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Encyclopedia > Dobruja
Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow.
Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow.

Dobruja, or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Добруджа—transliterated Dobrudzha—in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish, and Δοβρουτσά—transliterated Dovroutsa—in Greek), is an informal region shared by Bulgaria and Romania, located between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, including the Danube Delta, Romanian coast and the northernmost part of the Bulgarian coast. Image File history File links Dobrogea-cadrilater. ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea in Romanian; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian) is the part of Dobruja that is part of Romania. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... NASA satelite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast covers the whole eastern border of Bulgaria. ...


The territory of Dobruja is comprised of Northern Dobruja, which is part of Romania, and Southern Dobruja which belongs to Bulgaria. Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea in Romanian; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian) is the part of Dobruja that is part of Romania. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ...


The territory of the Romanian region Dobrogea is now organised as the counties of Constanţa and Tulcea, with a combined area of 15,500 km² and a population of slightly less than a million. Main cities cities are Constanţa, Tulcea, Medgidia, and Mangalia. Dobrogea is represented by dolphins in the coat of arms of Romania. Facts Development region: Sud-Est Historic region: Dobruja Capital city: ConstanÅ£a Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 715,151 101/km² Area: 7,071 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO CT RO-CT Telephone code: (+40) x41 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Administrative map of Romania with Tulcea county highlighted Tulcea is a Romanian county (Judeţ) in the Dobrogea region, with the capital city at Tulcea (population: 96,813). ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... County Tulcea County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Hogea, Democratic Party , since 2004 Population (2002) 91,875 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Medgidia (Turkish Mecidiye): (population: 43,800) is a town in Dobruja, Romania. ... County ConstanÅ£a County Status Municipality Mayor Zanfir Iorgus, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 62. ... Genera See article below. ... Coat of Arms of Romania The Coat of Arms of Romania consists of an eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a sword in its claws. ...


The Bulgarian region of Dobrudzha, which is divided between the administrative regions of Dobrich and Silistra, has a total area of 7,565 km², and a combined population of some 350,000 people. Categories: Bulgaria geography stubs | Regions of Bulgaria ... Categories: Bulgaria geography stubs | Regions of Bulgaria ...

Contents

Geography

With the exception of the Danube Delta, a marshy region located in its northeastern corner, Dobruja is hilly, with an average altitude of about 200-300 metres. The highest point is in the Ţuţuiatu/Greci Peak in the Măcin Mountains, having a height of 467 m. The Dobrogea Plateau covers most of the Romanian part of Dobruja, while in the Bulgarian part the Ludogorie Plateau is found. Lake Siutghiol is one of the most important lakes from Dobrogea. Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... Măcin Mountains is a mountain range located in Tulcea county, Dobrogea, Romania and are one of the oldest in Europe, being formed around 400 million years ago. ... The Dobrogea Plateau (Romanian: PodiÅŸul Dobrogei) is a plateau in Eastern Romania located in the Dobruja region, sorrounded to the north and west by the Danube and to the east by the Danube Delta and the Black Sea. ... The Ludogorie (-Bulgarian: Лудогорие, usually used with a definite article, Лудогорието, Ludogorieto; Turkish: Deliorman) is a region in northeastern Bulgaria stretching over the plateau of the same name. ... Siutghiol is a lake in Northern Dobruja, Romania. ...


Etymology

The origin of the name of Dobruja could be found in the Turkish rendition of the name of a 14th century ruler, despot Dobrotici/Dobrotitsa (دوبرجه). It was common for the Turks to name countries after one of their early rulers (for example, nearby Moldavia was known as Bogdan Iflak by the Turks, named after Bogdan I). Despotes (Greek DespotÄ“s, feminine Despoina, Bulgarian and Serbian Despot, feminine Despotica, sometimes Anglicized Despot), is a Byzantine court title, also granted in the Latin Empire, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Empire of Trebizond. ... Bogdan I Bogdan of Cuhea (or Bogdan-Vodă; Bogdan I of Moldavia) is the second founding-figure of the Principality of Moldavia, ruling between 1359 and 1365. ...


An alternative etymology was given by Gheorghe Brătianu, according to whom, its name is a Slavic derivation from a Turkic word (Bordjan or Brudjars) which referred to the Turkic Proto-Bulgarians, term also used by Arabic writers. Map showing the location of Bulgars, 650. ...


Initially, the name meant just the steppe of the southern region, between Hârşova and Razim Lake in the north and Silistra-Balchik in the south, but eventually, the term was extended to include the northern part and the Danube Delta.[1] HârÅŸova is a city in ConstanÅ£a county, Romania, with a population of 11. ... Razelm Lake (Romanian: Lacul Razim) is the lake and the group of the lakes on the beach of Black Sea in Romania south of the Danube Delta. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Balchik (Bulgarian Балчик, Romanian Balcic) is a Black Sea coastal town in the Southern Dobruja area of northeastern Bulgaria. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ...


History

Prehistory

The territory of Dobruja has been inhabited since Middle and Upper Paleolithic, as the remains at Babadag, Slava Rusă and Enisala prove. In the Neolithic it was part of the Hamangia culture (named after a village on the Dobrujan coast), Boian culture and Karanovo V culture. At the end of the 5th millennium BC, under the influence of some Aegeo-Mediterranean tribes and cultures, the Gumelniţa culture appeared in the region. In the Eneolithic, populations migrating from the north of the Black Sea, of the Kurgan culture, mixed with the previous population, creating the Cernavodă I culture. Under Kurgan II influence, the Cernavodă II culture emerged, and then, through the combination of the Cernavodă I and Ezero cultures, developed the Cernavodă III culture. The region had commercial contacts with the Mediterranean world since the 14th century BC, as a Mycenaean sword discovered at Medgidia proves. The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Babadag is a town in the Tulcea county, Romania; situated on a small lake formed by the Taitza river among the densely wooded highlands of the northern Dobrudja. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Hamangia was a prehistoric culture in Dobrogea, including the Danube area, noted for their work with ceramics. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. ... Cernavoda culture, ca. ... Ezero culture, 3300—2700 BC, a bronze age archaeological culture occupying most of present-day Bulgaria. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Medgidia (Turkish Mecidiye): (population: 43,800) is a town in Dobruja, Romania. ...


