FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Distillation" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Distillation
Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate 14: Heating (Oil/sand) bath 15: Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 16: Cooling bath.
Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate 14: Heating (Oil/sand) bath 15: Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 16: Cooling bath.

Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and is thus referred to as a unit operation. Image File history File links Simple_distillation_apparatus. ... Image File history File links Simple_distillation_apparatus. ... In chemistry and chemical engineering, a separation process is a process that transforms a mixture of substances into two or more compositionally-distinct products. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Volatility in physics is a measure of the speed at which a chemical element or chemical compound evaporates. ... Ore Extraction unit operations at Quincy Mine, Hancock, MI ca. ...


Commercially, distillation has a number of uses. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from sea water. Air is distilled to separate its components - notably oxygen, nitrogen and argon - for industrial use. Distillation of fermented solutions has been used since ancient times to produce distilled beverages with a higher alcohol content. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric generating station Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... This article or section should be merged with solvent, soluble, and solubility equilibrium Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is one or more substance (the solute) dissolved in another substance (the solvent) forming a homogenous mixture. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents

History

Distillation by retort
Distillation by retort

The earliest distillation procedures for producing fully purified chemical substances were carried out by Arab Muslim chemists, for industrial purposes such as isolating natural esters (perfumes) and producing pure alcohol. However, early forms of distillation were known to Babylonian alchemists in Mesopotamia (in what is now Iraq) from at least the 2nd millenium BC.[1] Distillation was later known to Greek alchemists from the 1st century AD,[2][3][4] and the later development of large-scale distillation apparatus occurred in response to demands for spirits.[2] Hypathia of Alexandria is credited with having invented the distillation apparatus,[5] and the first exact description of apparatus for distillation is given by Zosimos of Alexandria, in the fourth century.[4] Image File history File links Alembic. ... Image File history File links Alembic. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... A carboxylic acid ester. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... (3rd millennium BC – 2nd millennium BC – 1st millennium BC – other millennia) Events Second dynasty of Babylon First Bantu migrations from west Africa The Cushites drive the original inhabitants from Ethiopia, and establish trade relations with Egypt. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Hypatia of Alexandria Hypatia of Alexandria (in Greek: Υπατία) (?370–415) was a neo-Platonic philosopher, mathematician, and teacher who lived in Alexandria, then a Greek settlement. ... This article is on the pope. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


From the 8th century, Muslim chemists introduced distillation apparatus and techniques which were able to fully purify chemical substances. The first among them was the Arab chemist Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) in Iraq circa 800 AD, who is credited with the invention of numerous chemical apparatus and processes that are still in use today. In particular, his alembic was the first still with retorts which could fully purify chemicals, a precursor to the pot still, and its design has served as inspiration for modern micro-scale distillation apparatus such as the Hickman stillhead.[6] Petroleum was first distilled by another Muslim chemist al-Razi (Rhazes) in the 9th century, for producing kerosene,[7] while steam distillation was invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century, for producing essential oils.[8] As alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, vessels called retorts became used for distillations. Both alembics and retorts are forms of glassware with long necks pointing to the side at a downward angle which acted as air-cooled condensers to condense the distillate and let it drip downward for collection. Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Water and steam are two different forms of the same chemical substance A chemical substance is any material with a definite chemical composition, no matter where it comes from. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... A beautiful retort. ... Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Kerosene or kerosine, also called paraffin oil or paraffin in British usage (not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Laboratory set-up for steam distillation Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. ... (ابن سينا) (c. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A beautiful retort. ... Brown glass jars with some clear lab glassware in the background Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories. ...


Later, copper alembics were invented. Riveted joints were often kept tight by using various mixtures, for instance a dough made of rye flour.[9] These alembics often featured a cooling system around the beak, using cold water for instance, which made the condensation of alcohol more efficient. These were called pot stills. Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ...


