaring that in the event of the doctor's death or disappearance, Hyde should inherit all his property. Suspecting trouble, Utterson seeks to investigate Hyde. Image File history File links Jekyll-mansfield. ... Image File history File links Jekyll-mansfield. ... Richard Mansfield (1857-1907) was an American actor who was born on the May 24, 1857, in Berlin. ...


This investigation begins as a matter of curiosity and concern despite Dr Jekyll's assurances that Hyde is nothing to worry about. That changes when Hyde is seen committing a savage murder of a respected Member of Parliament. As Utterson assists in the investigation of the crime, Jekyll becomes more and more reclusive and sombre. This leads Utterson to believe that Hyde has some influence over Jekyll, which he is using to conceal himself. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ...


Eventually, Jekyll isolates himself in his laboratory gripped with an emotional burden that no one can comprehend. Another friend of Utterson's, Lanyon, suddenly dies of a horrific emotional shock with which Jekyll seems to be connected. Eventually, Jekyll's butler comes to Utterson to ask for his help to deal with a stranger who has somehow entered the locked lab and killed Jekyll. Together they discover that the stranger in the lab is Hyde, and they break in only to find Hyde dead by his own hand and Jekyll nowhere to be found. // For other uses see Butler (disambiguation) The butler is a senior servant in a large household. ... Biochemistry laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


Eventually, Utterson reads two letters left for him from his deceased friends. The first one is from Lanyon and reveals that he witnessed firsthand that Hyde is none other than Jekyll physically transformed into the other identity by means of a potion of Jekyll's design.


The other letter is a confession from Jekyll which reveals what occurred when he realised that every man has two aspects within him – good and evil – which constantly wage war upon him. Acting on the theory that it was possible to polarise and separate these two aspects, he created a potion that could change a man into an embodiment of his evil side, thereby also making pure his good side. After using the potion on himself, Jekyll became physically smaller as his evil nature became predominant; this persona was called Edward Hyde. The potion did not work as planned, in that the shape-changing was successful, but the identity of Jekyll remained unchanged while adding an alternate character who was purely evil. After a few trial runs as Hyde, Jekyll soon began to undergo the change regularly in order to indulge in all the forbidden pleasures that he would never commit otherwise. However, the Hyde aspect himself began to grow strong beyond Jekyll's ability to control it with a counter-agent. Eventually, Jekyll wakes up in bed one day to discover that he has turned into Hyde overnight. He resolves to give up Hyde for good, but the allure proves too strong to resist, and after two months he takes the potion once more.


This time, Hyde does not just indulge himself; he commits murder, and can no longer be seen in public for fear of being recognised and sent to the gallows. This reassures Jekyll, and he attempts to redeem himself for the actions of Hyde by being charitable. However, as a result of vainglorious thought, once more he undergoes the transformation, without the aid of his potion, in a park in broad daylight. He manages to avoid capture by finding a hotel room. He writes to Lanyon, asking him to fetch from his study the drawer in which the counter-agent is found.


Lanyon complies, and Hyde shows up at his house unrecognised. He takes the potion, as although he has begun to despise Jekyll, he fears recognition and the resulting death even more. He changes into Jekyll before Lanyon's astonished eyes. Heartbroken by this shocking revelation, Lanyon wastes away and dies.


Jekyll finds that he can now only remain in his original form with the potion in his system. Eventually Jekyll ran out of the unique components to the potion, and in particular a "salt" of which he had initially acquired quite a large quantity. New supplies of this salt did not produce an effective potion, which he initially attributed to an impurity in the new supplies, but finally concluded that it was the initial order that was impure, and that an "unknown impurity" in it was vital to its effectiveness. As he had no way of acquiring any more of this impure salt, he was doomed to remain as Hyde permanently.


In the end, Jekyll decided to write the confession letter, and he finally "dies" as he transforms completely into Hyde. Hyde commits suicide, through poison, when Utterson and Jekyll's butler try to force their way into the laboratory.


