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Encyclopedia > Diwali
Diwali/Deepawali
Diwali/Deepawali
A row of lamps, part of the Diwali observance.
Also called Translation: Row of Lights; Deepavali, Festival of Lights
Observed by Religiously by Hindus, Sikhs and Jains. Other Indians celebrate the cultural aspects.
Type Religious, Indian
Significance Celebrate victory over evil, and uplifting of spiritual darkness.
Date New moon day of Kartika, although the celebrations begin two days prior and end two days after that date
2007 date November 9
2008 date October 30
2009 date November 15
Celebrations Decorating homes with lights, Fireworks, distributing sweets and gifts.
Observances Prayers, Religious rituals (see puja, prasad)

Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. [1] Many legends are associated with Diwali. Today it is celebrated by Hindus, Jains and Sikhs across the globe as the "Festival of Light," where the lights or lamps signify victory of good over the evil within every human being . The festival is also celebrated by Buddhists of Nepal, particularly the Newar Buddhists. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Kartika (Hindi: कातिक Kātik or कार्तिक Kārtik, Bangla: কার্ত্তিক Kārtik), is a month of the Hindu and Bengali calendars. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... Prasāda (Sanskrit: प्रसाद), prasād/prashad (Hindi), Prasāda in (Kannada) or prasādam (Tamil) Prasadam (Telugu) is both a mental condition of generosity, as well as a material substance that is first offered to a deity (in Hinduism) and then consumed (Hinduism and Sikhism). ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... The Newar or Newah are the indigenous group of Nepals Kathmandu valley. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ...


According to one theory Diwali may have originated as a harvest festival, marking the last harvest of the year before winter. In an agrarian society this results in businessmen closing accounts, and beginning a new accounting year. The deity of wealth in Hinduism, goddess Lakshmi is therefore thanked on this day and everyone prays for a good year ahead. This is the common factor in Diwali celebrations all over the Indian subcontinent. For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ...


In Northern India it is the homecoming of King Rama of Ayodhya after a 14-year exile in the forest.[2] The people of Ayodhya (the capital of his kingdom) welcomed Rama by lighting rows (avali) of lamps (deepa), thus its name, Deepawali, or simply shortened as Diwali. Southern India marks it as the day Lord Krishna defeated the demon Narakasura. In western India it is also in honor of the day King Bali went to rule the nether-world by the order of Vishnu. (There is another festival 'Onam' which is celebrated in Kerala around the month of August to mark this legend) Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Narakasura was the son of Goddess earth, (referred to as Dharthi), by Lord Vishnu himself during his Varaha (boar) avatar. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ...


Diwali comes in the month of October or November..


In Jainism it marks the nirvana of Lord Mahavira, which occurred on Oct. 15, 527 B.C. The Sikhs have always celebrated Diwali; however, its significance for Sikhs increased when, on this day, the Sixth Guru, Guru Hargobind Ji, was freed from imprisonment along with 52 Hindu Kings (political prisoners) whom he had arranged to be released as well. In India, Diwali is now considered to be a national festival, and the aesthetic aspect of the festival is enjoyed by most Indians regardless of faith.[3] Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Sanskrit word Deepavali means an array of lights that stands for victory of brightness over darkness. As the knowledge of Sanskrit diminished, the name was popularly modified to Diwali, especially in northern India. The word "Divali/Diwali" is a corruption of the Sanskrit word "Deepavali" (also transliterated as "Dipavali"). Deepa/dipa means "light of the dharma", and avali means "a continuous line". The more literal translation is "rows of clay lamps". Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Dates in various calendars

The festival is celebrated for a differing number of days by different communities. Though the core days are common and fall on exactly the same set of days across Nepal and India, they fall in different Gregorian months depending on the version of the Hindu calendar being used in the given region. The Amanta ("ending on the new-moon") version of the Hindu Calendar has been adopted as the Indian national calendar. According to this calendar, which is prevalent in southern India and Maharashtra, the 6-day celebration is spread over the last four days of the month of Ashwin and the first two days of the new month of Kartika. According to the Purnimanta ("ending on the full-moon") version prevalent in northern India, it falls in the middle of the month of Ashwayuja/Ashvin. In the Gregorian calendar, it falls generally in the months of October or November. In 2006, it was celebrated on October 21, a Saturday. In 2007 it was celebrated on November 9, a Friday. In Nepal, it is celebrated according to Nepalese calendar. The festival marks the last three days and the first two days of Nepalese era. A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Ashwin (Sanskrit: अश्विन्, Bengali: Ashshin) is the sixth month in Indian Calendars. ... Kaartika (Hindi: कातिक kaatik or कार्तिक kaartik) is a month of the Hindu calendar. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ...


Significance in Hinduism

Oil lamps on the eve of Diwali.
Oil lamps on the eve of Diwali.

The festival marks the victory of good over evil, and uplifting of spiritual darkness. Symbolically it marks the homecoming of goodwill and faith after an absence, as suggested by the story of Ramayana. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1794 × 1200 pixel, file size: 484 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dinesh Pratap Singh, Own Work File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution (1794 × 1200 pixel, file size: 484 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Dinesh Pratap Singh, Own Work File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...


On the day of Diwali, many wear new clothes and share sweets and snacks. Some North Indian business communities start their financial year on Diwali and new account books are opened on this day.