Ancient History

During the early Iron Age, in the 8th-6th centuries BC the Geto-Dacians individualized from the large Thracian population. In the second part of the 8th century BC, the first signs of commercial relations between indigenous population and Greeks appeared on the shore of the Sinoe Gulf (now a lake). In 657/656 BC colonists from Miletus founded the first colony in the region - Histria. In the 7th and 6th centuries BC, more Greek colonies were founded on the Dobrujan coast (Callatis, Tomis, Mesembria, Dionysopolis, Parthenopolis, Aphrodisias, Eumenia etc). In the 5th century BC these colonies were under the influence of the Delian League, passing in this period from oligarchy to democracy[2]. Also, in the 6th century BC, the first Scythian groups began to enter the region. Two Getae tribes, the Crobyzi and Terizi, were mentioned on the territory of present Dobruja by Hekataios of Miletus (540-470 BC). Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Getae (singular Geton) was the name by which ancient Greek writers referred to the tribes later known as the Dacians. ... Alternate meanings: see Dacia (disambiguation) Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci or Getae, was a large district of Central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa (Tisza river, in Hungary), on the east by... Thracian peltast, 5th to 4th century BC Thracian Horseman Thracians in an ethnic sense refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Dacian and Thracian, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus, as it was on August 6, 2005. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Histria Histria was first a Miletus colony and latter a roman town. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Callatis was a Roman town which is modern Mangalia in Romania today. ... Tomi (also called Tomi) was a Greek colony in the province of Scythia on the Black Seas shore, founded around 500 BC for commercial exchanges with local Dacian populations. ... Nessebar (Несебър), previously known as Mesembria and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Obshtina Nessebar, Burgas Oblast. ... Dionysopolis was a town in ancient Moesia. ... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ... Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks and Romans to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube in what is today northern Bulgaria, especially near modern Dobruja and in the Muntenian plain. ... Hecataeus (c. ...

Ancient towns and colonies in Dobruja (Modern coastline shown)
Ancient towns and colonies in Dobruja (Modern coastline shown)

In 514/512 BC King Darius I of Persia subdued the Getae living in the region during his expedition against Scythians living north of the Danube. [3] At about 430 BC, the Odrysian kingdom under Sitalkes extended its rule to the mouths of the Danube [4]. In 429 BC, Getae from the region participated in an Odrysian campaign in Macedonia, and under the Odrysian king Seuthes I, 2,000 Getae soldiers fought against Athenian soldiers at Chersones, in southern Crimea [5]. In the 4th century BC, the Scythians brought Dobruja under their sway. In 341-339 BC, one of their kings, Atheas fought against Histria, which was supported by a Histrianorum rex (probably a local Getic ruler). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x886, 194 KB) Summary made by me using a pd map from www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x886, 194 KB) Summary made by me using a pd map from www. ... Darius I of Persia Darius the Great (ca. ... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks and Romans to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube in what is today northern Bulgaria, especially near modern Dobruja and in the Muntenian plain. ... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. It consisted of present-day Bulgaria, spreading from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... Sitalkes (reigned 431 - 424 BC) was one of the great kings of the Thracian Odrysian state. ... Seuthes I was king of the Odrysian Thracians from 424 BC until 410 BC. He was the nephew of Sitalkes. ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 38. ... Tauric Chersonesos, Greek Χερσονασος (Chersones, Khersones, Korsun, Russian: Херсонес) was the Greek settlement founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimean (Taurian) Peninsula. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ...


In 339 BC, king Atheas was defeated by the Macedonians under king Philip II, who afterwards extended his rule over Dobruja. [6] In 313 BC and again in 310-309 BC the Greek colonies led by Callatis, supported by Antigonus I Monophthalmus, revolted against Macedonian rule. The revolts were suppressed by Lysimachus, the diadochus of Thracia, who also began a military expedition against Dromichaetes, the rulers of the Getae north of the Danube, in 300 BC. In the 3rd century BC, colonies on the Dobrujan coast paid tribute to the basilei Zalmodegikos and Moskon, who probably ruled also northern Dobruja. In the same century Celts settled in the north of the region. In 260 BC, Byzantion lost the war with Callatis and Histria for the control of Tomis. At the end of the 3rd century BC and the beginning of the 2nd century BC, the Bastarnae settled in the area of the Danube Delta. Around 200 BC, the Thracian king Zoltes invaded the province several times, but was defeated by Rhemaxos, who became the protector of the Greek colonies. Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ... Lysimachus (c. ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Dromichaetes was ruler of the Getae north of Danube (present day Romania) around 300 BC. His capital was named Helis and was probably somewhere in the Romanian Plain (in Wallachia). ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... Moskon was a Dacian king that ruled in the 3rd century BC the northern parts of Dobruja, probably being the head of a local tribal union, which had close relations with the local Greek colonies and adopted the Greek style of administration. ... A Celtic cross. ... Byzantium was the original name of the modern city of Istanbul. ... The Bastarnae were a Celtic or mixed Germanic-Celtic tribe who lived in the Danube estuary and western Balkans during the last centuries BC and early centuries AD. The origin of their name is uncertain, but may mean mixed-bloods (compare bastard) as opposed to the neighbouring Germanic Skiri clean... Zoltes was a chief of the southern Thracians, living in the Haemus mountains area. ... Rhemaxos was an ancient king that ruled to the north of Danube around 200 BC who was the protector of the Greek colonies in Dobruja, receiving a tribute from them in exchange of protection against outside attacks. ...


Around 100 BC King Mithridates VI of Pontus extended his authority over the Greek cities in Dobruja. However, in 72-71 BC, during the Third Mithridatic War, these cities were occupied by the Roman proconsul of Macedonia, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus. A foedus was signed between the Greek colonies and the Roman Empire, but in 62-61 BC the colonies revolted. Gaius Antonius Hybrida intervened, but was defeated by Getae and Bastarnae near Histria. After 55 BC the Dacians under King Burebista conquered Dobruja and all the Greek colonies on the coast, but their rule ended in 44 BC. A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... Third Mithridatic War (75 - 65 BC) Mithridates VI had long been a thorn in Romes side, having launched two wars against the Roman Republic, in the early 1st century B.C. In response to the chaos in Rome, following the terror of Marius and Sullas dictatorship, the Empire... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gaius Antonius Hybrida (lived 1st century BC) was an Ancient Rome politician. ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... Dacian Kingdom, during the rule of Burebista, 82 BC Burebista,[1] the greatest king of Dacia, ruled between 70 BC and 44 BC. He unified the Thracian population from Hercynia (todays Moravia) in the west, to the Bug River in the east, and from the northern Carpathians to Dionysopolis...


