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Encyclopedia > Divisions of the world in Islam

In Islamic theology and legal interpretations, the ultimate aim of Islam is to bring the whole world under the dominion of Islam. Accordingly each part of the world is given a descriptive status to delineate its current state in regard to the aims of Islam and to define the permissible conduct of Muslims in those regions. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Dar al-Islam

Dar al-Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلام literally house of Peace) is a term used to refer to those lands under Islamic rule. In the orthodox tradition of Islam, the world is divided into two components: dar al-Islam, the house of peace and dar al-Harb, the house of war. Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...

Dar al-Islam appears in traditions narrated from the Prophet and from texts from companions, for example:

The narration by Sulayman al-Buraydah: "When the Messenger of Allah appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment… He would say…”When you meet enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and restrain yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to (accept) Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their dar to the dar of Muhajirs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims""

And the letter of Khalid bin Walid to the people of Hira reflects the same notions: “In a similar vein we can understand the letter Khalid b. Walid wrote to the people of Hira which states: I have granted (the people of Hira) that any of their elderly who is unable to work, afflicted by a plague, or became poor such that his co-religionists give him alms, then his jizyah will be waived and he and his family will be provided for from the Bayt al-Mal of the Muslims as long as he lives in the dar al-hijrah and dar al-islam. If they leave the dar of the Muhajirs, the dar al-islam, then the Muslims are not obliged to maintain his family.”

Confusion appears to have arisen in the usage of these terms. The two requirements from the Islamic sources require: 1. The rules (laws) apparent in society must reflect Islam 2. Individuals should be permitted to practice Sharia in security.

If the former does not apply then physical means can be used to correct the situation and in the latter case, individuals are required to do hijra to where they can practice their religion.

Some modern Muslim scholars maintain that the labeling of a country or place as dar al-Islam or dar al-harb revolves around the question of religious security. This means that if a Muslim practices Islam freely in his place of abode, then he will be considered as living in a dar al-Islam, even if he happens to live in a secular or non-Islamic country. Traditional definitions tend to focus on which religion holds ultimate authority.

Dar al-Harb

Dar al-Harb (Arabic: دار الحرب "house of war") is a term used to refer to those areas outside Muslim rule. The term traditionally refers to those lands administered by non-Muslim governments. The exact definitions of these territories can vary widely according to the viewer's concept of who is and is not a Muslim, and which governments are or are not Muslim in practice. The inhabitants of the Dar al-Harb are called harbi (Arabic: حربي), as opposed to dhimmi. A harbi has no rights, not even the right to live. If a harbi wants to enter the territory of Islam (dar al-islam) he needs a safe-conduct pass called an aman.[citation needed] This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... Right to life is a phrase that describes the belief that a human being has an essential right to live, particularly that a human being has the right not to be killed by another human being. ... Safe conduct signifies the security given by authority of a government to a stranger for his quietly coming into and passing out of the territories over which the government has jurisdiction or control. ...

The London-based Arabic language daily Asharq Al-Awsat interviewed Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi on July 19, 2003, where he said: Asharq Al-Awsat is a major pan-Arab daily newspaper, printed simultaneously on four continents in 12 cities. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"It has been determined by Islamic law that the blood and property of people of Dar Al-Harb [the Domain of Disbelief where the battle for the domination of Islam should be waged] is not protected."[1]

Also, in an interview conducted in July 2003 by the Egyptian newspaper Al-Haqiqa, Dr. Sheikh Ali Gomaa said: Ali Gomaa, Grand Mufti of Egypt 2003-Present Sheikh Ali Gomaa (Arabic:علي جمعة ) is the Grand Mufti of Egypt succeeding Ahmad El-Tayeb. ...

"...it is permitted to kill him, because he is a Harbi and the Harbi spreads corruption throughout the face of the earth."[2]

Dar al-Harb and its associated terms are not found in the two most basic works of Islam, the Qur'an and the Hadith. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...

In Reliance of the Traveller, point w43.2, a hadith is referred to containing the exact word Dar al-Harb. Scholars have, nevertheless, disagreed on its reliability as is commented in Reliance of the Traveller. Umdat al-Salik wa Uddat al-Nasik (Reliance of the Traveller and Tools of the Worshipper) is a manual of Fiqh for Sunni Muslims, consisting mostly of the teachings of Imam al-Nawawi, a Shafii mujtahid, translated into English by Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller. ...

Dar al-Kufr

Dar al-Kufr (Arabic: دار الكفر, "house of infidels" or "domain of disbelief") is a term used by Muhammad to refer to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between his flight to Medina (the Hijra) and his triumphant return. This article is about an Islamic term. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Hijra. ...

For much of Islamic history, the preferred term used to describe non-Islamic societies has been dar al-Harb, emphasizing various Islamic countries' aspirations to conquer such territories and render them part of dar al-Islam. The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ...

A traditional Arabic saying attributed to Muhammad goes: "Unbelief is one community", or in other words, "infidels are of one nation", expressing the view that distinctions between different types of non-Muslims are insignificant in relation to the overriding distinction between Muslim and non-Muslim.

Dar al-Hudna

Dar al Hudna (Arabic: "house of calm"): The land of non-believers currently under a truce, which is a respite between wars. A truce is bought by tribute by harbis. If the harbis refuse to pay tribute in exchange for the truce, hostilities are resumed. Furthermore, only treaties that conform to Islamic prescriptions are valid; if these conditions are not fulfilled, the treaty is worthless.

Dar al-'Ahd

Dar al-'Ahd (Arabic: دار العهد "house of truce" or Dar al-Sulh "house of treaty") was invented to describe the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states. The invention Dar al-Ahd was necessary, as the worldview prevalent at the time did not allow for a protracted peace with non-Muslim states, even those under Muslim domination. Ottoman redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Tribute (disambiguation). ...

Today, the term refers to those non-Muslim governments which have armistice or peace agreements with Muslim governments. The actual status of the non-Muslim country in question may vary from acknowledged equality to tributary states.

Dar al-Dawa

Dar al-Dawa (Arabic: دار الدعوة "house of invitation") is a term used to describe a region where the religion of Islam has recently been introduced. Since the population had not been exposed to Islam before, they may not fit into the traditional definition of dar al-Harb. On the other hand, as the region is not yet Muslim, it cannot be dar al-Islam either. The most frequent use of the term dar al-Dawa is to describe Arabia before and during the life of Muhammad. The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...

More recently, the term dar al-Dawa has been proposed by Western Muslim philosophers to describe the status of Muslims in the West. Occident redirects here. ...

The term dar al-Dawa may be used in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the older terms dar al-Islam and dar al-Harb, from which it is derived, or simply be seen as just another sub-category of dar al-harb.

Dar al-Amn

Dar al-Amn (Arabic: دار الأمن "house of safety") is a term proposed by Western Muslim philosophers to describe the status of Muslims in the West.

The term dar al-Amn may be used in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the older terms dar al-Islam and dar al-Harb, from which it is derived.


  1. ^ Al-Sharq Al-Awsat (London), July 19, 2003. Cited here.
  2. ^ Al-Haqiqa interview retrieved from Egypt Facts on July 8, 2003, cited here.

Additional reading

Tariq Said Ramadan (born 26 August 1962 in Geneva, Switzerland) is a Swiss Muslim academic and theologian. ...

See also

This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...

External links

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