Stories

Hindus have several significant mythological events associated with it: This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

  • Return of Lord Rama to Ayodhya: Diwali also celebrates the return of Lord Rama, King of Ayodhya, with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana to Ayodhya after a 14 year exile, and a war in which he killed the demon king Ravana. It is believed that the people of Ayodhya lit oil lamps along the way to light their path in the darkness. Since Lord Rama traveled from South India to his kingdom in North India, he passed through the south earlier. This is the reason why the festival is celebrated a day earlier in South India. In North India, the festival is held on the final day of the Vikram calendar. The following day marks the beginning of the North Indian new year, and is called Annakut.
  • The Killing of Narakasura: Celebrated as Naraka Chaturdasi, two days before Diwali day, it commemorates the killing of Narakasura, an evil demon who created havoc, by Lord Krishna's wife Satyabhama. This happened in the Dwapar Yuga during this time of Lord Krishna's avatar. In another version, the demon was killed by Lord Krishna (Lord krishna provokes his wife Satyabhama to kill Narakasura by pretending to be injured by the demon. Narakasura can only be killed by his mother, Satyabhama) himself.[citation needed] Before Narakasura's death, he requested a boon from his mother, Satyabhama (believed to be an Avatar of Bhudevi - Narakasura' mother), that everyone should celebrate his death with colorful light.
  • Austerities of Shakti: According to the Skanda Purana, the goddess Shakti observed 21 days of austerity starting from ashtami of shukla paksha (eighth day of the waxing period of moon) to get half of the body of Lord Shiva. This vrata (austerity) is known as kedhara vrata. Deepavali is the completion day of this austerity. This is the day Lord Shiva accepted Shakti into the left half of the form and appeared as Ardhanarishvara. The ardent devotees observe this 21 days vrata by making a kalasha with 21 threads on it and 21 types of offerings for 35 days. The final day is celebrated as kedhara gauri vrata.
  • Krishna defeating Indra: Govardhan Puja is celebrated the day after Diwali. It is the day Lord Krishna defeated Indra, the deity of thunder and rain. As per the story, Krishna saw huge preparations for the annual offering to Lord Indra and questions his father Nanda about it. He debated with the villagers about what their 'dharma' truly was. They were farmers, they should do their duty and concentrate on farming and protection of their cattle. He continued to say that all human beings should merely do their 'karma', to the best of their ability and not pray for natural phenomenon. The villagers were convinced by Krishna, and did not proceed with the special puja (prayer). Indra was then angered, and flooded the village. Krishna then lifted Mt Govardhan and held it up as protection to his people and cattle from the rain. Indra finally accepted defeat and recognized Krishna as supreme. This aspect of Krishna's life is mostly glossed over - but it actually set up the basis of the 'karma' philosophy later detailed in the Bhagavat Gita.
  • Bali's return to the nether world:In Bhavishyottara and Brahma Vaivarta Purana, Diwali is associated with the Daitya king Bali, who is allowed to return to earth once a year. However in Kerala this is the reason 'Onam' is celebrated. 'Onam' festival falls around the month of August-September.

Rama ( in IAST, in DevanāgarÄ«) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... Lord Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. ... Lakshaman (far left) with Rama (centre), Sita (far right) and Hanuman (kneeling) - Bhaktivedanta Manor Hare Krishna temple, Watford, England Lakshmana (Sanskrit: लक्ष्मण; IAST Laká¹£maṇa) was the brother and close companion of Rama, and himself a hero in the famous epic Ramayana. Within Hindu tradition Lakshmana is considered to be... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana (Devanagari: रावण, Telugu: రావణాసురుడు IAST ; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... The Vikram Samvat is a Hindu calendar which began in 57 BCE. To calculate the corresponding year of the Gregorian calendar, 57 years should be subtracted from the Indian year if the date falls between the beginning of the Indian year and the end of the Western year, that is... Narakasura was the son of Goddess earth, (referred to as Dharthi), by Lord Vishnu himself during his Varaha (boar) avatar. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Satyabhama is the beloved third wife of Hinduisms Lord Krishna, known for her strong will and tantrums. ... Dwapar Yuga is the third out of four yugas, or ages, in the religion of Hinduism. ... This article is about the concept in Hindu philosophy. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Bhuma Devi or Bhumi Devi or Bhu Devi is the divine wife of Lord Vishnu. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... Skanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text believed to be written and compiled over a long period, from 6th century to 15th century, is the largest Purana, and is devoted mainly to the life and deed of Kartikeya (also called Skanda), a son of Shiva... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... This article is about the Hindu God. ... // Etymology The Sanskrit word ‘vrata’ denotes ‘religious vow’. It is one of the most widely used words in the Hindu religious and ritualistic literature. ... In Hinduism, Ardhanari or Ardhanareshvara, is an androgynous deity composed of Shiva and his consort Shakti, representing the synthesis of masculine and feminine energies. ... For other uses, see Kalash (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... Brahma Vaivart Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas, a Hindu religious text, is divided into four parts. ...

Spiritual Significance

Hindu puja on the eve of Diwali.
Hindu puja on the eve of Diwali.

While Deepavali is popularly known as the "festival of lights", the most significant spiritual meaning is "the awareness of the inner light". Image File history File links Diwalipuja. ... Image File history File links Diwalipuja. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ...


Central to Hindu philosophy is the assertion that there is something beyond the physical body and mind which is pure, infinite, and eternal, called the Atman. Just as we celebrate the birth of our physical being, Deepavali is the celebration of this Inner Light, in particular the knowing of which outshines all darkness (removes all obstacles and dispels all ignorance), awakening the individual to one's true nature, not as the body, but as the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality. With the realization of the Atman comes universal compassion, love, and the awareness of the oneness of all things (higher knowledge). This brings Ananda (Inner Joy or Peace). The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere to remain within, refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind or the world. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ...


Diwali celebrates this through festive fireworks, lights, flowers, sharing of sweets, and worship. While the story behind Deepavali varies from region to region, the essence is the same - to rejoice in the Inner Light (Atman) or the underlying reality of all things (Brahman). The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ...


The six days

Diwali celebrations are spread over six days in most of North India and Maharashtra. All the days except Diwali are named according to their designation in the Hindu calendar. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...

