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Encyclopedia > Diuretic
This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do.

A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from the body, although each class of diuretic does so in a distinct way. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 505 pixelsFull resolution (950 × 600 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/gif) I made this image myself. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 505 pixelsFull resolution (950 × 600 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/gif) I made this image myself. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Diuresis is the production of urine by the kidney. ...

Contents

High ceiling loop diuretics

Drugs such as furosemide inhibit the body's ability to reabsorb sodium at the ascending loop in the kidney which leads to a retention of water in the urine as water normally follows sodium back into the extracellular fluid (ECF). Other examples of high ceiling loop diuretics include ethacrynic acid, torsemide and bumetanide. Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®) is a loop diuretic medication used to treat high blood pressure and the swelling caused by diseases like congestive heart failure, liver failure, and kidney failure. ... torsemide is a novel loop diuretic belonging to pridine sulphonyl urea ... Bumetanide is a loop diuretic of the sulfamyl category to treat heart failure. ...


Thiazides

Drugs such as hydrochlorothiazide act on the distal tubule and inhibit the Na-Cl symport leading to a retention of water in the urine as water normally follows penetrating solutes. Hydrochlorothiazide (Apo-Hydro®, Aquazide H®, Microzide®, Oretic®), sometimes abbreviated HCT, HCTZ, or HZT is a popular diuretic drug that acts by inhibiting the kidneys ability to retain water. ... A cotransporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in secondary active transport. ...


Potassium-sparing diuretics

These are diuretics which do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine; thus, potassium is spared and not lost as much as in other diuretics. Such drugs include spironolactone which is a competitive antagonists of aldosterone. Aldosterone normally adds sodium channels in the principal cells of the collecting duct and late distal tubule of the nephron. Spironolactone prevents aldosterone from entering the principal cells, preventing sodium reabsorption. Other examples of potassium-sparing diuretics are amiloride and triamterene. These drugs bind to the sodium channels of the principal cells, inhibiting an aldosterone-induced increase in sodium reabsorption. General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Spironolactone (marketed under the trade names Aldactone, Novo-Spiroton, Spiractin, Spirotone, or Berlactone) is a diuretic and is used as an antiandrogen. ... A competitive antagonist is a receptor antagonist which binds to a receptor but fails to activate it. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Amiloride is an antihypertensive, a potassium-sparing diuretic that was first approved for use in 1967 and helps to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. ... Triamterene is a potassium-sparing diuretic used in combination with thiazide diuretics for the treatment of hypertension. ...


Osmotic diuretics

Compounds such as mannitol are filtered in the glomerulus, but cannot be reabsorbed. Their presence leads to an increase in the osmolarity of the filtrate. To maintain osmotic balance, water is retained in the urine. Mannitol or hexan-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol (C6H8(OH)6) is an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. ... Glomerulus refers to two unrelated structures in the body, both named for their globular form. ...


High Blood Glucose

Glucose, like mannitol, is a sugar that can behave as an osmotic diuretic. Unlike mannitol, glucose is commonly found in the blood. However, in certain conditions such as diabetes mellitus, the concentration of glucose in the blood exceeds the maximum resorption capacity of the kidney. When this happens, glucose remains in the filtrate, leading to the osmotic retention of water in the urine. Use of some drugs, especially stimulants may also increase blood glucose and thus increase urination. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ...


Uses

In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension and certain kidney diseases. Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning. Diuretics are often abused by sufferers of eating disorders, especially bulimics, in attempts at weight loss. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver in which liver tissue is replaced by connective tissue, resulting in the loss of liver function. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox®, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epileptic seizures, benign intracranial hypertension and altitude sickness. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... This article is about the drug. ... The term drug overdose (or simply overdose) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced. ... Bulimia nervosa, more commonly known as bulimia, is a psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by intentionally doing one or more of the following in order to compensate for the intake of the food and prevent weight gain: vomiting inappropriate use of laxatives, enemas...


The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic effect. That is, the reduction in blood pressure is not due to decreased blood volume resulting from increased urine production, but occurs through other mechanisms and at lower doses than that required to produce diuresis. Indapamide was specifically designed with this in mind, and has a larger therapeutic window for hypertension (without pronounced diuresis) than most other diuretics. Thiazides are a class of drug that promote water loss from the body ((diuretics)). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. ... Loop diuretics are diuretics that act on the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney. ... Indapamide is a diuretic drug, usually used in the treatment of hypertension. ...


