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Encyclopedia > Djoser
Djoser (Netjerikhet)
Turin King List "Dsr-it"
Manetho "Tosarthros"
Preceded by:
Sanakhte?
or Khasekhemwy
Pharaoh of Egypt
3rd Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Sekhemkhet
Statue of Djoser in Cairo Museum, originally in serdab at Step Pyramid
Reign 29 years Manetho or 28 years Palermo Stone
Horus
name

Image:srxtail2.GIF
Netjerikhet
Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti
Unknown
Father Khasekhemwy?
Mother Nimaethap?
Major
Monuments
Pyramid of Djoser

Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List "Dsr-it"; Manetho "Tosarthros") is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. The Turin King List also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum) at Turin, to which it owes its modern name. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Sanakhte Sanakhte, also known as Nebka (in Greek known as Mesochris), was the first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (ruled 2686-2668 BC). ... Khasekhemwy (? -2686 BC; sometimes spelled Khasekhemui) was the 5th and final Pharaoh of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... Sekhemkhet was Pharaoh in Egypt during the Third dynasty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1431 KB) Statue of Djoser in Cairo Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1431 KB) Statue of Djoser in Cairo Museum. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... The Palermo Stone is an ancient Egyptian stone of black [basalt] engraved toward the end of the 5th dynasty (twenty-fifth century BC) and is probably the earliest Egyptian historical text. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... Khasekhemwy (? -2686 BC; sometimes spelled Khasekhemui) was the 5th and final Pharaoh of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt. ... Nimaethap was probably the wife of Khasekhemwy and the first Dowager Queen of Egypt that is known with certainty to have acted as regent for her son, Djoser, during the Third dynasty of Egypt. ... The Pyramid of Djoser, or kbhw-ntrw (libation of the deities)[], was built for the Pharaoh Djoser by his architect Imhotep. ... The Turin King List also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is a unique papyrus, written in hieratic, currently in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum) at Turin, to which it owes its modern name. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... Statuette of Imhotep in the Louvre Another image of the same statue Imhotep (sometimes spelled Immutef, Im-hotep, or Ii-em-Hotep, Egyptian meaning the one who comes in peace) was an Egyptian polymath,[1] who served under the 3rd Dynasty king Djoser as chancellor to the pharaoh and high... The Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan, is one example of an enormous step pyramid. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ...

Contents


The painted limestone statue of Djoser in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo is the oldest known Egyptian life-size statue. Today at the site in Saqqara in which it was found, a plaster copy of the statue stands in place of the original at the museum. The statue was found during the Antiquities Service Excavations of 1924-1925. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ...


In contemporary inscriptions, he is called Netjerikhet, meaning body of the gods. Later sources, which include a New Kingdom reference to his Step Pyramid, help confirm Netjerikhet and Djoser are the same person. The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ...

Step pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, Egypt
Step pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, Egypt

While Manetho names one Necherophes, and the Turin King List names Nebka, as the first ruler of the Third dynasty, many Egyptologists now believe Djoser was first king of this dynasty, pointing out that the order in which some predecessors of Khufu are mentioned in the Papyrus Westcar suggests Nebka should be placed between Djoser and Huni, not before Djoser. More significantly, the English Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson has demonstrated that burial seals found at the entrance to Khasekhemwy's tomb in Abydos name only Djoser, rather than Nebka. This proves Djoser buried and, hence, directly succeeded Khasekhemwy and not Nebka.[1] Image File history File links Egypt. ... Image File history File links Egypt. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... Sanakhte Sanakhte, also known as Nebka (in Greek known as Mesochris), was the first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty of Ancient Egypt (ruled 2686-2668 BC). ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Khufus Cartouche Khufu (in Greek known as Cheops) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts Old Kingdom. ... Westcar Papyrus is a document about Khufu, a 4th-Dynasty Egyptian leader, and contains a cycle of five stories about marvels performed by priests. ... Huni The Smiter[2] Consort(s) Meresankh I Issues Sneferu Father Huni Died 2613 BC Major Monuments Step pyramid(?), Island fort at Elephantine Huni was the last Pharaoh of Egypt of the Third dynasty. ... Khasekhemwy (? -2686 BC; sometimes spelled Khasekhemui) was the 5th and final Pharaoh of the 2nd dynasty of Egypt. ...