Diwali being festival of lights, across India people celebrate it via symbolic diyas or kandils (colorful paper lanterns) as an integral part of Diwali decorations.
Diwali being festival of lights, across India people celebrate it via symbolic diyas or kandils (colorful paper lanterns) as an integral part of Diwali decorations.
  1. Vasu Baras: Baras means 12th day and vasu means cow. On this day cow and calf is worshiped. Since it is believed that cow is symbol of God, Diwali is begun by worshiping cow and calf.
  2. Dhanatrayodashi or Dhan teras: Dhan means "wealth" and Trayodashi means "13th day". Thus, as the name implies, this day falls on the 13th day of the second half of the lunar month. It is an auspicious day for shopping of utensils and gold.This day is also regarded as the Jayanti of God Dhanvantri who came out during the churning of the great ocean by the gods and the demons. Dhanvantri Jayanti
  3. Naraka Chaturdashi: Chaturdashi is the fourteenth day on which demon Narakasura was killed. It signifies the victory of good over evil and light over darkness (Gujarati: Kali Chaudas).
    In south India, this is the actual day of festivities. Hindus wake up way before dawn as early as 2:00 in the morning, have a fragrant oil bath and wear new clothes. They light small lamps all around the house and draw elaborate kolams /rangolis outside their homes. They perform a special puja with offerings to Lord Sri Krishna or Lord Sri Vishnu, as he liberated the world from the demon Narakasura on this day. It is believed that taking a bath before sunrise, when the stars are still visible in the sky is equivalent to taking a bath in the holy Ganges. Hence, when people greet each other in the morning, they ask "Have you performed your Ganga Snaanam?".
    After the puja, children burst firecrackers heralding the defeat of the demon. As this is a day of rejoicing, many will have very elaborate breakfasts and lunches and meet family and friends. In the evening, lamps are again lit and Goddess Lakshmi is worshipped and offered special dishes. This being a no moon day, many will offer special tarpana (offerings of water and sesame seeds) to their ancestors. This day is also called as Roop Chaturdashi
  4. Lakshmi Puja: Lakshmi Puja marks the most important day of Diwali celebrations. Hindu homes worship Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth, and Ganesh, the God of auspicious beginnings, and then light lamps all across the streets and homes to welcome prosperity and wellbeing.
  5. Govardhan Puja : Also called Annakut, is celebrated as the day Krishna defeated Indra. Lord Krishna taught people to worship nature, as mountains bring rains to earth. That was the reason to stop worshiping Indra. His was the message that we should take care of our nature. For Annakut a mountain of food is decorated symbolizing Govardhan mountain lifted by Lord Krishna. In Maharashtra it is celebrated as Padva or BaliPratipada. The day commemorates King Bali. Men present gifts to their wives on this day.In Gujarat, it is celebrated as New Year, as Vikram Samvat starts on this day.
  6. Bhaiduj (also Bhayyaduj, Bhaubeej or Bhayitika)  : on this day, brothers and sisters meet to express their love and affection for each other (Gujarati: Bhai Bij, Bengali: Bhai Phota). Most Indian festivals bring together families, Bhaiduj brings together married sisters and brothers, and is a significant festive day for them. This festival is ancient, and pre-dates 'Raksha Bandhan' another brother-sister festival celebrated in the present day.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 538 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1715 × 1912 pixels, file size: 723 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diwali, Lantern, Akash Kandil, Akash Diwa File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 538 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1715 × 1912 pixels, file size: 723 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diwali, Lantern, Akash Kandil, Akash Diwa File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Naraka Chaturdashi, also known as Chhoti (small) Diwali or Kali Chaudas is is a Hindu festival, which falls on the second day of the festival of Diwali. ... Kolam outside a house in Tamil Nadu Kolam (Tamil: கோலம்) is a decorative design drawn using rice powder by female members of the family in front of their home, especially near the threshold. ... Rangoli in Singapore Rangoli is one of the most popular art forms in India. ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ... Ganga redirects here. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... Popular image of Ganesh In Hinduism, Ganesha (Gaṇeśa, lord of the hosts, also spelled Ganesa and sometimes referred to as Ganesh in Hindi, Bengali and other Indian vernaculars) is the god of wisdom, intelligence, education and prudence. ... Bhaubeej/Bhau-Beej (in Marathi) or Bhai-Dooj (in Hindi) or Bhai Beej (in Gujarati) is a festival or ceremony performed by Hindus on the second day after Diwali, which is the second day of the new year. ...

Lakshmi Puja

Diwali marks the end of the harvest season in most of India. Farmers are thankful for the plentiful bounty of the year gone by, and pray for a good harvest for the year to come. Traditionally this marked the closing of accounts for businesses dependent on the agrarian cycle, and the last major celebration before winter. The deity of Lakshmi symbolizes wealth and prosperity, and her blessings are invoked for a good year ahead. There are two legends that associate the worship of Goddess Lakshmi on this day. According to first one, on this day, Goddess Lakshmi emerged from Kshira Sagar, the Ocean of Milk, during the great churning of the oceans, Samudra manthan. The second legend(more popular in western India) relates to the Vamana avatar of Vishnu, the incarnation he took to kill the demon king Bali, thereafter it was on this day, that Vishnu came back to his abode, the Vaikuntha, so those who worship Lakshmi (Vishnu's consort) on this day, get the benefit of her benevolent mood, and are blessed with mental, physical and material well-being.[4] For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... In Hinduism, Samudra manthan (Devanagari: समुद्र मंथन) or The churning of the ocean of milk is one of the most famous episodes in the Puranas and is celebrated in a major way every twelve years in the festival known as Kumbha Mela. ... In Hinduism, Vamana is the fifth avatar of Vishnu, a dwarf. ... For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Vaikunta is the abode of Lord Vishnu, one of the Trimurti Hindu Gods. ...