Analysis

This novel has become a central concept in Western culture of the inner conflict of humanity's sense of good and evil. It has also been noted as "one of the best guidebooks of the Victorian era because of its piercing description of the fundamental dichotomy of the 19th century outward respectability and inward lust" as it had a tendency for social hypocrisy. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of Great Britain marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Various direct influences have been suggested for Stevenson's interest in the mental condition that separates the sinful from moral self. Among them are the Biblical text of Romans (7:20 "Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me."); the split life in the 1780s of Edinburgh city councillor Deacon William Brodie, master craftsman by day, burglar by night; and James Hogg's novel The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824), in which a young man falls under the spell of the devil. The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the epistles, or letters, included in the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ; Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic) is the capital of Scotland and its second-largest city. ... Deacon William Brodie (1741–1788) was a Scottish cabinet-maker and Edinburgh city councillor, who maintained a secret life as a burglar, partly for the thrill, and partly to fund his gambling. ... For the Texas Governor, see Jim Hogg James Hogg James Hogg (1770 - November 21, 1835) was a Scottish poet and novelist who wrote in both Scots and English. ... The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner was published by James Hogg in 1824. ...


Literary genres which critics have applied as a framework for interpreting the novel include religious allegory, fable, detective story, sensation fiction, science fiction, doppelgänger literature, Scottish devil tales, Gothic novel. A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or subject matter (content). ... In its strict sense a fable is a short story or folk tale embodying a moral, which may be expressed explicitly at the end as a maxim. ... Detective Story is a 1951 film which tells the story of one day in the lives of the various people who populate a police detectives squad. ... The Sensation novel was a genre of fiction popular in Great Britain in the 1860s. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A doppelgänger ( ) is the ghostly double of a living person. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity, who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ...


Stevenson never says exactly what Hyde takes pleasure in on his nightly forays, saying generally that it is something of an evil and lustful nature; thus it is in the context of the times, abhorrent to Victorian religious morality. However scientists in the closing decades of the 19th century, within a post-Darwinian perspective, were also beginning to examine various biological influences on human morality, including drug and alcohol addiction, homosexuality, multiple personality disorder, and regressive animality.


Jekyll's inner division has been viewed by some critics as analogous to schisms existing in British society. Divisions include the social divisions of class, the internal divisions within the Scottish identity, the political divisions between Ireland and England, and the divisions between religious and secular forces. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


The novel can be seen as an expression of the dualist tendency in Scottish culture, a forerunner to what G. Gregory Smith termed the 'Caledonian Antisyzygy' (the combination of opposites) which influenced the 20th Scottish cultural renaissance led by Hugh MacDiarmid. The London depicted in the novel resembles more closely the Old Town of Edinburgh which Stevenson frequented in his youth, itself a doppelganger to the city's respectable, classically ordered New Town. Scottish critics have also read it as a metaphor of the opposing forces of Scottish Presbyterianism and Scotland's atheistic Enlightenment. The term Caledonian Antisyzygy was first coined by G. Gregory Smith in his 1919 book Scottish Literature: Character and Influence in which he wrote: the literature [of Scotland] is the literature of a small country. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ...


In the arts

There have been dozens of major stage and film adaptations, and countless references in popular culture. The very phrase "Jekyll and Hyde" has become shorthand to mean wild, controversial and polar behaviour, or else schizophrenia. Most adaptations of the work omit the reader-identification figure of Utterson, instead telling the story from Jekyll and Hyde's viewpoint, thus eliminating the mystery aspect of the tale about who Hyde is; indeed there have been no major adaptations to date that stay close to Stevenson's original work, almost all introducing some form of romantic element. Interior of the 1928 B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, Boston, Massachusetts. ... Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Romantic love is a form of love that is often regarded as different from mere needs driven by sexual desire, or lust. ...


For a complete list of derivative works see "Derivative works of Robert Louis Stevenson (by Richard Dury). There have been over 123 film versions, not including stage, radio etc. This is not an inclusive list, it is major and notable adaptations listed in chronological order:

  • 1920, movie Germany, Der Januskopf (literally, "The Janus-Head," Janus being a Roman God usually depicted with two faces). Directed by F.W. Murnau. An unauthorized version of Stevenson's story, disguised by changing the names to Dr Warren and Mr O'Connor. (Murnau more famously filmed an unauthorized version of Dracula in 1922's Nosferatu.) The dual roles were essayed by Conrad Veidt. The film is now lost, which is especially frustrating given that the good doctor's butler was played by none other than Bela Lugosi!
  • 1931, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1931 film). Directed by Rouben Mamoulian. Widely viewed as the classic film version, known for its skilled acting, powerful visual symbolism, and innovative special effects. Follows the Sullivan plot. Fredric March won the Academy Award for his deft portrayal and the technical secret of the amazing transformation scenes wasn't revealed until after the director's death decades later.
  • 1960, movie UK, The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll (released in the US as House of Fright and Jekyll's Inferno). Directed by Terence Fisher. A lurid love triangle and explicit scenes of snakes, opium dens, rape, murder and bodies crashing through glass roofs. Notable in that an aged and ineffectual Dr Jekyll becomes handsome and virile (but evil) Mr Hyde.
  • 1963, movie USA, The Nutty Professor. Directed by Jerry Lewis. This screwball comedy retains a thin plot connection to the original work. Its enduring popularity has given it a significant role in the cultural visibility of the Jekyll and Hyde motif. Lewis re-works the Victorian polarised identity theme to the mid-20th century American dilemma of masculinity.
  • 1968, TV USA/Canada, "Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde". Starring Jack Palance, directed by Charles Jarrott and produced by Dan Curtis of Dark Shadows fame. Shown in two-parts on CBC in Canada and as one two hour movie on ABC in the USA. Nominated for several Emmy awards, it follows Hyde on a series of sexual conquests and hack and slash murders, finally shot by "Devlin" (as Utterson is renamed).
  • 1971, movie UK, Dr. Jekyll and Sister Hyde. Directed by Roy Ward Barker. The earliest work to show Jekyll transform into a woman. Recasts Jekyll as Jack the Ripper, who uses Sister Hyde as a convenient disguise to carry out his murders.
  • 1971, movie USA, Dr Sexual and Mr Hyde, Directed by Tony Brzezinski. The first hardcore pornographic adaptation.
  • 1981, TV UK, with David Hemmings in the dual role and directed by Alastair Reid. This version gave a twist to the usual ending when the body turns into Mr Hyde upon his death.
  • 1989, TV UK, with Anthony Andrews in the dual role. This version was similar to Hammer's 1960 version in that Mr Hyde is the more physically attractive of the two; Dr Jekyll is depicted as a shy, mousy asocial scientist & Hyde is a handsome sociopath.
  • 1990, TV UK, "Jekyll and Hyde". Directed by David Wickes. Jekyll (Michael Caine)is a widower in love with a married woman.
  • 1991, Stage play, opened in london. Written by David Edgar for the Royal Shakespeare Company. The play is notable for its fidelity to the book's plot, though it invents a Sister for Jekyll. Also, Hyde is a much younger man that Jekyll in this version.
  • 2004, movie US, Jekyll. Written and directed by Scott Zakarin, starring Matt Keeslar. Jekyll is a medical researcher who helps create a violent computer character, which he tests by downloading into his brain.