Reign Length

Manetho states Djoser ruled Egypt for 29 years, while the Turin King List states it was only 19 years. Because of his many substantial building projects, particularly at Saqqara, some scholars argue Djoser must have enjoyed a reign of nearly three decades. Manetho's figure appears to be more accurate, according to Wilkinson's analysis and reconstruction in 2000 of the Palermo Stone, which mentions the beginning and end of Djoser's reign. Wilkinson states the Annal document gives Djoser "28 complete or partial years" and notes Years 1-5 and 19-28 of his reign are preserved on Palermo Stone register V and Cairo Fragment 1, register V of the document.[2] The Palermo Stone is an ancient Egyptian stone of black [basalt] engraved toward the end of the 5th dynasty (twenty-fifth century BC) and is probably the earliest Egyptian historical text. ... Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish, separated by lined registers. ...


Family

Because Queen Nimaethap, the wife of Khasekhemwy, the last king of the Second dynasty of Egypt, appears to have held the title "Mother of the King", some writers argue she was Djoser's mother and Khasekhemwy was his father. Three royal women are known from during his reign: Inetkawes, Hetephernebti and a third, whose name is destroyed. One of them might have been his wife, and the one whose name is lost may have been Nimaethap. The relationship between Djoser and his successor, Sekhemkhet, is not known. Nimaethap was probably the wife of Khasekhemwy and the first Dowager Queen of Egypt that is known with certainty to have acted as regent for her son, Djoser, during the Third dynasty of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Second Dynasty. ... Nimaethap was probably the wife of Khasekhemwy and the first Dowager Queen of Egypt that is known with certainty to have acted as regent for her son, Djoser, during the Third dynasty of Egypt. ... Sekhemkhet was Pharaoh in Egypt during the Third dynasty. ...


Career

Djoser dispatched several military expeditions to the Sinai Peninsula, during which the local inhabitants were subdued. He also sent expeditions there to mine for valuable minerals such as turquoise and copper. The Sinai was also strategically important as a buffer between Asia and the Nile valley. He also may have fixed the southern boundary of his kingdom at the First Cataract. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... There are six classical Cataracts of the Nile between Khartoum and Aswan, counted upstream. ...


Some fragmentary reliefs found at Heliopolis and Gebelein mention Djoser's name and suggest he commissioned construction projects in those cities. An inscription claiming to date to the reign of Djoser, but actually created during the Ptolemaic Dynasty, relates how Djoser rebuilt the temple of Khnum on the island of Elephantine at the First Cataract, thus ending a seven year famine in Egypt. Some consider this ancient inscription as but a legend. Nonetheless, it does show more than two millennia after his reign, Egyptians still remembered Djoser. His most famous monument was his step pyramid which entailed the construction of several mastaba tombs one over another. These form would eventually lead to the standard pyramid tomb under later Old Kingdom pharaohs. Heliopolis (Greek: or ), was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, Chnum was the god of the Nile River delta, and the creator of human children, whom he makes from clay and places in their mothers uteruses. ... Elephantine Island, showing the nilometer (lower left) and the Aswan Museum. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... The Pyramid of the Moon, Teotihuacan, is one example of an enormous step pyramid. ... A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with inward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypts ancient period. ...


Variants of his name include Zoser, Dzoser, Zozer (or Zozzer), Dsr, Djeser, Zosar, Djéser, Djésèr, Horus-Netjerikhet, Horus-Netjerichet.


External links

  • Another detailed profile of Djoser

Notes and References

  1. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 1999, pp.83 & 95
  2. ^ Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, pp.79 & 258
  • Rosanna Pirelli, "Statue of Djoser" in Francesca Tiradriti (editor), The Treasures of the Egyptian Museum, American University in Cairo Press, 1999, p. 47.
  • Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, (Routledge:1999), pp.83 & 95
  • Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt: The Palermo Stone and Its Associated Fragments, (Kegan Paul International), 2000.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Egypt: Netjenkhet Djoser, the 2nd King of Egypt's 3rd Dynasty (1075 words)
Netjerikhet Djoser was the 2nd King of Egypt's 3rd Dynasty, and was probably the most famous king during this period.
This claim is made under the authority of Djoser, who, the inscription reads, was advised by Imhotep, his famous vizier, to make the grant of land to the temple of Khnum in order to end a famine in Egypt.
Djoser is also attested by fragments from a shrine in Heliopolis, a seal impressions in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos, a seal impressions from tomb 2305 in Saqqara, a seal impression from the tomb of Hesy in Saqqara, seal impression from Hierakonpolis and seal impression from Elephantine.
SAQQARA (1589 words)
Djoser's complex is remarkable because not only was it the worlds' first ever pyramid, it is also acknowledged as the worlds' first completely stone building.
The fact that Djoser was able to build such a massive and innovative structure suggests that during his reign Egypt was politically stable, with a successful economy.
It is thought that this ceremony may have derived from a primitive belief that the fertility of the fields was dependent on the physical ability of the king.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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