Today, the retorts and pot stills have been largely supplanted by more efficient distillation methods in most industrial processes. However, the pot still is still widely used for the elaboration of some fine alcohols, such as cognac, Scotch whisky and some vodkas. The unique shape of each pot still is said to give the alcohol a distinctive taste.[citation needed] Pot stills made of various materials (wood, clay, stainless steel) are also used by bootleggers in various countries. Small pot stills are also sold for the domestic production[10] of flower water or essential oils. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... The Rum Runner nightclub was opened on Broad Street in the Birmingham city centre in 1979. ... An essential oil, is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. ...


Applications of distillation

The application of distillation can roughly be divided in four groups: laboratory scale, industrial distillation, distillation of herbs for perfumery and medicinals (herbal distillate) and food processing. The latter two are distinct from the former two, in that in the distillation is not used as a true purification method, but more to transfer all volatiles from the source materials to the distillate. Herbal distillates are aqueous solutions or colloidal suspensions (hydrosols) of essential oils usually obtained by steam distillation from aromatic plants or herbs. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ...


The main difference between laboratory scale distillation and industrial distillation is that laboratory scale distillation is often performed batch-wise, whereas industrial distillation often occurs continuously. In batch distillation, the composition of the source material, the vapors of the distilling compounds and the distillate change during the distillation. In batch distillation, a still is charged (supplied) with a batch of feed mixture, which is then separated into its component fractions which are collected sequentially from most volatile to less volatile, with the bottoms (remaining least or non-volatile fraction) removed at the end. The still can then be recharged and the process repeated. Bold textBold textBatch distillation[1] refers to the use of distillation, the separation of components in a system by volatilities, in batches. ...


In continuous distillation, the source materials, vapors and distillate are kept at a constant composition by carefully replenishing the source material and removing fractions from both vapor and liquid in the system. This results in a better control of the separation process. Continuous distillation is a distillation process, which does not require interruption for adding raw material. ...


Idealized distillation model

The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid. The normal boiling point of a liquid is the special case at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the ambient atmospheric pressure. A liquid in a container at a pressure below atmospheric pressure will boil at temperature lower than the normal boiling point, and a liquid in a container at a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure will boil at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point. In other words, all liquids have an infinite number of boiling points. Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ...


It is a common misconception that in a liquid mixture at a given pressure, each component boils at the boiling point corresponding to the given pressure and the vapors of each component will collect separately and purely. This, however, does not occur even in an idealized system. Idealized models of distillation are essentially governed by Raoult's law and Dalton's law. In chemistry, Raoults law states that the vapor pressure of mixed liquids is dependent on the vapor pressures of the individual liquids and the molar vulgar fraction of each present in solution. ... In chemistry and physics, Daltons law (also called Daltons law of partial pressures) states that the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. ...


Raoult's law assumes that a component contributes to the total vapor pressure of the mixture in proportion to its percentage of the mixture and its vapor pressure when pure. If one component changes another component's vapor pressure, or if the volatility of a component is dependent on its percentage in the mixture, the law will fail. Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...


Dalton's law states that the total vapor pressure is the sum of the vapor pressures of each individual component in the mixture. When a multi-component liquid is heated, the vapor pressure of each component will rise, thus causing the total vapor pressure to rise. When the total vapor pressure reaches the pressure surrounding the liquid, boiling occurs and liquid turns to gas throughout the bulk of the liquid. Note that a given mixture has one boiling point at a given pressure, when the components are mutually soluble. Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ...


The idealized model is accurate in the case of chemically similar liquids, such as benzene and toluene. In other cases, severe deviations from Raoult's law and Dalton's law are observed, most famously in the mixture of ethanol and water. These compounds, when heated together, form an azeotrope, in which the boiling temperature of the mixture is lower than the boiling temperature of each separate liquid. Virtually all liquids, when mixed and heated, will display azeotropic behaviour. Although there are computational methods that can be used to estimate the behavior of a mixture of arbitrary components, the only way to obtain accurate vapor-liquid equilibrium data is by measurement. For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses the results of theoretical chemistry incorporated into efficient computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids, applying these programs to complement the information obtained by actual chemical experiments, predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena, and solve related problems. ... Vapor-liquid equilibrium, abbreviated as VLE by some, is a condition where a liquid and its vapor (gas phase) are in equilibrium with each other, a condition or state where the rate of evaporation (liquid changing to vapor) equals the rate of condensation (vapor changing to liquid) on a molecular...