As per spiritual references, on this day "Lakshmi-panchayatan" enters the Universe. Sri Vishnu, Sri Indra, Sri Kuber, Sri Gajendra and Sri Lakshmi are elements of this "panchayatan" (a group of five). The tasks of these elements are:

  • Vishnu: Happiness (happiness and satisfaction)
  • Indra: Opulence (satisfaction due to wealth)
  • Kubera: Wealth (Generosity; one who gives away wealth)
  • Gajendra: Carries the wealth
  • Lakshmi: Divine Energy (Shakti) which provides energy to all the above activities.[5]

For other meanings, see Vishnu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ...

In Jainism

Replica of Pava temple at Pansara. Mahavira attained Nirvana at Pava.
Replica of Pava temple at Pansara. Mahavira attained Nirvana at Pava.

Diwali has a very special significance in Jainism, just like Buddha Purnima, the date of Buddha's Nirvana, is for Buddhists as Christmas is for Christians. Lord Mahavira, the last of the Jain Tirthankaras, attained Nirvana or Moksha on this day at Pavapuri on Oct. 15, 527 BCE, on Chaturdashi of Kartika, as Tilyapannatti of Yativrashaba from the sixth century states: Image File history File links PavaPansara. ... Image File history File links PavaPansara. ... Replica of Pavapuri temple at Pansara. ... Categories: Stub ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... The 24 Jinas carved on a rock in Ginjee, Tamilnadu In Jainism, a Tirthankar (Fordmaker) (also Tirthankara or Jina) is a human who by adopting asceticism achieves enlightenment (perfect knowledge), thus becoming a Jina (one who has conquered his inner enemies - anger, pride, deceit, desire etc. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... For other uses, see Moksha (disambiguation). ... Pawapuri in Bihar is a holy site for Jains, located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ...



Lord Mahavira is responsible for establishing the Dharma followed by Jains even today. According to tradition, the chief disciple of Mahavira, Ganadhgrfaear Gautam Swami also attained complete knowledge (Kevalgyana) on this day, thus making Diwali one of the most important Jain festivals. For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ...


Lord Mahavira attained his nirvana at the dawn of the amavasya (new moon). According to the Kalpasutra by Acharya Bhadrabahu, 3rd century BC, many gods were presentthaer, illuminating the darkness[6]. The following night was pitch black without the light of the gods or the moon. To symbolically keep the light of their master's knowledge alive. Harinegamesin Takes the Embryo of Mahavira from Devananda and Brings it to Queen Trisala, Folio from a Kalpasutra (Book of Sacred Precepts) Date circa 1450, from Collection of LACMA. Kalpasutra is a Jain ancient text book containing the life and history of the Jain Tirthankars. ... For the pen name of D. Murdock, see Acharya S. An acharya is an important religious teacher. ... Bhadrabahu was a Jain saint. ...

16 gana-kings, 9 Malla and 9 Lichchhavi, of Kasi and Kosal, illuminated their doors. They said: "Since the light of knowledge is gone, we will make light of ordinary matter" ("गये से भवुज्जोये, दव्वुज्जोयं करिस्समो").

Deepavali was first mentioned in Jain books as the date of the nirvana of Lord Mahavira. In fact, the oldest reference to Diwali is a related word, dipalikaya or deepalikaya, which occurs in Harivamsha-Purana, written by Acharya Jinasena [7]and composed in the Shaka Samvat era in the year 705. JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept. ... Idol of Lord Mahavira at Shri Mahaveerji (the holy town in Rajasthan named after Mahavira. ... Jinasena is the name of two famous Jain Acharyas. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Events Romans conquer the Ordovices, located in present-day northern Wales, as well as the Silures. ...

Translation: The gods illuminated Pavanagari by lamps to mark the occasion. Since that time, the people of Bharat celebrate the famous festival of "Dipalika" to worship the Jinendra (i.e. Lord Mahavira) on the occasion of his nirvana.

Deepalikaya roughly translates as "light leaving the body". Dipalika, which can be roughly translated as "splenderous light of lamps", is used interchangeably with the word "Diwali".


The way Jains celebrate Diwali is different in many respects. There is a note of asceticism in whatever the Jains do, and the celebration of Diwali is not an exception. The Jains celebrate Diwali during the month of Kartik for three days. During this period, among the Shvetambaras, devoted Jains observe fasting and chant the Uttaradhyayan Sutra, which contain the final pravachans of Lord Mahavira, and meditate upon him. Some Jains visit Pavapuri in Bihar where he attained Nirvan. In may temples special laddus are offered particularly on this day. Pawapuri in Bihar is a holy site for Jains, located 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 90 kilometers from Patna, India. ...


Vira Nirvana Samvat: The Jain year starts with Pratipada following Diwali. Vira Nirvana Samvat 2534 starts with Diwali 2007. The Jain businesspeople traditionally started their accounting year from Diwali. The relationship between the Vir and Shaka era is given in Titthogali Painnaya and Dhavalaa by Acharya Virasena:
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hindu calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hindu calendar. ... Virasena was a 9th century Indian mathematician who gave derivation of the volume of a frustrum by a sort of infinite procedure. ...


Thus the Nirvana occurred 605 years and 5 months before the Saka era.


On 21st October 1974, the 2500th Nirvana Mahotsava was celebrated by all the Jain throughout India[8].


Significance in Sikhism

The story of Diwali for the Sikhs is a story of the Sikh struggle for freedom. From the time of Guru Nanak (1469 – 1539), the founder of Sikhism, popular seasonal or folk festivals like the harvest festival of Baisakhi, or previously ancient Hindu festivals such as Holi and Diwali began to take on a new significance for the Guru’s students, the Sikhs. The Guru used these festivals and special days e.g. first day of each lunar month, as symbols or pegs for his teaching themes. The enlightened ideology of Guru Nanak gave new significance to ancient festivals like Diwali and Baisakhi A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore in present-day Pakistan. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. ... For the Indian film of the same name, see Holi (film). ... Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore in present-day Pakistan. ... Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. ...