Roman rule

In 28/29 BC Rholes, a Getic ruler from southern Dobruja, supported the proconsul of Macedonia, Marcus Licinius Crassus, in his action against the Bastarnae. In turn, Rholes was declared Socius et amicus Populi Romani by Octavianus, and helped Crassus in conquering the states of Dapyx (in central Dobruja) and Zyraxes (in the north of the region). Dobruja became part of the client kingdom of the Odrysians, while the Greek cities on the coast came under direct rule of the governor of Macedonia. In 12 AD and 15 AD a Getic army succeeded in conquering the cities of Aegyssus and Troesmis for a short time, but they were defeated by Odrysian king Rhoemetalces with the help of a Roman army. The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks and Romans to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube in what is today northern Bulgaria, especially near modern Dobruja and in the Muntenian plain. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... The Bastarnae were a Celtic or mixed Germanic-Celtic tribe who lived in the Danube estuary and western Balkans during the last centuries BC and early centuries AD. The origin of their name is uncertain, but may mean mixed-bloods (compare bastard) as opposed to the neighbouring Germanic Skiri clean... Octavianus, or in English Octavian, was the name for which Augustus Caesar was known following his adoption by Julius Caesar and before acquiring the title of Augustus. ... Dapyx was a 1st century BC chieftain of a Dacian/Getae tribe or a tribe union in Scythia Minor (nowadays in Dobruja, Romania). ... Zyraxes was a Dacian-Getae king who ruled north Dobruja in the 1st century BC. He was mentioned in relation with the campaigns of Licinius Crassus. ... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... The Getae (Γέται, singular Γέτης; Getae) was the name given by the Greeks and Romans to several Thracian tribes that occupied the regions south of the Lower Danube in what is today northern Bulgaria, especially near modern Dobruja and in the Muntenian plain. ... County Tulcea County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Hogea, Democratic Party , since 2004 Population (2002) 91,875 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Troesmis was an ancient town in Scythia Minor. ...

The Tropaeum Traiani monument in Adamclisi commemorating Roman victory over Dacians
The Tropaeum Traiani monument in Adamclisi commemorating Roman victory over Dacians

In 15 AD the Roman province of Moesia was created, but Dobruja, under the name Ripa Thraciae remained part of the Odrysian kingdom, while the Greek cities on the coast formed Praefectura orae maritimae. In 46 AD Thracia became a Roman province and the territories of present Dobruja were absorbed into the province of Moesia. The Geto-Dacians invaded the region several times in the 1st century AD, especially between 62 and 70. In the same period the base of the Roman Danube fleet (classis Flavia Moesica) was moved to Noviodunum. The praefectura was annexed to Moesia in 86 AD. In the same year Domitianus divided Moesia, Dobruja being included in the eastern part, Moesia Inferior. Download high resolution version (768x1024, 120 KB)Traian wars File links The following pages link to this file: Trajan Trophaeum Traiani Wikipedia:List of images/Places/Europe/Romania Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 120 KB)Traian wars File links The following pages link to this file: Trajan Trophaeum Traiani Wikipedia:List of images/Places/Europe/Romania Categories: GFDL images ... Tropaeum Traiani Tropaeum Traiani is a monument in Adamclisi, Romania. ... Tropaeum Traiani Adamclisi is a commune in Constanţa County, in the Dobrogea region of Romania. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis) operated between the First Punic war and the end of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of Romania showing Isaccea Isaccea (population: 5,614) is a small town in the Tulcea county, in Dobruja, Romania, on the right bank of the Danube, 35 km north-west of Tulcea. ... Domitianus was a Roman military commander who declared himself emperor of the secessionist Gallic Empire (the provinces of Gaul (France and the Rhineland) and Britain) for a short time in about 271. ...


In the winter of 101-102 the Dacian king Decebalus led a coalition of Dacians, Carpians, Sarmatians and Burs in an attack against Moesia Inferior. The invading army was defeated by the Roman legions under emperor Trajan on the Yantra river (later Nicopolis ad Istrum was founded there to commemorate the victory), and again near modern village of Adamclisi, in the southern part of Dobruja. The latter victory was commemorated by a monument, built in 109 on the spot and the founding of the city of Tropaeum. After 105, Legio XI Claudia and Legio V Macedonica were moved to Dobruja, at Durostorum and Troesmis respectively. Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87-10no6) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... The Carpi or Carpians were a Dacian tribe that were originally located on the Eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in what is now Bacău county, Romania. ... Sarmatia and Scythia in 100 BC, also shown is the extent of the Parthian Empire. ... The Burs were a Germanic tribe living in Dacia in the first and second centuries of the Common Era. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Yantra is a river in Bulgaria. ... Tropaeum Traiani Adamclisi is a commune in Constanţa County, in the Dobrogea region of Romania. ... Tropaeum Traiani Tropaeum Traiani is a monument in Adamclisi, Romania. ... Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis (faithful and loyal Claudian legion) was a Roman legion. ... This coin was issued by Roman emperor Gallienus to celebrate the V Macedonica, whose symbol, the eagle, is crowned of wrath by Victoria. ... Silistra (a. ...


In 118 the emperor Hadrian intervened in the region to calm a Sarmatian rebellion. In 170 Costoboci invaded Dobruja, attacking Libida, Ulmetum and Tropaeum. The province was generally stable and prosperous until the crisis of the Third Century, which led to the weakening of defenses and numerous barbarian invasions. In 248 a coalition of Goths, Carpians, Taifali, Bastarnae and Hasdingi, led by Argaithus and Guntheric devastated Dobruja. During the reign of Traianus Decius the province suffered greatly from the attack of Goths under King Cniva. Barbarian attacks followed in 258, 263 and 267. In 269 a fleet of allied Goths, Heruli, Bastarnae and Sarmatians attacked the cities on the coast, devastating Tomis. In 272 emperor Aurelianus defeated the Carpians north of the Danube and settled a part of them near Carsium. The same emperor put an end to the crisis in the Roman Empire, thus helping the reconstruction of the province. Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 – July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was a Stoic-Epicurean[] Roman emperor from 117 – 138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... The Costoboci were a Dacian tribe, which lived in the areas known today as Maramures and southern Ukraine. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Bastarnae were a Celtic or mixed Germanic-Celtic tribe who lived in the Danube estuary and western Balkans during the last centuries BC and early centuries AD. The origin of their name is uncertain, but may mean mixed-bloods (compare bastard) as opposed to the neighbouring Germanic Skiri clean... The Hasdingii were the southern tribes of the Vandals. ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ... Cniva (flourished mid-3rd century) was the Gothic king who defeated and killed Decius and his older son, Herennius Etruscus, at the Battle of Abrittus in 251. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... Coin (antoninianus) of Aurelian Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (September 9, 214–275), known in English as Aurelian, Roman Emperor (270–275), was the second of several highly successful soldier-emperors who helped the Roman Empire regain its power during the latter part of the third century and the beginning of the... Hârşova is a city in Constanţa county, Romania, with a population of 11. ...