Richard Mansfield (1857-1907) was an American actor who was born on the May 24, 1857, in Berlin. ... Love is a profound feeling of tender affection for or intense attraction to another. ... The Thanhouser Company (later the Thanhouser Film Corporation) was a motion picture studio founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by Edwin Thanhouser. ... Henderson was believed to have been responsible for recognizing the talents of Rudolph Valentino Lucius J. Henderson (1861, Aldo, Illinois - 18 February 1947, New York City was an American silent film director of the early silent period involved in over 70 film productions. ... James Cruze (born March 27, 1884 near Ogden, Utah - died August 3, 1942, in Hollywood, California) was a silent film actor. ... Florence M.L. La Badie (born possibly April 27, 1888 - October 13, 1917) was the daughter of Joseph E. La Badie and his wife Amanda from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... was a classic 1920 horror film based upon Robert Louis Stevensons famed novella and brought to life by John Barrymore, widely regarded as the worlds greatest actor at the time. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... John Sidney Blythe Barrymore (February 15, 1882 – May 29, 1942), better known as just John Barrymore and nicknamed The Great Profile, became famous as a Shakespearean actor, lauded for his Hamlet, and was frequently regarded as the greatest actor of his generation, playing a wide variety of roles on stage... The Picture of Dorian Gray is the only novel to be published by Oscar Wilde, and was first published as the lead story in Lippincotts Monthly Magazine on 20 June 1890. ... The Head of Janus (Der Januskopf) was a 1920 silent film directed by F. W. Murnau. ... F W Murnau Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (December 28, 1888 – March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential directors of the silent film era. ... For other uses, see Dracula (disambiguation). ... Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (A Symphony of Horror in German) is a German Expressionist film shot in 1922 by F.W. Murnau. ... Conrad Veidt in The Spy in Black (1939). ... Bela Lugosi as Dracula United States stamp. ... Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... Rouben Mamoulian (October 8, 1897 – December 4, 1987) was an American film and theatre director. ... Fredric March photograph by Carl Van Vechten, 1939 Fredric March (August 31, 1897 – April 14, 1975) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent film awards in the United States and most watched awards ceremony in the world. ... Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... Victor Fleming (February 23, 1883 - January 6, 1949) (sometimes Vic Fleming) was an American film director. ... Spencer Tracy (left) in 1960s Inherit the Wind with Fredric March. ... (pronounced in Swedish, but usually in English, IPA notation) (29 August 1915 – 29 August 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning Swedish actress. ... Lana Turner in The Postman Always Rings Twice. ... The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll is a 1960 horror film by Hammer Film Productions. ... Movie director who worked for Hammer Films. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Opium, or opïum is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jerry Lewis (born Joseph Levitch on March 16, 1926), is an American comedian, actor, film producer, writer and director known for his slapstick humor and his charity fund-raising telethons for the Muscular Dystrophy Association. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Jack Palance, (born Volodymyr Palanyuk (Ukr: Володимир Паланюк))on February 18, 1919, in Hazle Township, Pennsylvania, USA), is an Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Dan Curtis (born August 12, 1928) is a director and producer of television and film, probably best known for the afternoon TV series Dark Shadows, which originally aired from 1966 to 1971 and has aired in syndication for the last thirty years. ... Dark Shadows was a gothic television soap opera that originally aired weekdays on the ABC television network, from June 27, 1966 to April 2, 1971. ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the countrys national radio and television broadcaster. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... An Emmy Award. ... Dr. Jekyll and Sister Hyde is a 1971 film made by Hammer Film Productions. ... A nude contemporary European woman A woman is a female human. ... Jack the Ripper is the pseudonym given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area of London, England in the second half of 1888. ... I, Monster is a 1971 British horror film directed by Stephen Weeks (his feature debut) for Amicus Productions. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques believed to cure or to help solve behavioral and other psychological problems in humans. ... Look up plot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Jenna Jameson with Savanna Samson in a classic hardcore porn movie, The New Devil In Miss Jones (2005) Hardcore pornography is a form of pornography that features explicit sexual acts. ... Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ... David Hemmings in the late 1960s David Hemmings (18 November 1941 – 3 December 2003) was a British movie actor and director, whose most famous role was the photographer in Michelangelo Antonionis Blowup in 1966 (opposite Vanessa Redgrave), one of the films that best represented the spirit of the 1960s. ... Antony Andrews (b. ... Michael Caine as Alfred Pennyworth in Batman Begins Sir Maurice Joseph Micklewhite, CBE (born 14 March 1933), known professionally as Sir Michael Caine, is a double Oscar-winning English film actor. ... A marriage is a relationship between or among individuals, usually recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ... David Edgar (b. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company is a British theatre company, one of the most influential in the country. ... Mary Reilly is a 1996 film directed by Stephen Frears. ... Stephen Frears (born June 20, 1941) is a British film director. ... Julie Fiona Roberts (born October 28, 1967) is an Academy Award-winning American actress, who shot to fame during the early 1990s after starring in the romantic comedy, Pretty Woman, opposite Richard Gere. ... John Gavin Malkovich (born December 9, 1953) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor, producer and director. ... Valerie Martin (born 1948, Missouri) is an American novelist and short story writer. ... A maidservant or in current usage maid is a female employed in domestic service. ... Cover from original Broadway recording Jekyll & Hyde is a Broadway musical based on the novel, by Robert Louis Stevenson. ... A love triangle refers to a romantic relationship involving three people. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Scott Zakarin is an American writer and producer. ... Matt Keeslar in the mini-series Stephen Kings Rose Red Matt Keeslar (born October 15, 1972 in Grand Rapids, Michigan) is an American actor. ... Jekyll is a forthcoming British television drama serial, due to go into production in September 2006. ... Steven Moffat appearing on Doctor Who Confidential Steven Moffat (born 1961 in Paisley, Scotland, UK) is a British comedy/drama writer who has contributed to television series since the late 1980s. ... James Nesbitt (born January 15, 1965) also known as Jimmy Nesbitt, is an actor from Coleraine in Northern Ireland, best known in the United Kingdom for his role in the ITV drama series Cold Feet. ... Hartswood Films is a British television production company, founded and run by the experienced producer Beryl Vertue. ... BBC One (or BBC1 as it was formerly styled) is the primary channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation. ...