Bandi Chhorh Divas

Shri Darbar Sahib, Amritsar being lit up for Diwali.

For Sikhs, Diwali is particularly important because it celebrates the release from prison of the sixth guru, Guru Hargobind Ji, (hence also called "Bandi Chhorh Diwas" or "the day of release of detainees") and 52 other princes with him, from the Gwalior Fort in 1619. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Sri Guru Har Gobind Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਹਰਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਜੀ) (19 June 1595 - 03 March 1644) was the sixth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps...


The Sikh tradition holds that the Mughal Emperor Jahangir had imprisoned Guru Hargobind and 52 other rajas (princes). Emperor Jahangir had imprisoned the sixth Guru because he was afraid of the Guru's growing following and power. The Emperor was asked to release Guru Hargobind which he agreed to do. However, Guru Hargobind asked that the princes be released also. The Emperor agreed, but said only those who could hold onto his cloak tail would be allowed to leave the prison. This was in order to limit the number of prisoners who could leave. n ...


However, Guru Hargobind had made a large cloak with 52 pieces of string and so each prince was able to hold onto one string and leave prison.


Sikhs celebrated the return of Guru Hargobind Ji by lighting the Golden Temple and this tradition continues today.


Martyrdom of Bhai Mani Singh Ji

Another important Sikh event associated with Diwali is the martyrdom in 1734 of the elderly Sikh scholar and strategist Bhai Mani Singh, the Granthi (priest) of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple). He had refused to pay a special tax on a religious meeting of the Khalsa on the Diwali day. This and other Sikh martyrdoms gave further momentum to the Khalsa struggle for freedom and eventually success in establishing the Khalsa rule north of Delhi Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Bhai Mani Singh Bhai Mani Singh a great Sikh scholar and illustrious Martyr, came, according to Bhai Kesar Singh ji Chhibbar, his contemporary, of a Kamboj family, but according to Giani Gian Singh Dullat [1822-1921], author of Panth Parkash, of a Dullat Jatt family of Kamboval village (now extinct... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan, see Kinkaku-ji. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ...


Bhai Mani Singh was a great scholar and he transcribed the final version of Guru Granth Sahib upon dictation from Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1704. He took charge of Harmandir Sahib's management on 1708. In 1737, he received permission from Mughal governor of Punjab, Zakarya Khan for celebrating Diwali at Golden Temple for a massive tax of Rs. 5,000 (some authors say it was Rs 10,000). Invitations were sent to the Sikhs all over India to join Bandi Chhorh Diwas celebrations at Harmandir Sahib. Bhai Mani Singh thought he would collect the tax-money from the Sikhs as subscriptions who would assemble for the purpose of Diwali Celebrations. But Bhai Mani Singh Ji later discovered the secret plan of Zakarya Khan to kill the Sikhs during the gathering. Bhai Mani Singh Ji immediately sent message to all the Sikhs not to turn up for celebrations. Bhai Mani Singh could not manage to arrange the money to be paid for tax. Zakariya Khan was not happy about the situation and he ordered Bhai Mani Singh's assassination at Lahore by ruthlessly cutting him limb-by-limb to death. Ever since, the great sacrifice & devotion of martyr Bhai Mani Singh Ji is remembered on the Bandi Chhorh Diwas (Diwali) celebration. The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) He was born in Patna in India in 1666 and became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on 11 November 1675, succeeding his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur who was killed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ...


Uprising against the Mughal Empire

The festival of Diwali became the second most important day after the Baisakhi, when Khalsa was formally established by the Tenth Guru Gobind Singh in 1699. Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708) He was born in Patna in India in 1666 and became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on 11 November 1675, succeeding his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur who was killed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. ...


The Sikh struggle for freedom, which intensified in the 18th century, came to be centered around this day. After the execution of Banda Bahadur in 1716, who had led the agrarian uprising in Punjab, the Sikhs started the tradition of deciding matters concerning the community at the biennial meetings which took place at Amritsar on the first of Baisakh and at Diwali. These assemblies were known as the "Sarbat Khalsa" and a resolution passed by it became a "gurmata" (decree of the Guru). Portrait of Banda Singh Bahadur Lachhman Dev alias Madho dass Bairagi alias Baba Banda Singh Bahadur (pronounce like this: Banda- Bun-tha, Bahadur- Bah-Ha-thur {th pronounced as th in the}), of Jammu region, is revered as one of greatest warriors as well as one of its most... This article is about the geographical region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Diwali in different regions of India

The celebrations vary in different regions:


In South India

  • In Southern India, naraka chaturdashi is the main day, with firecrackers at dawn.
  • The main festival in North India is on Amavasya (No moon) evening with Lakshmi Puja which is followed by lighting of oil lamps around the house.

South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Amavasya - A Hindu Custom Amavasya is nothing but the no-moon day. ... For other uses, see Lakshmi (disambiguation). ... A puja as performed in Ujjain during the Monsoon on the banks of the overflowing river Shipra. ...

In Maharashtra

A circular arrangement of diyas.

In Maharashtra, Diwali starts from Vasubaras which is the 12th day of the 2nd half of the month of Ashwin. This day is celebrated by performing an Aarti of the cow and its calf- which is a symbol of love between mother and her baby. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 681 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diyas, traditional candles, lit during Diwali Author: Shrikrishna Pundoor http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 681 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diyas, traditional candles, lit during Diwali Author: Shrikrishna Pundoor http://www. ... Diya (plural diyas) is a contracted form of deep or light given by small earthen pots (also known as Pradeep), with wick made of cotton and dipped in ghee. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Priest performing navami arati in front of a golden statue of Durga slaying Mahisasur. ...


