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Encyclopedia > Ditching
A Mute Swan performs a water landing
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A Mute Swan performs a water landing

Water landing is, in the broadest sense, landing on a body of water. All waterfowl, those seabirds capable of flight, and some human-built vehicles are capable of landing in water as a matter of course. Binomial name Cygnus olor (Gmelin, 1789) The Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) is a common Eurasian member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. ... Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... A body of water is any significant natural pool of water such as an ocean, a lake, or a river, covering the Earth or another planet. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... Seabirds are birds that spend much of their lives, outside the breeding season at least, at sea. ... Vehicles are non-living means of transportation. ...


The phrase "water landing" is also used as a euphemism for crash-landing into water in an aircraft not designed for the purpose. An intentional water landing during distress, but under controlled flight, is called ditching. Such water landings are somewhat common for small craft in general aviation and the military, but they are extremely rare for commercial passenger airlines. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Airbus A380 An aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight. ... General aviation (abbr. ... A Boeing 747-400 of Virgin Atlantic Airways, one of the UKs largest airlines. ...

Contents


By design

A PBY Catalina flying boat landing
A PBY Catalina flying boat landing

Seaplanes, flying boats, and amphibious aircraft are designed to take off and land on water. Landing can be supported by a hull-shaped fuselage and/or pontoons. The availability of a long effective runway was historically important on lifting size restrictions on aircraft, and their freedom from constructed strips remains useful for transportation to lakes and other remote areas. The ability to loiter on water is also important for marine rescue operations and fire fighting. One disadvantage of water landing is that it is dangerous in the presence of waves. Furthermore, the necessary equipment compromises the craft's aerodynamic efficiency and speed. Image File history File links PBY Catalina landing at NAS Jacksonville during WWII. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links PBY Catalina landing at NAS Jacksonville during WWII. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... PBY Catalina was the US Navy designation for an American and Canadian-built flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... Boeing 314 A flying boat is an aircraft that is designed to take off and land on water, in particular a type of seaplane which uses its fuselage as a floating hull (instead of pontoons mounted below the fuselage). ... An amphibious or amphibian aircraft is an aircraft that can land on either land or water. ... A Ryanair Boeing 737 takes off from Bristol International Airport, England Take off is the phase of flight where an aircraft transitions from moving along the ground (taxiing) to flying in the air (see flight), usually from a runway. ... In an aircraft, the fuselage is the main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... A pontoon boat, like this small pleasure boat, typically floats and balances by means of two pontoons oriented in the direction of travel. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...

Apollo 15 capsule descends under two of three parachutes
Apollo 15 capsule descends under two of three parachutes

Early manned spacecraft launched by the United States were designed to land in water by the splashdown method. The craft would parachute into the water, which acted as a cushion to bring the craft to a stop; the impacts were violent but survivable. Landing over water rather than land made braking rockets unnecessary, but its disadvantages included difficult retrieval and the danger of drowning. The modern Space Shuttle lands on a runway instead. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x1639, 980 KB) The capsule of Apollo 15 descends under only two good parachutes http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2400x1639, 980 KB) The capsule of Apollo 15 descends under only two good parachutes http://www. ... Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the Apollo program and the fourth mission to land on the Moon. ... A spacecraft is designed to leave Earths atmosphere and operate beyond the surface of the Earth in outer space. ... Atlantic splashdown locations of American spacecraft. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... A retrorocket is a rocket engine used for providing thrust to oppose the motion of a space vehicle, thereby causing deceleration of the vehicle. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia seconds after engine ignition, 1981 (NASA). ... Runway 1 of El Dorado International Airport, Bogotá, D.C. Aerial picture of a runway of Chennai International Airport, Tamil Nadu A runway is a strip of land on an airport, on which aircraft can take off and land. ...


In distress

Although extremely uncommon in commercial passenger travel, small aircraft ditchings are common occurences. According to the United States Coast Guard, including helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft, between military, air carrier, corporate, and general aviation, there is one ditching every day in U.S. waters alone.[1] Coast Guard Seal The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a military branch of the United States involved in maritime law, mariner assistance and search and rescue, among other duties of any coast guard. ...


General aviation

General aviation includes all fields of aviation outside of commercial aviation. This classification includes small aircraft (e.g., training aircraft, Cessna 172), airships, gliders, helicopters, and corporate aircraft (including business jets and other for-hire operations). This class of aircraft has the highest accident and incident rate in aviation. However, even though this is statistically the most dangerous form of aviation, it is still far safer than most other forms of transportation. In 2003, for example, there were only 136 fatalities resulting from general aviation accidents.