In popular culture

  • Direct examples
    • A Marvel Comics supervillain was named after and based on Mr Hyde (see Mister Hyde (comics)).
    • The character(s) of Jekyll and Hyde appear in Alan Moore's comic book, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, and the film based on it. Hyde - stronger than ever, and with the Jekyll Persona buried - dies aiding the saving of earth from the Martians of The War of the Worlds.
    • The character(s) of Jekyll and Hyde play a minor role in the film, Van Helsing, as well as a substantially larger role in the animated prequel Van Helsing: The London Assignment.
    • The song "Jekyll & Hyde" from the TV show Arthur, where Alan "The Brain" Powers envisions himself as Dr Jekyll (and, thus, Mr Hyde as well).
    • A R. L. Stine book Jekyll and Heidi depicts a young girl (named Heidi) moving to live with her reclusive uncle, only to discover he is the direct descendant of the original Dr Jekyll, and is carrying on his work.
    • In RuneScape, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde are a random event. Dr Jekyll asks for a certain herb, if the player does not talk to him for a certain amount of time, Jekyll will transform into Mr Hyde and attack the player.
    • The animated movie Mad Monster Party? features Jekyll and Hyde as guest(s) at Dr Frankenstein's monster ball.
    • In the movie The Pagemaster, Jekyll is shown transforming into Hyde.
    • In the children's movie Alvin & the Chipmunks Meet the Wolfman, the school play the continuously rehearse is Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. This is most likely a reference to Theodore, when he gets bitten by a werewolf and is completely normal by day, but a werewolf "puppy" at night.
  • Motif examples
    • This is a motif which is often applied, for example in the following BBC news report Shadowing the Conservative leader in which the analogy with Jekyll and Hyde is clearly meant "Over the course of our filming we sometimes felt that Michael Howard seemed unsure of the image he wants to project of himself and his party. At times it was the new, touchy-feely Tories, at others – as with immigration and asylum – it was hard-line stuff. A kind of Dr Jekyll and Mr Howard."
    • The Hulk, the powerful and brutishly emotional alter ego of an emotionally repressed scientist who comes forth whenever he experiences extreme emotional stress like anger or terror, is an example of the Jekyll and Hyde motif. While the Hulk often proves vital to saving the day, seeking usually to protect, his terrifying nature drives Bruce Banner into isolation, much like Jekyll, fearing discovery.
    • The book was the inspiration behind Two-Face, a supervillain Bob Kane created in 1941 to battle Batman. An upstanding citizen and DA, Harvey Dent was horribly scarred and traumatized. This caused his formerly repressed Hyde to emerge. The two personalities come into direct conflict often and make decisions they are split on using the outside moderator of a flipped coin. Submerged in the underworld, it appears that the darker side of Dent finally replaced the better side.
    • In the Disney cartoon short, Motor Mania, Goofy takes on a Jekyll and Hyde-type split personality when he gets behind the wheel and becomes a demon driver and a menace at the wheel.
    • The Crash Bandicoot character Dr N Brio, the scientist who drinks his potion to become a giant green and powerful monster.
    • The novel and subsequent film of American Psycho by Brett Easton Ellis shares many thematic qualities to Stevenson's work. The protagonist Patrick Bateman, while on an outward and social level is a respectable, charming and all-together normal twenty-something, is at night, unknown to those who believe they know him, a psychopathic, amoral serial murderer-rapist. The juxtaposition between the two seeming opposites echoes that of Jekyl and Hyde.[citation needed]
    • Fight Club, the novel and movie, share, not thematic, but stylistic elements, with the protagonist and antagonist being revealed to the same person. Thematically though, this differs from Stevenson's novella, as in the normal-blue collar character is shown to be the depressed, emotionally dead one, whereas the amoral Tyler Durden is the fun, charming and more interesting character, not the abominal evil alter-ego of Hyde.[citation needed]
    • Darth Vader / Anakin Skywalker. In his lust for power, the good Anakin is overcome by evil becoming Darth Vader. Having been denied a childhood with his mother, an open relationship with his lover, and the right to question the Jedi Order, his repression opens the doorway to Palpatine. The inner conflict between good and evil is explored here in greater detail.[citation needed] This theme appears often in the Star Wars movies and related media, focusing on the collision of the two basic forces of the universe: the good vs the Dark side of the Force. The teachings of the dark side of the Force often emphasize the Hyde personality (power, dominance, freedom) while the teachings of the light side of the Force exemplify the Jekyll personality (reason, isolation, control).
    • In The Nutty Professor, Sherman Klump is a friendly, naive, obese college science teacher who develops a formula for rapid weight loss. This formula gives birth to Sherman's alter ego, a sexual, fast-talking, remarkably thin Buddy Love. The two eventually come into conflict as Buddy ceases to be an alter ego and develops his own personality and motives, attempting to completely supplant Sherman and assume dominance. In a twist, Sherman does not become subsumed by Buddy, but regains control by realizing that the freedom Buddy granted was not worth losing his identity over.
    • Jekyll is a line of Mountain bicycles produced by Cannondale. So named as the rider can adjust the bike's angle-of-attack, from mellow Cross-Country style to aggressive Downhill style.
    • In the anime, Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, the monster "Destiny Hero - Double Dude" is based on the legend of Jekyll and Hyde.
    • Jekyll & Hyde Club, a themed restaurant in New York City.