The next day is Dhanatrayodashi (tra-3 dashi-10 i.e. 10+3=13th day) or Dhanteras. This day is of special importance for traders and business people.


The 14th day of Ashwin is Narakchaturdashi. On this day before sunrise, people wake up and bathe after rubbing scented oil on their body (they also bathe using Utna). After this the entire family visits a temple and offers prayers to their God. After this visit, everyone feasts on Faral which is a special Diwali preparation consisting of delectable sweets such as "karanji", "ladoo", "shankarpale" and "mithai" as well as some spicy eatables like "chakli", "sev" and "chivda".


Then comes Laxmi- poojan. It occurs on Amavasya i.e. no moon day. The dark night is illuminated by lamps and at dusk crackers are burst. New account books are opened after a pooja. The stock exchange performs a token bidding called Muhurta bidding. Generally the traders do not make any payments on that day (according to their belief Laxmi should not be given away but must come home). In every household, cash, jewellery and an idol of the goddess Laxmi is worshipped. Friends, neighbours and relatives are invited over and celebrations are in full swing. The broom used to clean one's house is also worshipped as a symbol of laxmi in some places . See Firecracker (album) for information on the Lisa Loeb album. ... Lakshmi is also an actress in South Indian films. ... Lakshmi is also an actress in South Indian films. ...


Padwa' is the 1st day of the new month - Kartik in the Hindu calendar.


Bhaubeej - it is the time where in the bond of love between a brother and sister is further strengthened as the sister asks God for her brother/s long and successful life while she receives presents from her beloved brother/s.


Homes are cleaned and decorated before Diwali. Offices perform pooja. Bonuses and holidays are granted to employees on these auspicious days. People buy property and gold on these days too. Children build replica forts in memory of the founder of Maratha empire, Shivaji Maharaj. For children, Fire works, new clothes and sweets make Deepavali the most eagerly awaited festival of the year. Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In Bengal (Dipavali)

Further information: Festivals in Kolkata

Kali Puja is light-up night for Kolkata, corresponding to the festival of Diwali (pronounced Dipabali in Bengali), where people light candles in memory of the souls of departed ancestors. The Goddess Kali is worshipped at night on one night during this festival. This is also a night of fireworks, with local youth burning sparklers and crackers throughout the night. Kolkata had to pass legislature a few years back to ban fireworks which break the 65 decibel sound limit, as ambient noise levels were going up to 90 decibels or more in parts of the city. Festivals are integral part of the the city Kolkata. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... For other uses, see Decibel (disambiguation). ... The decibel is a dimensionless unit (like percent) that is a measure of ratios on a logarithmic scale. ...


Melas

Mehndi is applied on women's hands at a Diwali Mela.
Mehndi is applied on women's hands at a Diwali Mela.

To add to the festival of Diwali, fairs (or 'melas') are held throughout India.[9] Melas are to be found in many towns and villages. A mela generally becomes a market day in the countryside when farmers buy and sell produce. Girls and women dress attractively during the festival. They wear colourful clothing and new jewelry, and their hands are decorated with henna designs. For Mela Festivals today, see Mela Festival. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mehndi on a hand Another intricate Mehndi pattern Mehndi (or Henna) is the application of henna (Hindustani: हेना- حنا- urdu) as a temporary form of skin decoration, in South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Somaliland as well as expatriate communities from these areas. ... For Mela Festivals today, see Mela Festival. ... Mehndi on a hand Another intricate Mehndi pattern Mehndi (or Henna) is the application of henna (Hindustani: हेना- حنا- urdu) as a temporary form of skin decoration, in South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa and Somaliland as well as expatriate communities from these areas. ... Look up henna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Among the many activities that take place at a mela are performances by jugglers, acrobats, snake charmers and fortune tellers. Food stalls are set up, selling sweet and spicy foods. There are a variety of rides at the fair, which include Ferris wheels and rides on animals such as elephants and camels. Activities for children, such as puppet shows, occur throughout the day. In its general sense, juggling can refer to all forms of artful or skillful object manipulation. ... Look up Acrobat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Acrobat may refer to— someone who practices acrobatics. ... Snake charmer in Jaipur (India) in 2007 Snake charmer in New Delhi (India) in 2006 Snake charming is the practice of apparently hypnotising a snake by simply playing an instrument. ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... A Ferris wheel on the boardwalk in Ocean City, New Jersey, USA. A Ferris wheel (or, more commonly in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [UK], big wheel) is a nonbuilding structure consisting of an upright wheel with passenger gondolas suspended from the rim. ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ...


In other parts of the world

Diwali celebrations in Coventry, United Kingdom.
The Divali Nagar or Diwali village in Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago.
The Divali Nagar or Diwali village in Chaguanas, Trinidad and Tobago.
In Singapore, Diwali is marked by 2 kilometres of lights across the Little India area.
In Singapore, Diwali is marked by 2 kilometres of lights across the Little India area.