Commercial aircraft

Ethiopian 961 breaks up in the water
Ethiopian 961 breaks up in the water

Commercial airliners almost never make water landings. The FAA does not require commercial pilots to train to ditch, regulating instead the distance a plane can stray from an airfield.[1] Nonetheless, airlines regularly give safety briefings including the infamous: The Federal Aviation Administration is the entity of the United States government which regulates and oversees all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S. // Activities Along with the European Joint Aviation Authorities, the FAA is one of the two main agencies worldwide responsible for the certification of new aircraft. ... Front side of a pilot certificate issued by the FAA. Back side of a pilot certificate issued by the FAA. Pilot certification in the United States is under the authority of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ...

"In the event of a water landing, your seat cushion may be used as a floatation device."

These warnings have provoked a great deal of skepticism towards their usefulness and necessity. For example, Ralph Nader's Aviation Consumer Action Project has been quoted as claiming that a wide body jet would “shatter like a raw egg dropped on pavement, killing most if not all passengers on impact, even in calm seas with well-trained pilots and good landing trajectories."[1] In December 2002, The Economist quoted an expert as claiming that "No large airliner has ever made an emergency landing on water" in an article that goes on to charge, "So the life jackets ... have little purpose other than to make passengers feel better."[2][3] In June 2006, economist Steven Levitt claimed, "At least going back to 1970, which by my estimation encompasses over 150 million commercial airline flights, there has not been a single water landing!"[4] Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist. ... It has been suggested that The Economist editorial stance be merged into this article or section. ... Freakonomics by Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner Steven Levitt (born 1968) is an American economist best known for his work on crime, in particular on the link between legalized abortion and crime rates. ...


And yet, there have been water landings in which passengers survived:

  • In 2005, Tuninter 1153 (an ATR 72) ditched off the Sicilian coast after running out of fuel. Of 39 aboard, 20 survived with injuries including serious burns. The plane's wreck was found in three pieces.
  • In 1996, Ethiopian 961 (a 767-200ER) ditched in shallow water 500 meters from land after being hijacked and running out of fuel. Unable to operate flaps, it impacted at high speed, dragging its left wingtip before tumbling and breaking into three pieces. The panicking hijackers were fighting the pilots for the control of the plane at the time of the impact, which caused the plane to roll just before hitting the water, and the subsequent wingtip hitting the water and breakup are a result of this struggle in the cockpit. Of 175 onboard, 52 survived. Some passengers were killed on impact or trapped in the cabin when they inflated their life vests before exiting. Most of the survivors were found hanging onto a section of the fuselage that remained floating.
  • In 1970, Antillean 980 (a DC-9-33CF) ditched in mile-deep water after running out of fuel during multiple attempts to land at SXM under low-visibility weather. Of 63 occupants, 40 survivors were recovered by U.S. military helicopters.[5]
  • In 1963, an Aeroflot Tu-124 ditched into the River Neva after running out of fuel. The aircraft floated and was towed to shore; all 52 onboard survived.[6]
  • In 1956, Pan Am 943 (a Boeing 377) ditched into the Pacific after losing two of its four engines. The aircraft was able to circle around USCGC Pontchartrain until daybreak, when it ditched; all 31 onboard survived.[7][8]