It is not possible to completely purify a mixture of components by distillation, as this would require each component in the mixture to have a zero partial pressure. If ultra-pure products are the goal, then further chemical separation must be applied. In a mixture of ideal gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the pressure which the gas would have if it alone occupied the volume. ... ...


Batch distillation

Main article: Batch distillation
A batch still showing the separation of A and B.
A batch still showing the separation of A and B.

Heating an ideal mixture of two volatile substances A and B (with A having the higher volatility, or lower boiling point) in a batch distillation setup (such as in an apparatus depicted in the opening figure) until the mixture is boiling results in a vapor above the liquid which contains a mixture of A and B. The ratio between A and B in the vapor will be different from the ratio in the liquid: the ratio in the liquid will be determined by how the original mixture was prepared, while the ratio in the vapor will be enriched in the more volatile compound, A (due to Raoult's Law, see above). The vapor goes through the condenser and is removed from the system. This in turn means that the ratio of compounds in the remaining liquid is now different from the initial ratio (i.e. more enriched in B than the starting liquid). Bold textBold textBatch distillation[1] refers to the use of distillation, the separation of components in a system by volatilities, in batches. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 259 pixelsFull resolution (451 × 259 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/png) Schematic of a batch still illustrating the separation of A & B to go with the article. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 259 pixelsFull resolution (451 × 259 pixel, file size: 13 KB, MIME type: image/png) Schematic of a batch still illustrating the separation of A & B to go with the article. ...


The result is that the ratio in the liquid mixture is changing, becoming richer in component B. This causes the boiling point of the mixture to rise, which in turn results in a rise in the temperature in the vapor, which results in a changing ratio of A : B in the gas phase (as distillation continues, there is an increasing proportion of B in the gas phase). This results in a slowly changing ratio A : B in the distillate.


If the difference in vapor pressure between the two components A and B is large (generally expressed as the difference in boiling points), the mixture in the beginning of the distillation is highly enriched in component A, and when component A has distilled off, the boiling liquid is enriched in component B.


Continuous distillation

In continuous distillation, the process is different from the above in that fractions are withdrawn from both the vapor and the liquid at such a speed that the combined ratio of the two fractions is exactly the same as the ratio in the starting mixture. In this way a stream of enriched component A and a stream of enriched component B is obtained. Moreover, a stream of crude mixture (which has the same ratio of A and B as the mixture in the still) can be added to the distilling mixture to replenish the liquid, meaning that the system can be run continuously.


General improvements

Both batch and continuous distillations can be improved by making use of a fractionating column on top of the distillation flask. The column improves separation by providing a larger surface area for the vapor and condensate to come into contact. This helps it remain at equilibrium for as long as possible. The column can even exist of small subsystems ('trays' or 'dishes') which all contain an enriched, boiling liquid mixture, all with their own vapor-liquid equilibrium. A fractionating column is an essential item used in the distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in their volatilities. ...


There are differences between laboratory-scale and industrial-scale fractionating columns, but the principles are the same. Examples of fractionating columns (in increasing efficacy) include:

A Vigreux column is a type of fractionating column. ... A packed bed is a hollow tube or pipe that is filled with a packing material. ... Spinning band distillation is a technique used to separate liquid mixtures which are similar in boiling points. ...

Laboratory scale distillation

Laboratory scale distillations are almost exclusively run as batch distillations. The device used in distillation, sometimes referred to as a still, consists at a minimum of a reboiler or pot in which the source material is heated, a condenser in which the heated vapour is cooled back to the liquid state, and a receiver in which the concentrated or purified liquid, called the distillate, is collected. Several laboratory scale techniques for distillation exist (see also distillation types). The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... Look up condenser in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ...