Diwali is celebrated in various parts of the world, in countries such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Suriname, Canada, Guyana, Mauritius, Fiji, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Australia, much of Africa, and the United States.[10] With more and more Indians and Sri Lankans now migrating to various parts of the world, the number of countries where Diwali is celebrated has been gradually increasing. While in some countries it is celebrated mainly by Indian expatriates, in others it has become part of the general local culture. In most of these countries Diwali is celebrated on the same lines as described in this article with some minor variations. Some important variations are worth mentioning. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Satinder Singh I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Satinder Singh I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... For other uses, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Divalinagar. ... Image File history File links Divalinagar. ... Divali Nagar (Village of Lights) is an annual exposition of Hindu culture (broadly) and Indo-Trinidadian culture (specifically), it is associated with the celebration of Divali in Trinidad and Tobago. ... The Borough of Chaguanas is the largest (67,433, 2000 census) and fastest-growing[1][2] town in Trinidad and Tobago. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 631 KB) Deepavali at Little India, Singapore. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 631 KB) Deepavali at Little India, Singapore. ... Shophouses in Little India. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In Nepal, Diwali is known as "Tihar" or "Swanti". It is celebrated during the October/November period. Here the festival is celebrated for five days and the traditions vary from those followed in India. On the first day (Kaag tihar), crows are given offerings, considering them to be divine messengers. On the second day (Kukur tihar), dogs are worshipped for their honesty. On the third day, Laxmi puja and worship of cow is performed. This is the last day according to Nepal Sambat, so many of the businessmen clear their accounts on this day and on finishing it, worship goddess Laxmi, the goddess of wealth. The fourth day is celebrated as new year. Cultural processions and other celebrations are observed in this day. The Newars celebrate it as "Mha Puja", a special ritual in which the body is worshipped to keep it fit and healthy for the year ahead on this day. On the fifth and final day called "Bhai Tika", brothers and sisters meet and exchange pleasantries. Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ...


In Trinidad and Tobago, communities all over the islands get together and celebrate the festival. One major celebration that stands out is the Diwali Nagar, or Village of the Festival of Lights. It features stage performances by the east Indian cultural practitioners, a folk theatre featuring skits and plays, an exhibition on some aspect of Hinduism, displays by various Hindu religious sects and social organizations, nightly worship of Goddess Lakshmi, lighting of deeyas, performances by various schools related to Indian culture, and a food court with Indian and non-Indian vegetarian delicacies. The festival culminates with magnificent fireworks displays ushering in Diwali. Thousands of people participate in an atmosphere devoid of alcohol and in a true family environment.


In Malaysia, Diwali is known as "Hari Deepavali," and is celebrated during the seventh month of the Hindu solar calendar. It is a federal public holiday throughout Malaysia. In many respects it resembles the traditions followed in the Indian subcontinent. 'Open houses' are held where Hindu Malaysians welcome fellow Malaysians of different races and religions to their house for a sumptious meal. 'Open house' or 'rumah terbuka' is a practice very much unique to Malaysia and shows the goodwill and friendly ties practised by all Malaysians during any festive occasion.


In Singapore, the festival is called "Deepavali", and is a gazetted public holiday. Observed primarily by the minority Indian community, it is typically marked by a light-up in the Little India district. The Hindu Endowment Board of Singapore along with Singapores' government organizes many cultural events around Deepavali time. The major public holidays in Singapore reflect the cultural and religious diversity of the country, including the Chinese New Year, Buddhist Vesak Day, Muslim Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha (known locally by its Malay names Hari Raya Puasa and Hari Raya Haji respectively), Hindu Diwali (known locally by... Shophouses in Little India. ...


In Sri Lanka, this festival is also called "Deepavali" and is celebrated by the Tamil community. On this day, it is traditional for people to wear new clothes and exchange pleasantries.


In Britain, Hindus and Sikhs celebrate Diwali with great enthusiasm and in most ways very similarly to as in India. People clean and decorate their homes with lamps and candles.A popular type of candle used to represent this holiday is a diya. People also give each other sweets such as laddoo and barfi, and the different communities may gather from around the country for a religious ceremony and get-together. It is also an important time to contact family in India and perhaps exchange gifts through the post. It is a greatly celebrated holiday and is a great way to connect with the culture and heritage of India. Diwali is becoming a well known festival in Britain and non-Indians also join in the festivities. Leicester plays hosts to some of the biggest celebrations outside of India itself. This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... Motichoor ladoo is a popular variant. ... Tray of barfi Fig barfi Barfi or burfi is an Indian sweet. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ...


In New Zealand, Diwali is celebrated publically among many of the South Asian diaspora cultural groups. There are main public festivals in Auckland and Wellington, with other events around the country becoming more popular and visible.[11]


Fireworks

Fireworks in Diwali celebration at The University of Texas at Austin, 2007
Fireworks in Diwali celebration at The University of Texas at Austin, 2007

To enhance the joy of Diwali both the young and the old light firecrackers and fireworks at night. Nowadays there is a significant growth in campaigns on creating awareness over the adverse impacts of noise and air pollution. Some Governments drive to keep the festival less noisy and pollution-free. The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has banned production of crackers with noise levels of over 125 decibels.[12] In survey of UP Pollution Control Board, it was revealed that the emission of smoke was found more in the light illuminating fire crackers. Levels of SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) and RSPM (respirable suspended particulate matter) was found marginally higher on Diwali day. Crackers, which use large quantities of sulfur and paper, spew out sulfur dioxide and charcoal into the air, also lead and other metallic substances are suspended in the air causing respiratory problems.[13] Considering these facts, bursting of crackers is prohibited in silent zones i.e. near hospitals, schools and courts. University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (full official name), often UT or Texas for short, is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System, the largest public university system in Texas, established in 1883. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Mahavira and His Teachings by A. N. Upadhye, Review: Richard J. Cohen, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 102, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1982), pp. 231-232
  2. ^ Ramcharitmanas, Uttarkand
  3. ^ History of Diwali
  4. ^ Diwali History
  5. ^ Importance of various days of Divali. hindujagruti.org. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  6. ^ Sacred Books of the East, vol. 22: Gaina Sutras Part I, translated by Hermann Jacobi [1884]
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2, Published 1988, Sahitya Akademi ISBN 8126011947
  8. ^ Mahavira and His Teachings by A. N. Upadhye, Review: Richard J. Cohen, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 102, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1982), pp. 231-232
  9. ^ Kadowala, Dilip (1998). Diwali. London: Evans Brothers Limited. ISBN 0-237-51801-5. 
  10. ^ Diwali Celebrations Around The World. diwalifestival.org. Retrieved on 2006-08-27.
  11. ^ Diwali Downunder: Transforming and Performing Indian Tradition in Aotearoa/New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Media Studies 9(1): 25-35 (2005) (ISSN 1173 0811).
  12. ^ Pollution board bans 1000 walas, hydrogen bombs --Accessed on March 11, 2007
  13. ^ Mild crackers are fine, atomic bombs are not -- Accessed on March 11, 2007