Aircraft also sometimes end up in water by simply rolling off their runways. While such incidents are not quite water landings, the passengers do find themselves swimming. Twice at LaGuardia Airport, aircraft have rolled into the East River; in 1989, USAir 5050, a Boeing 737-401 with 63 people aboard, sustained 2 deaths.[9] In 1993 a China Airlines Boeing 747-409 ended up in water after it overran the 13 runway at Hong Kong Airport on landing during a typhoon with wind gusting to gale force. All of the 396 occupants survived.[10] This is a list of aviation-related events from 2005: // Events January January 29 - Nonstop flights between mainland China and Taiwan take off for the first time since 1949. ... Tuninter is an airline based in Tunisia and operates internal flights as part of Tunisair. ... The ATR 72 is a twin-turboprop short-haul regional airliner built in France by the ATR company (Avions de Transport gional). ... Sicilian redirects here. ... In medicine, a burn is a type of injury to the skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, or radiation (an example of the latter is sunburn). ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1996: Events February the T-6 Texan II is selected as the new primary trainer for the United States armed forces. ... British Airways Boeing 767-300 The Boeing 767 is a commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of an airplane wing which, when deployed, increase the lift (and drag) of a wing by changing the camber of the airfoil. ... A personal flotation device (also named PFD, lifejacket, life preserver, Mae West, life vest, life saver, cork jacket, life belt) is a device designed to keep a wearer afloat and their head above water, often in swimming pools, rivers, lakes, or oceans. ... In an aircraft, the fuselage is the main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1970: Events January January 31 - Mikhail Mil dies, aged 61 February February 17-18 - US Air Force Laos. ... Air ALM de Havilland Dash 8-300, registration number PJ-DHI, at Luis Munoz Marin Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico, in April 1999 Air ALM was an airline based in the Netherlands Antilles, flying out of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao. ... The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a family of twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliners, first manufactured in 1965 and subsequently, in greatly modified form, under a succession of different names. ... Saint Martin - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Saint Martin is a tropical island in the northeast Caribbean, approximately 150 miles east of Puerto Rico. ... In meteorology, visibility is a measure of the distance that can be seen clearly at any given time. ... This article needs to be updated. ... Mil (Russian Federation) Mi-8, by far the most common model of helicopter in the world with more than 12 thousand units built, sixfold quantity comparing to production of the second most common model Sikorsky S-70. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1963: Events January January 7 - Aeroflot commences direct services between Moscow and Havana February February 14 - the Indian Air Force receives its first batch of Soviet fighters, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21s March March 18 - the Dassault Balzac makes its first transitions... Aeroflot Airbus A319 at Berlin Aeroflot — Russian Airlines (Russian:Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии), or Aeroflot (Аэрофло́т; literally air fleet), is the Russian national airline and the biggest carrier in Russia. ... Tu-124, among the earliest known regional jets The Tupolev Tu-124 (NATO codename: Cookpot) is a Russian short range twinjet airliner capable of carrying 56 passengers. ... The River Neva (Нева́) is a 74 km long Russian river flowing from Lake Ladoga (Ладожское Озеро — Ladozhskoye Ozero) through the Karelian Isthmus (Карельский Перешеек — Karelskii Peresheyek) and the city of Saint Petersburg (Санкт — Петербург — Sankt Peterburg) to the Gulf of Finland (Финский Залив — Finskii Zaliv). ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new airspeed record in the Fairey Delta FD.2, also becoming the first person to exceed 1,000 mph. ... Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal international airline of the United States from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991. ... The Boeing 377 Stratocruiser was airliner version of the 367 Boeing Stratofreighter, which in turn was the transport version of B-29 Superfortress. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... FAA diagram of LaGuardia Airport (LGA) LaGuardia Airport (IATA: LGA, ICAO: KLGA) is an airport serving New York City, located on the waterfront of Flushing in the borough of Queens. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1989: // Events January January 4 - US Navy F-14 Tomcats shoot down two Libyan Air Force Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23s January 8 - a British Midland Boeing 737-400 crashes on the M1 motorway near Kegworth, killing 32 people. ... USAir Flight 5050 was scheduled to be flown from New Yorks La Guardia Airport to Charlotte, North Carolina on September 20th, 1989. ... The Boeing 737 is the worlds most popular medium range - narrow body commercial passenger jet aircraft. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1993: Events The 1,000th Boeing 747 comes off the production line 26 years after the first 747 was built. ... Hong Kong International Airport Hong Kong International Airport (香港國際機場), popularly referred to as Chek Lap Kok Airport (赤鱲角機場 Pinyin: Chìliè Jiǎo, Red Perch Cape), is the international airport of Hong Kong. ...


Crashing

There is a distinction between a controlled ditching and simply crashing (not even crash-landing) into the water; the latter is capable of killing everyone upon impact and disintegrating the plane. For example, Armavia Flight 967, EgyptAir Flight 990 and Swissair Flight 111 left no survivors when they crashed, while just 7 of 72 onboard American Airlines Flight 320 and 10 of 179 onboard Kenya Airways Flight 431 survived their crashes. On a smaller scale, John F. Kennedy, Jr. and his two passengers died in a water crash. As Patrick Smith comments, these crashes tend to be more memorable than controlled water landings, perhaps fueling the public's suspicions of the survivability of aircraft that hit water.[11] Armavia Flight 967 was a flight operated by Armavia, the largest international airline of Armenia on May 3, 2006, from Yerevan in Armenia to Sochi, a Black Sea coastal resort city in Russia which has had an Armenian guest worker population. ... Egyptair Flight 990 was a flight that flew on a Los Angeles-New York-Cairo route (LAX to JFK to Cairo International Airport in Cairo, Egypt). ... Canadian Coast Guard Vessel Henry Hudson searches for Swissair Flight 111 debris Swissair Flight 111 (SR-111) was a Swissair McDonnell Douglas MD-11 on a scheduled airline flight from John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, United States to Cointrin International Airport in Geneva, Switzerland. ... American Airlines Flight 320 was a Lockheed L-188 Electra traveling from Chicago to New York City. ... Kenya Airways Flight 431 on January 30, 2000 crashed into the sea at 21:09:24 GMT, shortly after takeoff from Abidjan. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. ...