During the reign of Diocletianus Dobruja became a separate province, Scythia, part of the Diocese of Thracia. Its capital city was Tomis. Diocletianus also moved Legio II Herculia to Troesmis and Legio I Iovia to Noviodunum. In 331-332 Constantine the Great defeated the Goths who attacked the province. Dobruja was devastated again by Ostrogoths in 384-386. Under the emperors Licinius, Julian the Apostate and Valens the cities of the region were repaired or rebuilt. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian (245-313 AD/CE), born Diocles, was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. ... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Constantine. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... As of Licinius Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ...


Byzantine and Bulgarian rule

After the division of the Roman Empire Dobruja became part of the Eastern Roman Empire. In 513-520 a revolt against Anastasius I spread to the region. Its leader, Vitalianus, native of Zaldapa, in Southern Dobruja, defeated the Byzantine general Hypatius near Kaliakra. During Justin I's rule, Antes and Slavs invaded the region, but they were defeated by Germanus. In 529 a new invasion by Bulgars and Antes was repelled by the Gepid commander Mundus. Kutrigurs and Avars invaded the region several times, until 561-562, when the Avars under Bayan were settled south of the Danube as foederati. During the rule of Mauricius Tiberius, the Slavs devastated Dobruja, destroying the cities of Dorostolon, Zaldapa and Tropaeum. In 591/593, Byzantine general Priscus tried to stop invasions, attacking and defeating the Slavs under Ardagast in the north of the province. In 602 during the mutiny of the Byzantine army in the Balkans, a large mass of Slavs crossed the Danube, settling south of the Danube. Dobruja remained under loose Byzantine control, and was reorganized during the reign of Constantine IV as Thema Scythia. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Flavius Anastasius. ... Hypatius was a Byzantine noble of imperial descent who was positioned as commander in the east in the days of Justin I, where he lost many important battles, and later became senator. ... Location of Kaliakra Kaliakra is a long and narrow headland on the northern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, located 12 km east of Kavarna and 60 km northeast of Varna. ... Flavius Iustinus Augustus. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Germanus is the Latin term referring to the Germanic peoples. ... Map showing the location of Bulgars, 650. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Mundus (died 536) was a Byzantine general during the reign of Justinian I. Nothing is known of his early life, except that he was originally a Hunnic mercenary. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bayan may have the following meanings coming from various cultures Bayan (exposition) Al Bayan (newspaper) The Bayan was a set of two books written by the Báb Persian Bayan Arabic Bayan Bayan, a Russian musical instrument Boyan, a mythical Slavic bard Bayan (Avar Khagan) Bayan, son of Kubrat Khan... A solidus of Maurikios reign. ... Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685); sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatus, meaning the Bearded, like his father; was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ... The themata in 950. ...


In 681 Dobruja became part of the First Bulgarian Empire. Shortly after, Bulgars founded near the southern border of Dobruja the city of Pliska, which became the first Bulgarian capital[7] and remained political center of Bulgarian state until 893[citation needed]. However, during the following three centuries of Bulgarian domination, Byzantines still controlled the Black Sea coast and the mouths of Danube, and for short periods, even some cities.[8] At the beginning of the 8th century, Justinian II visited Dobruja to ask Bulgarian Khan Tervel for military help. In 895, Magyar tribes from Budjak invaded Dobruja and northeastern Bulgaria. An old Slavic inscription, found at Mircea-Vodă, mentioned Zhupan Dimitri (Дѣимитрѣ жѹпанѣ), a local feudal landlord in the south of the region in 943. The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ... Map showing the location of Bulgars, 650. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ... Justinian II, known as Rhinotmetus (the Split-nosed) (669-711) was a Byzantine emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, reigned from 685 to 695 and again from 704 to 711. ... Khan Tervel or Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the khan of the Bulgars from 700 or 701-718. ... Hungarians (Hungarian: ) or Magyars[5] are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Župa or Å»upa (Cyrillic Жупа) is a Slavic term originally denoting various territorial and other subunits, usually a small administrative division, especially a gathering of several villages. ...


On Nicephoros II Phocas demand, Sviatoslav I of Kiev occupied Dobruja in 968. He also moved the capital of Kievan Rus' to Pereyaslavets, in the north of the region. However, Byzantines under John I Tzimisces reconquered it in 971 and included it in the Thema Μεσοποταμια της Δυσεον (Mesopotamia of the West). In 986 the southern part of Dobruja was included in the Bulgarian state of Samuil, the northern part being reorganized by the Byzantines in an autonomous klimata. In 1000 Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer reconquered it, organizing the region as Strategia of Dorostolon and, after 1020, as Thema Paristrion (Paradunavon). To prevent mounted attacks from the north, the Byzantines constructed three ramparts from the Black Sea down to the Danube, in the 10th-11th centuries. Emperor Nicephoros Phocas Nicephorus II Phocas was one of the most brilliant generals in the history of Byzantium who rose to become a mediocre emperor from 963 until his assassination in 969. ... Sviatoslavs meeting with Emperor John by Klavdiy Lebedev, an attempt to visualise Leo the Deacons description of Sviatoslav Sviatoslav I of Kiev (East Slavic: Святослав, ca. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, mostly East Slavic [1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Trade city located at the mouth of the Danube. ... Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary. ... Motto: Bulgarian: (Bulgarian) Saedinenieto pravi silata(transliteration) Unity Makes Strength[1] Anthem: Мила Родино(Bulgarian) Mila Rodino(transliteration) Dear Motherland Map showing the location of Bulgaria (dark orange) within the EU ( legend). ... Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria (c. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... The term strategos (plural strategoi) is used in Greek to mean general. In the Byzantine Empire the term was also used to describe a military governor (see Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy). ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Trajans Wall (Valul lui Traian in Romanian) is a complex of three valla in south-central Dobruja, extending from the Danube to the Black Sea coast. ...