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Story of Diwali
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Deepavali in Singapore
The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Hindu religion has many festivals. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Sankranti is a national festival in India. ... This article is about the Pongal festival. ... For the Indian film of the same name, see Holi (film). ... Rama Navami is a Hindu holiday. ... Krishna Janmashtami (Devanagari कृष्ण जन्माष्टमी) , also known as Krishnashtami,Saatam Aatham ,Gokulashtami, Ashtami Rohini, Srikrishna Jayanti, Sree Jayanthi or sometimes merely as Janmashtami, is a Hindu festival celebrating the birth of Krishna, the eighth avatar (incarnation) of Vishnu. ... Lord Ganesh Shiva Ganesh Chaturthi (IAST: , sanskrit: गणेश चतुर्थी) (Ganesh Festival) is a day on which Lord Ganesha, the son of Shiva and Parvati, is believed to bestow his presence on earth for all his devotees. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Navratri or Navratra is a Hindu festival of worship and dance. ... Dasara, also called Navaratri, is among the most important festivals celebrated in Southern India. ... Durga Puja (Bengali: দুর্গাপূজা Durga Puja) is the biggest festival of Hindus in Bihar, West Bengal, East Bengal, Jharkhand, and Bengali Hindus all over the world. ... Vijayadashami (Hindi and Marathi: विजयादशमी, Kannada:ವಿಜಯದಶಮಿ), also known as Dussehra (Hindi: दशहरा, Kannada: ದಸರ, Marathi: दसरा) or Mohani Nakha (Nepal Bhasa:मोहनी नख:) is a festival celebrated across India. ... Bhaubeej/Bhau-Beej (in Marathi) or Bhai-Dooj (in Hindi) or Bhai Beej (in Gujarati) is a festival or ceremony performed by Hindus on the second day after Diwali, which is the second day of the new year. ... Image File history File links HinduSwastika. ... Vaisakhi (Punjabi: , , also known as Baisakhi) is an ancient harvest festival in Punjab, which also marks beginning of a new solar year, and new harvest season. ... Ugadi (Telugu: ఉగాది, Kannada: ಉಗಾದಿ) (literally - the start of an era) is the new years day for the people of the Deccan region of India. ... Vishu (Malayalam:വിഷു)- (American Vjéshu), (Tamil:வீஷூ) is astronomical new year day festival held in the state of Kerala in South India (and adjoining areas of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu). ... Puthandu, more frequently known as the Tamil New Year and Vishu which falls on the first day of the Hindu Solar Calendar are celebrated on the same day respectively in the Southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. ... Onam (IPA: [oːɳam], Malayalam: ഓണം) is an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in the south Indian state of Kerala. ... // The celebration of springtime and harvest Gudi Padwa is a holiday celebrated in India. ... Cheti Chand is celebrated as New Years day by Sindhis. ... Poila Boishakh (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ) is the first day of the Bangla Calendar. ... Karwa Chauth is a traditional Hindu and Kashmiri Muslim festival for married women, and is celebrated in some parts of India and Azad Kashmir. ... It has been suggested that Thai Poosam Kavady be merged into this article or section. ... Maha Shivratri or Maha Sivaratri or Shivaratri or Sivaratri (Night of Shiva) is a Hindu festival celebrated every year on the 14th day in the Krishna Paksha of the month Maagha (as per Shalivahana) or Phalguna(as per Vikrama) in the Hindu Calendar. ... Ekadasi is the eleventh lunar day (Tithi) of the shukla (bright) or krishna (dark) paksha (fortnight) respectively, of every lunar month in the Hindu calendar (Panchang). ... MahaLakshmi vratha is a sacred day in Hinduism. ... The Vaikunda Avataram is celebrated on the 20th day of the Tamil Month of Masi, the date at which Lord Vaikundar arose from the sea of Thiruchendur as the son of Mummorthies to destroy the evil spirit of Káli, not the Hindu deity, present in this Kali Yuga and... A sample of rakhis, tied by sisters on the wrists of brothers in celebration of Raksha Bandhan Raksha Bandhan (the bond of protection in Hindi) is a Hindu festival, which celebrates the relationship between brothers and sisters. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC - Religion & Ethics - Diwali (1015 words)
Diwali, the Hindu festival of lights, is the most popular of all the festivals from South Asia, and is also the occasion for celebrations by Jains and Sikhs as well as Hindus.
Diwali UK In Britain, as in India, the festival is a time for thoroughly spring-cleaning the home and for wearing new clothes and most importantly, decorating buildings with fancy lights.
Diwali is a New Year festival in the Vikrama calendar, where it falls on the night of the new moon in the month of Kartika.
Diwali Celebrations Around the World (2274 words)
Diwali is a holy tradition, not to be put in the shade by the lights.
Diwali is a festival synonymous with celebrations in India and among Indians all over the world, is an occasion for jubilation and togetherness.
Diwali is also celebrated outside India mainly in Guyana, Fiji, Malaysia, Nepal, Mauritius, Myanmar, Singapore, Srilanka, Trinidad and Tobago, Britain, Indonesia, Japan, Thailand, Africa, and Australia among the Hindus worldover.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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