In fiction

  • The 1954 film The High and the Mighty revolves around the occupants of a passenger plane that must ditch in the Pacific.[1]
  • The 1958 film Crash Landing revolves around the occupants of a passenger plane that must ditch in the Atlantic. The water landing "goes without a hitch and a US Naval ship is right there to save them."[2]
  • In the 1977 film Airport '77, a Boeing 747 crashes and settles to the ocean floor largely intact.[3]
  • In the 1997 film Air Force One, fictional President Harrison Ford and others are rescued mid-air from the plane before it crashes into the Caspian Sea and breaks up.
  • In the 1998 film Star Trek: Insurrection, Data says, "In the event of a water landing, I have been designed to act as a flotation device."[4]
  • The 2000 film Cast Away includes a detailed depiction of a FedEx cargo flight ditching into the ocean, leaving the protagonist as the only survivor.

See also: 1953 in film 1954 1955 in film 1950s in film years in film film Events May 12 - The Marx Brothers Zeppo Marx divorces wife Marion Benda. ... The High and the Mighty is a 1954 disaster movie released through Warner Brothers. ... // Events February 16- In the Money is released on this date. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... // Events In the Academy Awards, Peter Finch, Faye Dunaway and Beatrice Straight win Best Actor and Actress and Supporting Actress awards for Network. ... The Boeing 747, commonly called the Jumbo Jet, is one of the most recognizable modern jet airliners and is the largest airliner currently in airline service. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1997. ... Air Force One is a 1997 action movie starring Harrison Ford as the President of the United States, and directed by Wolfgang Petersen. ... Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor. ... This is a list of film-related events in 1998. ... Star Trek: Insurrection (Paramount Pictures, 1998) is the ninth Star Trek feature film. ... Data is a character in the Star Trek fictional universe. ... This is a list of film-related events in 2000. ... Cast Away is a 2000 film by 20th Century Fox and DreamWorks about a FedEx employee who is stranded on a deserted island after his plane crashes somewhere in the South Pacific. ... FedEx (NYSE: FDX), properly FedEx Corporation, is a company that offers overnight courier, ground, heavy freight, document copying and logistics services. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Brus, Michael (1999). In the Event of a Water Landing. Slate. Washingtonpost.Newsweek Interactive. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  2. ^ Unidentified (December 2002). "Help! There's nobody in the cockpit". The Economist. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  3. ^ Smith, Patrick (2003). Ask the pilot #24: Can we stop bombs in our baggage?. Salon.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
  4. ^ Levitt, Steven (2006-06-11). Airplane nonsense. Freakonomics Blog. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  5. ^ Aviation Safety Network. McDonnell Douglas DC-9-33CF N935F - St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  6. ^ AirSafe.com (2002-03-28). Jet Airliner Ditching Events. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  7. ^ Kebabjian, Richard. 1956/1956-27.htm. PlaneCrashInfo.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  8. ^ Hokom, Wayne. Ditch and rescue. Coast Guard stories. Jack's Joint. Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  9. ^ Smith, Patrick (2002). Ask the pilot #4: Do seat cushions actually save lives?. Salon.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.
  10. ^ Aviation Safety Network. Boeing 747-409 B-165 - Hong Kong-Kai Tak International Airport (HKG). Retrieved on 2006-06-26.
  11. ^ Smith, Patrick (2004). Ask the pilot #71: Still ignoring those flight-attendant safety lectures?. Salon.com. Retrieved on 2006-06-28.

Slate. ... WashingtonPost. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... It has been suggested that The Economist editorial stance be merged into this article or section. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Screenshot of Salon. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Freakonomics by Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner Steven Levitt (born 1968) is an American economist best known for his work on crime, in particular on the link between legalized abortion and crime rates. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... This article might not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Screenshot of Salon. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... This article might not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... Screenshot of Salon. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ...

Further reading

  • Aviation incidents by result from the Aviation Safety Network; see Off runway in water, CFIT into water, and Ditching.
  • Horne, Thomas A. (July 1999). "In-Flight Emergencies: Ditching". AOPA Pilot 42 (7). (Corrected version of September; see here for some complaints.)
  • Schiff, Barry (March 1983). "Water Ways". AOPA Pilot 26 (3). Reproduced on Equipped To Survive.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ditch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (292 words)
A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.
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In Mediaeval fortification, a ditch was often constructed in front of a defensive wall to hinder sapping and escalade.
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Ditch assessments, or special assessments as listed on your tax bill, are a fund established by the county to maintain drainage ditches.
Therefore, properties closest to a ditch are assessed a higher percentage than properties at the outer edge of the watershed.
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