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Encyclopedia > Divine Liturgy

The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. As such, it is used in the Eastern Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches. Armenian Christians, both of the Armenian Apostolic Church[1] and of the Armenian Catholic Church,[2] use the same term. Some Oriental Orthodox employ the term "holy offering" (Syriac: qurbono qadisho, Armenian: surb badarak) for their Eucharistic liturgies instead. The term is sometimes applied also to Latin Rite Eucharistic liturgies, though the term Mass is more commonly used there. A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Holy Qurbana or Qurbana Qadisha (ܩܘܪܒܢܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ qûrbānâ qadîšâ, pronounced qurbono qadisho in West Syriac), the Holy Offering, refers to the Divine Liturgy as celebrated according to the Chaldean and Syriac Christian Rites, the former by the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East, and the... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Types of Liturgies

There are three Divine Liturgies that are in common use in the Eastern Orthodox Church: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...

The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom is traditionally thought to be a shortened form of the Divine Liturgy of St. Basil. Both are related to the earlier Divine Liturgy of St. James of Jerusalem, which is traditionally attributed to the first bishop of Jerusalem, James the Just (not to be confused with James, brother of Saint John the Evangelist). It is celebrated once a year on his feast day, traditionally only in Jerusalem, but now in other places as well. John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... Basil (ca. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... Look up theophany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the Christian calendar, Holy Thursday (also called Maundy Thursday) is the Thursday before Easter, the day on which the Last Supper is said to have occurred. ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Eastern Orthodox Icon of the Exaltation of the Cross In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different feasts known as Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. ... The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, or simply (if ungrammatically) Presanctified Liturgy, is an Eastern Orthodox liturgical service for the celebration of the Eucharist on the weekdays of Great Lent. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... Holy Week (Latin: ) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter (Easter always falls on a Sunday). ... // Overview The Liturgy of Saint James is based on the traditions of the ancient rite of the Early Christian Church at Jerusalem, as the Mystagogic Catecheses of St Cyril of Jerusalem imply. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew YaÊ¿aqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Saint James the Great (d. ... John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...


Structure

The format of Divine Liturgy is fixed, although the specific readings and hymns vary with season and feast. A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


While arrangements may vary from liturgy to liturgy, the Divine Liturgy always consists of three interrelated parts:

  • the Liturgy of Preparation, which includes the entry and vesting prayers of the clergy and the Prothesis;
  • the Liturgy of the Catechumens, so called because in ancient times catechumens were allowed to attend, also called the Liturgy of the Word;
  • and the Liturgy of the Faithful, so called because in ancient times only faithful members in good standing were allowed to participate. In modern times, this restriction applies only to communication — reception of the sacrament of holy communion.

A typical celebration of the Byzantine Liturgy consists of: The Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis (Greek Προθησις a setting forth) or Proskomedia, is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church to the act of preparing the bread and wine for the Eucharist. ... It has been suggested that Altar of Prothesis be merged into this article or section. ... In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ...


Liturgy of Preparation

This part of the Liturgy is private, said only by the priest and deacon. It symbolizes the hidden years of Christ's earthly life. The Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis (Greek Προθησις a setting forth) or Proskomedia, is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church to the act of preparing the bread and wine for the Eucharist. ...

Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... The Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis (Greek Προθησις a setting forth) or Proskomedia, is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church to the act of preparing the bread and wine for the Eucharist. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Deacon is a role in the Christian Church which is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... A Prosphora (Greek Προσφωρα, Offering) is a small loaf of bread used in Orthodox Christian ritual. ... The Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis (Greek Προθησις a setting forth) or Proskomedia, is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church to the act of preparing the bread and wine for the Eucharist. ... Kairos Kairos () is an ancient Greek word meaning the right or opportune moment. The ancient Greeks had two words for time, chronos and kairos. ...

Liturgy of the Catechumens

This is the public part of the Liturgy

with the Refrain (In The Greek Rubrics) "Through the Prayers of the Theotoko, O Savior Save us." Look up blessing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... For other uses, see Sign of the cross (disambiguation). ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Ektenia (from Greek: ; literally, diligence), often called simply Litany, is a prayerful petition in the Eastern Orthodox liturgy. ... This article is about the musical term. ...

  • Little Litany
  • Second Antiphon and "O Only Begotten Son"° (usually Psalm 145, In the Greek Rubrics Psalm 92)

with the Refrain (In The Greek Rubrics)on Sundays: "Save us O Son of God who art Risen from the dead, Save us who sing unto you, Alleluia" and on Weekdays: "Save us O son of God who art Wondrous in your Saints..."

  • Little Litany
  • Third Antiphon° (usually the Beatitudes with Troparia of The Canon of Matins, Odes 3 and 6 , In The Greek Rubrics Psalm 94)

with the Refrain (In The Greek Rubrics)on Weekdays: O Son of God who art wonderful in Thy saints, Save us who sing to thee, alleluia. On Sundays: the Troparion of the Day, Saint or Sunday Ressurrection The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the beginning portion of the Sermon on the Mount of the Gospel of Matthew. ...