Late migrations

Beginning with the 10th century, Byzantines accepted the settling of small groups of Pechenegs in Dobruja. In the spring of 1036, an invasion of the Pechenegs devastated large parts of the region, destroying the forts at Capidava and Dervent and burning the settlement in Dinogeţia. In 1046 the Byzantines accepted the settling of Pechenegs under Kegen in Paristrion as foederati. Some form of domination was established by them until 1059, when Isaac I Comnenus reconquered Dobruja. In 1064, the great invasion of the Uzes affected the region. In 1072–1074, when Nestor, the new strategus of Paristrion, came to Dristra, he found a ruler in rebellion there, Tatrys. In 1091, three autonomous, probably Pecheneg, rulers were mentioned in the Alexiad: Tatos (Τατοῦ) or Chalis (χαλῆ), in the area of Dristra (probably the same as Tatrys), and Sesthlav (Σεσθλάβου) and Satza (Σατζά) in the area of Vicina[9]. Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Isaac coin. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Alexiad is a medieval biographical text written around the year 1148 by the Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, daughter of Emperor Alexius I. Within the Alexiad, she describes the political and military history of the Byzantine Empire during the reign of her father (1081-1118), making it one of the... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... County Tulcea County Status Town Mayor Ilie Petre, since 2004 Area 3. ...


Cumans came in Dobruja in 1094 and maintained an important role until the advent of the Ottoman Empire. In 1241 the first Tatar groups, under Kadan, invaded Dobruja starting a century long history of turmoil in the region. In 1263–1264, Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus gave permission to Sultan Izz al-Din Kaykaus II to settle in the area with a group of Seljuk Turks from Anatolia. A missionary Turkish mystic, Sarı Saltuk, was the spiritual leader of this group; his tomb in Babadag (which was named after him) is still a place of pilgrimage for the Muslims. Most of these Turks returned to Anatolia in 1307, while those who remained became Christianized and adopted the name Gagauz. In the second part of the thirteenth century, the Turkic-Mongolian Golden Horde Empire extended its sway over Dobruja. Mongol elite quickly became Turkified and Islamized. Dobruja was held by the Second Bulgarian Empire during the reigns of Ivan Asen II and Theodore Svetoslav. In the 1320s it appeared in documents under the name of Principality of Karvuna. Cumans, also called as Polovtsy, (Russian Половцы, from old Slavic for pale yellowish) was the European name for the Western Kipchaks, a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... The Byzantine Empire in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) Michael VIII (1225 – December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Babadag is a town in the Tulcea county, Romania; situated on a small lake formed by the Taitza river among the densely wooded highlands of the northern Dobrudja. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu) was a Turkic state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... The Second Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state which existed between 1185 and 1396 (or 1422). ... Ivan Asen II (Ioan Asen II) (1218–1241), tsar of Bulgaria, was the son of Kaloyan, founder of the Second Bulgarian Empire. ... Tsar Theodore Svetoslav, also Teodor Svetoslav, was monarch of Bulgaria from 1300 to 1322. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Independent Dobruja. The wars against the Ottomans

In 1325, the Ecumenical Patriarch nominated a certain Methodius Metropolitan of Varna and Carbona. After this date, a local ruler, Balik/Balica, is mentioned in Southern Dobruja. In 1346, he supported John V Palaeologus in the dispute for the Byzantine throne with John VI Cantacuzenus by sending an army corps under his son Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici and his brother, Theodore, to help the mother of John Palaeologus, Anna of Savoy. For his bravery, Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici received the title of strategus and married the daughter of megadux Apokaukos. After the reconciliation of the two pretenders, a territorial dispute broke out between the Dobrujan State and the Byzantine Empire for the port of Midia. In 1347, on John V Palaeologus' demand, Emir Bahud-din Umur, Bey of Aydin, led a naval expedition against Balik/Balica, destroying Dobruja's seaports. Balik/Balica and Theodore died during the confrontations, Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici becoming the new ruler. The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... John V Palaeologus (1332 – February 16, 1391) was the son of Andronicus III, whom he succeeded as Byzantine emperor in 1341, at age nine. ... John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ... Dobrotitsa (Bulgarian: , IPA: ; Romanian: ; Τομπροτίτζας in contemporaneous Byzantine documents;[1] Dobrodicie in contemporaneous Genoese documents[2]) was a Bulgarian noble, ruler of the de facto independent Principality of Karvuna and the Kaliakra fortress from 1354 to 1379–1386. ... The Megas Doux (Gr. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Aydın is the capital city of the Aydın Province in Turkey. ...

Principality of Dobrotici/Dobrotitsa during the 1370s
Principality of Dobrotici/Dobrotitsa during the 1370s

Between 1352 and 1359, with the fall of Golden Horde rule in Northern Dobruja, a new state appeared, under Tatar prince Demetrius, who claimed to be the protector of the mouths of the Danube. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (348x601, 66 KB) Principality of Dobrotici cca 1370-1385 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (348x601, 66 KB) Principality of Dobrotici cca 1370-1385 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ...


In 1357 Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici was mentioned as a despot ruling over a large territory, including the fortresses of Varna, Kosak (near Obzor) and Emona. In the same year, with the help of John V Palaeologus, he took Anhialos and Mesembria from Ivan Alexander, Tsar of Tarnovo. In 1366, John V Palaeologus visited Rome and Buda, trying to gather support for a campaign in Dobruja, but on the way home was captured by Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici and was imprisoned at Varna. A crusade under Amadeus VI of Savoy, supported by Venice and Genoa, was initiated to free the Byzantine emperor. Despotism is government by a singular authority, either a single person or tightly knit group, which rules with absolute power. ... Varna (Bulgarian: ) is the largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, and 92nd-largest in the European Union, with a population of 346,847[1] (2006). ... Obzor is a town in Bulgaria on the Black Sea coast. ... Emona is a village in South-East Bulgaria, situated in Obshtina Nessebar in the Burgas region. ... Coin of Roman Emperor Caracalla minted in Anchialos (Pomorie) Pomorie (Bulgarian: ; formerly known as Anchialos in Greek, Anchialus in Latin, Tuthom in Bulgar and Анхиало, Anhialo, a Bulgarianized Greek form) is a town in southeastern Bulgaria, located on a narrow rocky peninsula in Burgas Bay on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea... Nesebar (Bulgarian: Несебър, Nesebăr, though other transliterations are also used), previously known as Mesembria (Greek: Μεσημβρια, Mesimvria) and before that as Menebria, is an ancient city on the Black Sea coast of Bulgaria, located in Nesebar municipality, Burgas Province. ... Tsar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria was married twice. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Cyrillic: Велико Търново, Great Tarnovo, also Veliko Turnovo) is a city of approximately 65,000 people in North-central Bulgaria, 240km north-east of Sofia. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Amadeus VI (January 4, 1334 - March 1, 1383), surnamed the Green Count was Count of Savoy from 1343 to 1383. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Genoa (Genova in Italian - Zena in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ...