See also DID/MPD in fiction. Marvel Comics is an American comic book line published by Marvel Entertainment, Inc. ... Doctor Doom, one of the most archetypal supervillains and his arch-enemies The Fantastic Four (in background). ... Mister Hyde (Calvin Zabo) is a Marvel Comics supervillain. ... Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels, Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen is a comic book limited series written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Kevin ONeill, published under the Americas Best Comics imprint of DC Comics. ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel (or novella) which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arthur is an American and Canadian educational children’s television series which airs on PBS and TVO. The show usually revolves around Arthur Read, an anthropomorphic aardvark, and his daily adventures with his peers and family. ... R. L. Stine. ... Note: Each article in the RuneScape series are being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Mad Monster Party (sometimes listed as Mad Monster Party?) is an animated movie that was made in 1969 by Rankin/Bass Productions, Inc. ... The Pagemaster was a live action/animated film released by 20th Century Fox on November 23, 1994. ... In literature, a motif is a recurring element or theme that has symbolic significance in the story. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest public broadcasting corporation in the world. ... Analogy is either the cognitive process of transferring information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... The Rt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ... The physicist Albert Einstein is probably the most famous scientist of our time. ... now. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Terror is a pronounced state of fear, an overwhelming sense of imminent danger. ... Two-Face is a DC Comics supervillain, an enemy of Batman. ... Kane standing beside Michael Keaton as his creation, the Batman. ... This article is about the year. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still sometimes as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional character and superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... The Walt Disney Company (most commonly known as Disney) (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... Motor Mania is a cartoon made by the Walt Disney Company in 1950. ... Goofy is a fictional character from the Walt Disneys Mickey Mouse universe. ... // Crash Bandicoot is a popular series of video games. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Bret Easton Ellis (born March 7, American author. ... Fight Club[1] (1996) is the first published novel by American author Chuck Palahniuk. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and be more accessible to a general audience, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anakin Skywalker (41 BBY – 4 ABY) is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ... Shmi Skywalker (72 BBY - 22 BBY) is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe, the mother of Anakin Skywalker and paternal grandmother to Luke Skywalker and Leia Organa. ... Padmé Amidala is a fictional character in George Lucass Star Wars saga. ... Jedi Knight redirects here. ... Palpatine is a fictional character in George Lucass science fiction saga Star Wars. ... The cover of the 2004 DVD widescreen release of the revamped original Star Wars Trilogy. ... The Dark Side redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Cannondale is a major American bicycle manufacturer, headquartered in Bethel, Connecticut USA and manufacturing in Bedford, Pennsylvania USA. The company was founded in 1971 by Joe Montgomery to manufacture bicycle trailers for bicycle touring. ... Yu-Gi-Oh! GX, known in Japan as Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters GX (遊☆戯☆王デュエル モンスターズGX Yūgiō Dyueru Monsutāzu GX) is an anime spinoff of the original Yu-Gi-Oh! franchise. ... The Jekyll & Hyde Club is a themed restaurant owned by Eerie World Entertainment in New York City, New York, specifically in Manhattan. ... The idea of multiple personalities has been popularized, often in an exaggerated or factually incorrect form, by many types of media. ...