  • Small Entrance—procession with the Gospel Book
  • Introit°
  • Troparia° and Kontakia°—hymns commemorating specific saints and Scriptural events, as appropriate to the liturgical calendar and local custom
  • Trisagion°—the "Thrice-Holy" hymn
  • Prokeimenon°
  • Epistle Reading°
  • Alleluia°
  • Gospel Reading°
  • Homily (homilies may also be preached while Communion is being prepared for distribution to the people, and before the Dismissal)
  • Litany of Fervent Supplication—"Let us all say with our whole soul and with our whole mind…"
  • Litany for the Departed—this is not said on Sundays, Great Feasts or during the Paschal season
  • Litany of the Catechumens, and Dismissal of the Catechumens

In Eastern Orthodoxy, an entrance is a liturgical movement from one part of the sanctuary to another. ... Troparion (also tropar, plural: troparia) in Byzantine music and in the religious music of Eastern Orthodoxy is a short hymn of one stanza, or one of a series of stanzas (this may carry the further connotation of a hymn interpolated between psalm verses). ... Kontakion is a form of hymn performed in the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... The Trisagion (Thrice Holy) is a standard hymn of the Divine Liturgy in most of the Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox Churches and Eastern Catholic Churches. ... In the liturgical practice of the Orthodox Church, a Prokeimenon (Greek Προκειμενον, plural prokeimena; sometimes prokimenon/prokimena) is a psalm or canticle refrain sung responsorially at certain specified points of the Divine Liturgy or the Divine Office, usually to introduce a scripture reading. ... An epistle (Greek επιστολη, epistolÄ“, letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (&#1497... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... // Great Feasts of the Orthodox Church Easter/Pascha The feast of the Resurrection of Jesus, called Easter or Pascha, is the greatest of the feasts of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... In the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches, the cycle of the moveable feast is built around Pascha, or Easter. ... In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ...

Liturgy of the Faithful

In the early Church, only Baptized members in good standing were allowed to attend this portion of the Liturgy.

  • First Litany of the Faithful
  • Second Litany of the Faithful
  • Cherubic Hymn°—chanted by the Choir as spiritual representatives (or icons) of the angels
  • Great Entrance—procession taking the chalice and diskos (paten) from the Table of Oblation to the altar
  • Litany of Fervent Supplication—"Let us complete our prayer to the Lord"
  • Symbol of Faith—the Nicene Creed
  • Sursum Corda ("Lift up your hearts…"), followed by the Sanctus ("Holy, Holy, Holy…")
  • Anaphora—the Eucharistic Canon, containing the Anamnesis (memorial of Christ's Incarnation, death, and Resurrection, and the Words of Institution)
  • Epiklesis—calling down the Holy Spirit upon the Holy Gifts (bread and wine) to change them into the Body and Blood of Christ
  • Commemoration of Saints and Axion Estin (hymn to the Theotokos
  • Commemoration of bishop and civil authorities—"Remember, O Lord…"
  • Litany of Supplication—"Having called to remembrance all the saints…"
  • Lord's Prayer
  • Bowing of Heads
  • "Holy Things are for the Holy"
  • Communion Hymn
  • Holy Communion
  • "We have seen the true light"°
  • "Let our mouths be filled with Thy praise, O Lord…"°
  • Litany of Thanksgiving
  • Prayer behind the Ambon
  • Dismissal°
Those parts marked with ° indicate portions that can change according to the day or liturgical season of the year. Some parts change at every Divine Liturgy, some parts only change at Pascha (Easter).

Note that almost all texts are chanted throughout the Divine Liturgy, not only hymns but litanies, prayers, creed confession and even readings from the Bible. The sole exception is the sermon. The Savior Not Made By Hands (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek εικων, eikon, image) is an artistic visual representation or symbol of anything considered holy and divine, such as God, saints or deities. ... In Eastern Orthodoxy, an entrance is a liturgical movement from one part of the sanctuary to another. ... Chalice For other uses, see Chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... Paten (liturgy) A paten, or diskos, is a small plate, usually made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic hosts. ... The Liturgy of Preparation, also Prothesis (Greek Προθησις a setting forth) or Proskomedia, is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox Church to the act of preparing the bread and wine for the Eucharist. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Sursum Corda Cooperative is a small neighborhood located in Washington, DC, bounded by North Capitol Street on the east, First Street NW to the west, K Street NW to the south, and M Street NW to the north. ... Sanctus is the Latin word for holy, and is the name of an important hymn of Christian liturgy. ... In the Eastern Christian liturgy, the anaphora is that part of the Liturgy having to do specifically with the consecration and offering of the Eucharist, as opposed to scripture readings, etc. ... Anamnesis (Greek: αναμνησις = recollection, reminiscence) is a term used in medicine, philosophy, psychoanalysis, and religion. ... The words of institution are the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament used in some forms of Christian liturgy to consecrate the Eucharist. ... In Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern-rite Catholic churches, and formerly in Latin-rite (i. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... Axion estin (Greek: Άξιον εστίν, Slavonic: Достóйно éсть, Dostóino yesÅ¥), or It is Truly Meet, is a theotokion (sticheron composed in honor of the Theotokos), which is chanted in the Divine Services of the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... Ambon may refer to two geographical places. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two...


Oriental Orthodox

The Oriental Orthodox have 3 principle Divine Liturgies: The Liturgy of St. Basil (usually prayed most Sundays), The Liturgy of St. Cyril, and The Liturgy of St. Gregory, an exceptionally long and humble liturgy.


External links

Eastern Christian

Oriental Christian


  Results from FactBites:
 
Introduction to the Divine Liturgy (0 words)
In fact, the Divine Liturgy was in practice right after the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Disciples of Christ on the 50th day after His Resurrection, as the sacred writer of the Acts of the Apostles records (Acts 2:46 ff).
The Divine Liturgy in its swaddlings at the beginning of the Christian era consisted of free hymns and prayers for the officiating of a certain framework of faith.
The Divine Liturgy as such was the center of the inspiration of the first Christians in their communion with God and with one another.
Divine Liturgy - OrthodoxWiki (1669 words)
Before the Divine Liturgy begins, the priest and a deacon, if one is serving, begin by preparing the gifts of bread and wine for use in the service.
The Liturgy of the Catechumens is concluded by a litany praying for the continued growth of the catechumens in faith, leading up to the day of their baptism.
Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, according to the use of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America
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