Mechanism of action

Classification of common diuretics and their mechanisms of action
Agent Group Examples Mechanism Location
- Ethanol, Water inhibits vasopressin secretion
Acidifying salts CaCl2, NH4Cl
Arginine vasopressin
receptor 2
 antagonists
amphotericin B, lithium citrate inhibit vasopressin's action collecting duct
Aquaretics Goldenrod, Juniper Increases blood flow in kidneys
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide, dorzolamide inhibit H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion proximal tubule
Loop diuretics bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, torsemide inhibit the Na-K-2Cl symporter medullary thick ascending limb
Osmotic diuretics glucose (especially in uncontrolled diabetes), mannitol promote osmotic diuresis proximal tubule, descending limb
Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride, spironolactone, triamterene inhibition of Na+/K+ exchange: Spironolactone inhibits aldosterone action, Amiloride inhibits epithelial sodium channels cortical collecting ducts
Thiazides bendroflumethiazide, hydrochlorothiazide inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption distal convoluted tubules
Xanthines caffeine, theophylline inhibit reabsorption of Na+, increase glomerular filtration rate tubules


Chemically, diuretics are a diverse group of compounds that either stimulate or inhibit various hormones that naturally occur in the body to regulate urine production by the kidneys. Herbal medications are not inherently diuretics. They are more correctly called aquaretics. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a human hormone that is released when the body is low on water; it causes the kidneys to conserve water, but not salt, by concentrating the urine and reducing urine volume. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) is a protein that acts as receptor for arginine vasopressin. ... Amphotericin B (Fungilin®, Fungizone®, Abelcet®, AmBisome®, Fungisome®, Amphocil®, Amphotec®) is a polyene antimycotic drug, used intravenously in systemic fungal infections. ... Lithium salts are chemical salts of lithium used as mood stabilizing drugs, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder, depression, and mania; but also in treating schizophrenia. ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of: The connecting tubule The cortical collecting duct The medullary collecting duct Categories: Urinary system ... Aquaretics is a term referring to herbal diuretics. ... Species See text. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Acetazolamide, sold under the trade name Diamox®, is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat glaucoma, epileptic seizures, benign intracranial hypertension and altitude sickness. ... Dorzolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. ... In the biology of the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowmans capsule. ... Loop diuretics are diuretics that act on the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney. ... Bumetanide is a loop diuretic of the sulfamyl category to treat heart failure. ... Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®) is a loop diuretic medication used to treat high blood pressure and the swelling caused by diseases like congestive heart failure, liver failure, and kidney failure. ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ... torsemide is a novel loop diuretic belonging to pridine sulphonyl urea ... The Na-K-2Cl symporter is an ion pump carrier protein that is inhibited by loop diuretics. ... The thick ascending limb of loop of Henle (or distal straight tubule) can be divided into two parts: that in the renal medulla, and that in the renal cortex. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Mannitol or hexan-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexol (C6H8(OH)6) is an osmotic diuretic agent and a weak renal vasodilator. ... In the biology of the kidney, the proximal convoluted tubule is the segment of the renal tubule that drains Bowmans capsule. ... The descending limb of loop of Henle is the portion of the renal tubule constituting the first part of the loop of Henle. ... Potassium-sparing diuretic refers to diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine. ... Amiloride is an antihypertensive, a potassium-sparing diuretic that was first approved for use in 1967 and helps to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. ... Spironolactone (marketed under the trade names Aldactone, Novo-Spiroton, Spiractin, Spirotone, or Berlactone) is a diuretic and is used as an antiandrogen. ... Triamterene is a potassium-sparing diuretic used in combination with thiazide diuretics for the treatment of hypertension. ... Simplified Diagram of the sodium pump Na+/K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+/K+ pump or Na+/K+ exchanger) is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid family) produced by the outer-section (zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. ... Sodium channels (also known as voltage-gated sodium channels) are integral membrane proteins that are localized in and conduct sodium ions (Na+) through a cells plasma membrane. ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter. ... Thiazides are a class of drug that promote water loss from the body ((diuretics)). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. ... Bendroflumethiazide, (formerly known as bendrofluazide), is a thiazide diuretic, used to treat hypertension. ... Hydrochlorothiazide (Apo-Hydro®, Aquazide H®, Microzide®, Oretic®), sometimes abbreviated HCT, HCTZ, or HZT is a popular diuretic drug that acts by inhibiting the kidneys ability to retain water. ... The sodium-chloride symporter is a symporter ion pump used primarily to remove sodium and chloride ions from the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. ... The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Theophylline is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as COPD or asthma under a variety of brand names. ... Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the volume of fluid filtered from the renal (kidney) glomerular capillaries into the Bowmans capsule per unit time. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Aquaretics is a term referring to herbal diuretics. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Diuretic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (379 words)
Diuretics also decrease the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, and are primarily used to produce a negative extracellular fluid balance.
In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension and certain kidney diseases.
The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic effect.
Loop diuretic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (489 words)
Loop diuretics are diuretics that act on the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney.
Loop diuretics act on the Na-K-2Cl symporter in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle to inhibit sodium and chloride reabsorption.
Loop diuretics also cause vasodilation of the veins and of the kidney's blood vessels, mechanically causing a decrease in blood pressure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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