Trivia

  • At the time of writing the book, Stevenson was possibly being treated with the fungus ergot at a local hospital. While ergot has been known to induce psychoactive experiences, there is no factual basis that ergot was an influence on Stevenson or the book.
  • Stevenson's death in 1894, eight years after finishing the story, happened while he was straining to open a bottle of wine in his kitchen. He suddenly exclaimed that his face had changed appearance. Collapsing on the ground, he was dead within six hours of a burst blood vessel in the brain. It remains a curious thematical link between the last episode in Stevenson's life and the transformations he wrote about in his book.
  • According to Paul M. Gahlinger, M.D., Ph.D., "Robert Louis Stevenson used cocaine for inspiration, and is said to have written The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in a single six-day and night binge" (Gahlinger, 2001). If this is based on factual evidence, or is merely speculation, is unclear.
  • At Makar's Court in Edinburgh there is a museum dedicated to Stevenson, Robert Burns, and Walter Scott. Among the exhibits is a large chest of drawers, one of the few surviving pieces known to have been made by the notorious Deacon Brodie, a famous citizen of Edinburgh who led a double life as a cabinetmaker by day and a house-breaker by night. This chest was in Stevenson's room when he was young, and bears a strong resemblance to the press in Doctor Jekyll's cabinet.
  • According to Wendy Moore, author of The Knife Man, Dr Jekyll's house was modelled on that of the famous eighteenth-century anatomist and surgeon John Hunter. Hunter, always in need of cadavers for his research, was deeply involved in the Resurrectionist business, employing body-snatchers to dig up graves (often entire graveyards) in search of corpses. His house was designed to receive high society at the front and stolen bodies at the back, reflected in the dualist nature of Dr Jekyll/Mr Hyde and his surroundings.

Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Robert Burns, preeminent Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) was a poet and songwriter. ... Portrait of Sir Walter Scott, by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with William Brodie. ... Engraving of John Hunter (1728 – 1793) taken from the original portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, which is in the Royal College of Surgeons. ... Resurrectionists were grave robbers who dug up fresh corpses and sold them to be used in anatomy lectures in medical schools. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Stevenson published the book as Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (without "The"), for reasons unknown, but it has been supposed to increase the "strangeness" of the case (Richard Drury (2005)). Later publishers added "The" to make it grammatically correct, but it was not the author's original intent. The story is often known today simply as Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde or even Jekyll and Hyde.
  2. ^ JEEK-ull (JĒ-kəl) is the correct Scots pronunciation of the name, but JEK-ull (JE-kəl) remains an accepted and common pronunciation.

An author is the person who creates a written work, such as a book, story, article or the like. ... Scots is an Anglic variety spoken in Scotland, where it is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic spoken by some in the Highlands and Islands (especially the Hebrides). ...

References

  • Richard Dury. The Robert Louis Stevenson website.
  • Richard Dury, ed. (2005). The Annotated Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. ISBN 88-7544-030-1, over 80 pages of introduction material, extensive annotation notes, 40 pages of derivative works and extensive bibliography.
  • Paul M. Gahlinger, M.D., Ph.D. (2001). Illegal Drugs: A Complete Guide to their History, Chemistry, Use, and Abuse. Sagebrush Medical Guide. Pg 41. ISBN 0-9703130-1-2.
  • Kathrine Linehan, ed. (2003). Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Norton Critical Edition, contains extensive annotations, contextual essays and criticisms. ISBN 0-393-97465-0

Annotation is extra information associated with a particular point in a document or other piece of information. ... An essay is a short work that treats a topic from an authors personal point of view, often taking into account subjective experiences and personal reflections upon them. ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ...

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