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Encyclopedia > Division (biology)

In biology, the equivalent of a phylum in the plant or the fungal kingdom is called a division. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (343x1191, 20 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Species Genus Kingdom (biology) Family (biology) Class (biology) Order (biology) Division (biology) Phylum Domain (biology) ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Ernst Haeckels presentation of a three-kingdom system (Plantae, Protista, Animalia) in his 1866 Generelle Morphologie der Organismen). ...


The main plant divisions, in the order in which they probably evolved, are the liverworts (Division Marchantiophyta), the hornworts (Division Anthocerophyta), the mosses (Division Bryophyta), the ferns (Division Filicophyta), the horsetails (Division Sphenophyta), the cycads (Division Cycadophyta), the ginkgo (Division Ginkgophyta), the conifers (Division Pinophyta), the gnetophytes (Division Gnetophyta), and the angiosperms (Division Magnoliophyta). Angiosperms are the flowering plants that now dominate the plant world (80% of all vascular plants are angiosperms). Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... Families & Genera Anthocerotaceae Anthoceros Folioceros Leiosporoceros Phaeoceros Sphaerosporoceros Dendrocerotaceae Dendroceros Megaceros Notoceros Notothyladaceae Notothylas Hornworts are a group of bryophytes, or non-vascular plants, comprising the division Anthocerotophyta. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Classes Psilotopsida Equisetopsida Marattiopsida Pteridopsida (Polypodiopsida) this dnt make sense A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta. ... Species The horsetails are vascular plants, comprising 15 species of plants in the genus Equisetum. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the... taxa: Gnetales Welwitschiales Ephedrales The plant division Gnetophyta or gnetophytes comprise three related families of woody plants grouped in the gymnosperms, a paraphyletic group of seed plant divisions. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Look up flower in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ...


In zoology, the term division is applied to an optional rank subordinate to the infraclass and superordinate to the cohort. A widely used classification (e.g. Carroll 1988) recognises teleost fishes as a Division Teleostei within Class Actinopterygii (the ray-finned fishes). Less commonly (as in Milner 1988), living tetrapods are ranked as Divisions Amphibia and Amniota within the clade of vertebrates with fleshy limbs (Sarcopterygii). Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Cohort may mean: Cohort (military unit), a Roman legion. ... Superorders Osteoglossomorpha Elopomorpha Clupeomorpha Ostariophysi Protacanthopterygii Sternopterygii Cyclosquamata Scopelomorpha Lampridiomorpha Polymyxiomorpha Paracanthopterygii Polymyxiomorpha Acanthopterygii Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Classes Synapsida Sauropsida Amphibia A tetrapod (Greek tetrapoda, four-legged) is a vertebrate animal having four feet, legs or leglike appendages. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Subclasses Coelacanthimorpha - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Tetrapoda Sarcopterygii is traditionally the class of lobe-finned fishes, consisting of lungfish and coelacanths. ...


References

  • Carroll, Robert L. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co. ISBN 0-716-7-1822-7.
  • Milner, Andrew. 1988. "The relationships and origin of living amphibians." In M.J. Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods, Volume 1: Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, pp. 59-102. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Taxonomic ranks
v  d  e
Domain or Magnorder
Superkingdom Superphylum/Superdivision Superclass Superorder Superfamily Superspecies
Kingdom Phylum/Division Class Order Family Tribe Genus Species
Subkingdom Subphylum Subclass Cohort Suborder Subfamily Subtribe Subgenus Subspecies
Branch Infraphylum Infraclass Legion Infraorder Alliance Infraspecies
Microphylum Parvclass Parvorder

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