After the crusaders conquered some Dobrujan forts, Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici freed John and negotiated peace, his daughter marrying the son of John Palaeologus, Michael. In 1368, after the death of Demetrius, he was recognized as ruler by Pangalia and other cities on the right bank of the Danube. In 1369, together with Vladislav I of Wallachia, Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici helped Prince Stratsimir to win back the throne of Vidin. County ConstanÅ£a County Status Municipality Mayor Zanfir Iorgus, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 62. ... Vladislav I, also known as Vlaicu-Vodă, was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (1364 - circa 1377). ... Tsar Ivan Stratsimir of Bulgaria was the son of Tsar Ivan Alexander and his first wife Princess Theodora of Wallachia. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ...


Between 1370 and 1375, allied with Venice, he challenged Genoese power in the Black Sea. In 1376, he tried to impose his son-in law, Michael, as Emperor of Trebizond, but achieved no success. Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici supported John V Palaeologus against his son Andronicus IV Palaeologus. In 1379, the Dobrujan fleet participated in the blockade of Constantinople, fighting with the Genoese fleet. Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Andronicus IV Palaeologus or better Andronikos IV Palaiologos (April 2, 1348–June 28, 1385). ... Map of Constantinople. ...


In 1386, Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici died and was succeeded by Ivanko/Ioankos, who in the same year accepted a peace with Murad I and in 1387 signed a commercial treaty with Genoa. Ivanko/Ioankos was killed in 1388 during the expedition of Grand Vizier Çandarli Ali Pasha against Tarnovo and Dristra (old Durostorum). The expedition brought most of the Dobrujan forts under Turkish rule. Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Grand viziers Chief ministers Grand viziers Jun 1882 - November 1882 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st time) (s. ... Silistra (a. ...


In 1388/1389 Dobruja (Terrae Dobrodicii - as mentioned in a document from 1390) and Silistra (Dârstor / Dristra) came under the control of Mircea the Elder, ruler of Wallachia, who defeated the Grand Vizier. Mircea the Elder Wallachia under Mircea cel Bătrân, c. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


Bayezid I conquered the southern part of the territory in 1393, attacking Mircea one year later, but without success. Moreover, in the spring of 1395 Mircea regained the lost Dobrujan territories, with the help of its Hungarian allies. The third Ottoman occupation of Dobruja lasted from 1397 to 1404, although in 1401 an Ottoman army was heavily defeated by Mircea in Dobruja. Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد اول, Modern Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; Arabic: بايزيد الأول; ca 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Mircea the Elder Wallachia under Mircea cel Bătrân, c. ...


The defeat of Sultan Beyazid I by Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) at Ankara in 1402 opened a period of anarchy in the Ottoman Empire and Mircea took advantage of it to organize a new anti-Ottoman campaign: in 1403 he occupied the Genovese fort of Kilia at the mouths of the Danube, thus being able, in 1404, to impose his authority on Dobruja. He moreover took part in the struggles for the throne of the Ottoman Empire, ruling for a few years over Dobruja and much more in the south, up to the Balkan Mountains[citation needed]. Beyazid I Beyazid I (ca 1354–1403; Bayezıt, nicknamed Yıldırım, the Thunderbolt) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... Chilia Veche (pronunciation: /ki. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ...


After his death in 1418, his son Mihail I fought against the amplified Ottoman attacks, eventually losing his life in a battle in 1420. That year, the Sultan Mehmet I personally conducted the definitive conquest of Dobruja by the Turks. Wallachia kept only the mouths of the Danube, and not for long time. Mihail I was a ruler of the principality of Wallachia, (1418-1420). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) (Arabic: محمد الأول) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


Ottoman rule

Occupied by the Turks in 1420, the region remained under Ottoman control until the late 19th century. Initially, it was organized as an udj (border province), included in the sanjak of Silistra, part of the Vilayet of Rumelia. Later, during Murad II or Suleyman I, the sanjak of Silistra and surrounding territories became a separate Vilayet. In 1555, a revolt led by a certain Mustafa broke out against Ottoman administration and spread all over the region, but was repressed by the beylerbey of Rumelia. In 1603 and 1612, the region suffered from Cossack forays, who burnt down Isaccea and plundered Constanţa. The Russian empire occupied Dobruja several times during the Russo-Turkish Wars — in 1771–1774, 1790–1791, 1809–1810, 1829 and 1853. The most violent invasion was that of 1829, which depopulated numerous villages and towns. The Treaty of Adrianople of 1829 ceded the Danube Delta to the Russian Empire. However, Russians were forced to return it to the Ottomans in 1856, after The Crimean War. In 1864 Dobruja was included in the vilayet of Tuna. Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants: sinjaq, sanjaq) are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means banner. In Arabic the sanjaks were also called liwas. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Murad II Murad II (1404 – February 3, 1451) (Arabic: مراد الثاني) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except for a period from 1444 to 1446). ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman, (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was... Silistra Province (Turkish: Silistre Eyaleti), sometimes called Özi Province was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea littoral and south bank of the Danube River in southeastern Europe. ... Beylerbey or (Turkish for Bey of beys, Leader of leaders, Polish: bejlerbej) is the Ottoman title used for the most important person in the hierarchy of provincial leaders (a governor over several vilayet), second only to the Vizier. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Map of Romania showing Isaccea Isaccea (population: 5,614) is a small town in the Tulcea county, in Dobruja, Romania, on the right bank of the Danube, 35 km north-west of Tulcea. ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of eleven wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... The 1829 peace treaty of Adrianople (called also Treaty of Edirne), was settled between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... The Crimean War lasted from 28 March 1854 to 1856. ... The Danube Province (Turkish: Tuna Vilayeti) was a vilayet of the Ottoman Empire from 1864 to 1878. ...


During Ottoman rule, groups of Turks, Arabs and Tatars settled in the region, the latter especially between 1512 and 1514. During the reign of Peter I of Russia and Catherine the Great, Lipovans immigrated in the region of the Danube Delta. After the destruction of Zaporozhian Sich in 1775, Cossacks (Danubian Sich) were settled by Turkish authorities in the area north of Lake Razim, but they left Dobruja in 1828. In the second part of the nineteenth century, Ruthenians from the Austrian Empire also settled in the Danube Delta. After the Crimean War, a large number of Tatars were forcibly driven away from Crimea, immigrating to then-Ottoman Dobruja and settling mainly in the Carasu Valley in the centre of the region and around Babadag. In 1864, Cherkess fleeing from the Russian invasion of the Caucasus were settled in the wooded region near Babadag. Germans from Bessarabia also founded colonies in Dobruja between 1840 and 1892. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Peter was a tall figure, with an extremely striking build of 2. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Lipovans (Russian Old Believers) during a ceremony in front of their church in the Romanian village of Slava Cherkeza in 2004. ... Zaporizhian Sich or Zaporozhian Sech (Ukrainian: ,Zaporozka Sich) original Slavonic name Zaporizhska Sich was the center of the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Danubian Sich (Danube Sich, Trans-Danube Sich, Zadunayska Sich) was a fortified settlement (sich) of Zaporozhian Cossacks who fled in the territory of the Ottoman Empire after their home Zaporizhian Sich was overwhelmed by the Russian army in 1775, see, see Zaporozhian Host: Russian rule. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ...


According to Bulgarian historian Liubomir Miletich, most Bulgarians living in Dobruja in 1900 were nineteenth century settlers or their descendants. [10][11]


Modern age

Nationalities in Northern Dobruja at the beginning of the 20th century
Nationalities in Northern Dobruja at the beginning of the 20th century

After the 1878 war, Russia received Northern Dobruja, but forced Romania to change Southern Bessarabia with it, as Russia wanted a direct access to the Mouths of the Danube. The newly established autonomous Bulgaria received the smaller Southern Dobruja. In Northern Dobruja, Romanians were the plurality, but the population included a Bulgarian ethnic enclave in the northwest (around Babadag), as well as an important Muslim community (mostly Turks and Tatars) scattered around the region. At the advice of the French envoy, the Treaty of Berlin awarded a strip of land around the port of Mangalia (the orange area on the map) to Romania as well, since it contained a compact area of ethnic Romanians in its southeastern corner. This area was basically a strip of land that extended inland from the port of Mangalia up to the town of Silistra (a city which remained in Bulgaria due to a large Bulgarian population there). Subsequently, Romania attempted at taking over the town of Silistra. A new international commission in 1879 allowed Romania to occupy the fort looking over the city, Arab Tabia, however not the city itself. At the beginning of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 most of Dobruja's population was Turkish followed by Tatars but during the war the largest part of the Muslim population emigrated to Turkey and Bulgaria. After 1878, the Romanian government encouraged Romanians from other regions to settle in Northern Dobruja and even accepted the return of some Muslim population displaced by the war. After 1880, Italians from Friuli and Veneto settled in Greci, Cataloi and Măcin in Northern Dobruja. Most of them worked in the granite quarries in the Măcin Mountains, while some became farmers[12]. Image File history File links Dobethn1903. ... Image File history File links Dobethn1903. ... Budjak or Budzhak is the southern part of Bessarabia, now part of the Odessa Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... Babadag is a town in the Tulcea county, Romania; situated on a small lake formed by the Taitza river among the densely wooded highlands of the northern Dobrudja. ... The name Treaty of Berlin is attached to four treaties: Treaty of Berlin, 1878 Treaty of Berlin, 1899 Treaty of Berlin, 1921 Treaty of Berlin, 1926 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... County ConstanÅ£a County Status Municipality Mayor Zanfir Iorgus, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 62. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... Friulian Coats of Arms Friuli (Furlan: Friûl, German: Friaul, Slovenian: Furlanija) is an area in northeastern Italy, comprising the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... Vèneto is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Măcin is a town in Tulcea county, Dobrogea, Romania. ...

Dobruja after 1878
Dobruja after 1878

In May 1913, the Great Powers awarded Silistra and the area in a 3 km radius around it to Romania, at the Saint Petersburg Conference. In August 1913, after the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost Southern Dobruja (Cadrilater) to Romania (See Treaty of Bucharest, 1913). With Romania's entry in World War I on the side of France and Russia, the Central Powers occupied all of Dobruja and gave Southern Dobrogea as well as the southern portion of Northern Dobrogea to Bulgaria in the Treaty of Bucharest of 1918. This situation lasted only for a short period, as the Allied Powers emerged victorious at the end of the war and Romania regained its previous territories in the Treaty of Neuilly of 1919. Between 1926 and 1938, about 30,000 Aromanians from Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece were settled in Southern Dobruja. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (988x806, 50 KB) Summary Dobruja from 1878 Licensing This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (988x806, 50 KB) Summary Dobruja from 1878 Licensing This image is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License v. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Greece:King Constantine, Romania: Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 200,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert Henry Asquith Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Southern Dobruja (Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Bulgaria comprising the two former administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... A French caricature on the treaty: the Kaiser points a dagger at a woman (Romania), while showing her the Peace Treaty Delegates at the Peace of Bucharest The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty which was signed on May 7, 1918 forced by Germany to the Romanian side. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central Powers in World War I, was signed on the November 27, 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Arumâni, Armâni, Rămăni, Rumâni or Aromâni) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania...


With the advent of World War II, Bulgaria regained Southern Dobruja in the September 1940 Axis-sponsored Treaty of Craiova despite Romanian negotiators' insistence that Balchik and other towns should remain in Romania, and because the territory had historically been inhabited by Bulgarians since the 7th century.[citation needed] As part of the treaty, the Romanian inhabitants (Aromanian refugee-settlers, settlers from other regions of Romania and the Romanians indigenous to the region) were forced to leave the regained territory, while the Bulgarian minority in the north was in turn made to leave for Bulgaria in a population exchange. The 1940 borders were reaffirmed in the post-war Paris Peace Treaties of 1947 and are in place to this day. Combatants Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Treaty of Craiova was signed on September 7, 1940 between Romania and Bulgaria. ... Balchik (Bulgarian Балчик, Romanian Balcic) is a Black Sea coastal town in the Southern Dobruja area of northeastern Bulgaria. ... A family of Russian settlers in the Caucasus region, ca. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, invariably on the basis of ethnicity or religion. ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...


Demographic history

Northern Dobruja

Ethnicity 1880 1899 1913 19301 1956 1966 1977 1992
All 139,671 258,242 380,430 437,131 593,659 702,461 863,348 1,019,766
Romanian 43,671 (31%) 118,919 (46%) 216,425 (56.8%) 282,844 (64.7%) 514,331 (86.6%) 622,996 (88.7%) 784,934 (90.9%) 926,608 (90.8%)
Bulgarian 24,915 (17%) 38,439 (14%) 51,149 (13.4%) 42,070 (9.6%) 749 (0.13%) 524 (0.07%) 415 (0.05%) 311 (0.03%)
Turkish 18,624 (13%) 12,146 (4%) 20,092 (5.3%) 21,748 (5%) 11,994 (2%) 16,209 (2.3%) 21,666 (2.5%) 27,685 (2.7%)
Tatar 29,476 (21%) 28,670 (11%) 21,350 (5.6%) 15,546 (3.6%) 20,239 (3.4%) 21,939 (3.1%) 22,875 (2.65%) 24,185 (2.4%)
Lipovan Russian 8,250 (6%) 12,801 (5%) 35,859 (9.4%) 26,210 (6%)2 29,944 (5%) 30,509 (4.35%) 24,098 (2.8%) 26,154 (2.6%)
Ruthenian
(Ukrainian from 1956)
455 (0.3%) 13,680 (5%) 33 (0.01%) 7,025 (1.18%) 5,154 (0.73%) 2,639 (0.3%) 4,101 (0.4%)
Dobrujan Germans 2,461 (1.7%) 8,566 (3%) 7,697 (2%) 12,023 (2.75%) 735 (0.12%) 599 (0.09%) 648 (0.08%) 677 (0.07%)
Greek 4,015 (2.8%) 8,445 (3%) 9,999 (2.6%) 7,743 (1.8%) 1,399 (0.24%) 908 (0.13%) 635 (0.07%) 1,230 (0.12%)
Gypsies 702 (0.5%) 2,252 (0.87%) 3,263 (0.9%) n/a 1,176 (0.2%) 378 (0.05%) 2,565 (0.3%) 5,983 (0.59%)

The Dobrujan Germans (Germ. ...

Southern Dobruja

Ethnicity 1910 19301
All 282,007 378,344
Bulgarian 134,355 (47.6%) 143,209 (37.9%)
Romanian 6,348 (2.3%) 77,728 (20.5%)
Turkish 106,568 (37.8%) 129,025 (34.1%)
Tatar 11,718 (4.2%) 6,546 (1.7%)
Gypsies 12,192 (4.3%) n/a (0.8%)
1According to the 1926–1940 Romanian administrative division
2Only Russians. (Russians and Lipovans counted separately)

Area, population and cities

The entire Dobruja has an area of 23,100 km² and a population of rather more than 1.3 million, of which just over two-thirds of the former and nearly three-quarters of the latter lie in the Romanian part.

Ethnicity Dobruja Northern Dobruja Southern Dobruja
Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage
All 1,328,860 100.00% 971,643 100.00% 357,217 100.00%
Romanian 884,745 66.58% 883,620 90.94% 5911 0.17%1
Bulgarian 248,517 18.70% 135 0.01% 248,382 69.53%
Turkish 104,572 7.87% 27,580 2.84% 76,992 21.55%
Tatar 23,409 1.76% 23,409 2.41% 4,515 1.26%
Roma 33,422 2.52% 8,295 0.85% 25,127 7.03%
Russian 22,495 1.69% 21,623 2.23% 872 0.24%
Ukrainian 1,571 0.12% 1,465 0.15% 106 0.03%
Greek 2,326 0.18% 2,270 0.23% 56 0.02%
1 Including persons counted as Vlachs in Bulgarian 2001 Census

Major cities are Constanţa, Tulcea, Medgidia and Mangalia in Romania, and Dobrich and Silistra in Bulgaria. Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea in Romanian; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian) is the part of Dobruja that is part of Romania. ... Southern Dobruja (Южна Добруджа (Yuzhna Dobrudzha) in Bulgarian, Dobrogea de sud or Cadrilater in Romanian is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... County Tulcea County Status County capital Mayor Constantin Hogea, Democratic Party , since 2004 Population (2002) 91,875 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... Medgidia (Turkish Mecidiye): (population: 43,800) is a town in Dobruja, Romania. ... County ConstanÅ£a County Status Municipality Mayor Zanfir Iorgus, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 62. ... Dobrich (Bulgarian: Добрич) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Dobrich Province. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Robert Stănciugel and Liliana Monica Bălaşa, Dobrogea în Secolele VII-XIX. Evoluţie istorică, Bucharest, 2005; pg. 68-70
  2. ^ Aristotle, Politica (V,6)
  3. ^ Herodotus, The Histories (IV,93)
  4. ^ Thucydides, Peloponnesian War (II,97,1)
  5. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis
  6. ^ Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus (IX,2)
  7. ^ Petar Mutafchiev, Добруджа. Сборник от Студии, Sofia, 1999
  8. ^ Theophanes, Chronographia I, Bonn, 1839
  9. ^ Anna Comnena, Alexiad (VI,14)
  10. ^ Liubomir Miletich, Старото българско население в северо-източна България. Sofia, 1902
  11. ^ Liubomir Miletich, Südslavische Dialektstudien: das Ostbulgarische. Wien, 1903
  12. ^ România Liberă, "150 de ani de istorie comuna. Italienii din Dobrogea -mica Italie a unor mesteri mari", 21 January 2005. [1]

România Liberă is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Strabo, Geographia (VII,3)
  • Cassius Dio, History
  • Grégoire Danesco (Grigore Dănescu), Dobrogea (La Dobroudja). Étude de Géographie physique et ethnographique, Imprimerie de l'Indépendance Roumaine, Bucarest, 1903
  • Barnea Ion, Ştefănescu Ştefan, Din Istoria Dobrogei, Vol III. Bizantini, romani şi bulgari la Dunărea de Jos, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, Bucureşti, 1971
  • Rădulescu Adrian, Bitoleanu Ion, Istoria românilor dintre Dunăre şi Mare: Dobrogea, Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1979
  • Keith Hitchins, A History of Romania 1866–1947, Humanitas, Bucharest, 2004
  • Mărculeţ Vasile, Asupra organizării teritoriilor bizantine de la Dunărea de Jos în secolele X-XII: thema Mesopotamia Apusului, strategatul Dristrei, thema Paristrion – Paradunavon
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica article

  Results from FactBites:
 
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Dobruja (451 words)
Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Добруджа in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore.
Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea) belongs to Romania, Southern Dobruja (in Romanian, Cadrilater) to Bulgaria.
After the Second Balkan War Bulgaria lost Southern Dobruja to Romania (Treaty of Bucharest, 1913), but the September 1940 Treaty of Craiova, signed with the assistance of Nazi Germany, restored it to Bulgaria with a population exchange (the Romanian colonists were forced to leave the south while the Bulgarian minority had to leave the north).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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