Simple distillation

In simple distillation, all the hot vapors produced are immediately channeled into a condenser which cools and condenses the vapors. Thus, the distillate will not be pure - its composition will be identical to the composition of the vapors at the given temperature and pressure, and can be computed from Raoult's law.


As a result, simple distillation is usually used only to separate liquids whose boiling points differ greatly (rule of thumb is 25 °C),[11] or to separate liquids from involatile solids or oils. For these cases, the vapor pressures of the components are usually sufficiently different that Raoult's law may be neglected due to the insignificant contribution of the less volatile component. In this case, the distillate may be sufficiently pure for its intended purpose.


Fractional distillation

For many cases, the boiling points of the components in the mixture will be sufficiently close that Raoult's law must be taken into consideration. Thus, fractional distillation must be used in order to separate the components well by repeated vaporization-condensation cycles within a packed fractionating column. Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ...


As the solution to be purified is heated, its vapors rise to the fractionating column. As it rises, it cools, condensing on the condenser walls and the surfaces of the packing material. Here, the condensate continues to be heated by the rising hot vapors; it vaporizes once more. However, the composition of the fresh vapors are determined once again by Raoult's law. Each vaporization-condensation cycle (called a theoretical plate) will yield a purer solution of the more volatile component.[12] In reality, each cycle at a given temperature does not occur at exactly the same position in the fractionating column; theoretical plate is thus a concept rather than an accurate description. A fractionating column is an essential item used in the distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in their volatilities. ... A theoretical plate in separation processes is a hypothetical zone in which two phases establish an equilibrium, also referred to as an equilibrium stage or a theoretical tray. ...


More theoretical plates lead to better separations. A spinning band distillation system uses a spinning band of Teflon or metal to force the rising vapors into close contact with the descending condensate, increasing the number of theoretical plates.[13] Spinning band distillation is a technique used to separate liquid mixtures which are similar in boiling points. ... Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ...


Steam distillation

Main article: Steam distillation

Like vacuum distillation, steam distillation is a method for distilling compounds which are heat-sensitive. This process involves using bubbling steam through a heated mixture of the raw material. By Raoult's law, some of the target compound will vaporize (in accordance with its partial pressure). The vapor mixture is cooled and condensed, usually yielding a layer of oil and a layer of water. Laboratory set-up for steam distillation Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Steam distillation of various aromatic herbs and flowers can result in two products; an essential oil as well as a watery herbal distillate. The essential oils are often used in perfumery and aromatherapy while the watery distillates have many applications in aromatherapy, food processing and skin care. In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Herbal distillates are aqueous solutions or colloidal suspensions (hydrosols) of essential oils usually obtained by steam distillation from aromatic plants or herbs. ... An essential oil, is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds extracted from plants. ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Aromatherapy Candles be merged into this article or section. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... A section of Human Skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of a layer of tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ...

Dimethylsulfoxide usually boils at 189 °C. Under a vacuum, it distills off into the receiver at only 70 °C.
Perkin Triangle Distillation Setup 1: Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 2: Still pot 3: Fractionating column 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Teflon tap 1 6: Cold finger 7: Cooling water out 8: Cooling water in 9: Teflon tap 2 10: Vacuum/gas inlet 11: Teflon tap 3 12: Still receiver
Perkin Triangle Distillation Setup
1: Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 2: Still pot 3: Fractionating column 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Teflon tap 1 6: Cold finger 7: Cooling water out 8: Cooling water in 9: Teflon tap 2 10: Vacuum/gas inlet 11: Teflon tap 3 12: Still receiver

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 328 KB)[edit] Summary Dimethylsulfoxide usually boils at 189 °C. Under a vacuum, it distills off into the connected receiver at only 70 °C. [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 328 KB)[edit] Summary Dimethylsulfoxide usually boils at 189 °C. Under a vacuum, it distills off into the connected receiver at only 70 °C. [edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO, empirically C2H6OS), also known as methyl sulfoxide or sulfinylbismethane, is a chemical compound. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (428x634, 28 KB) 1: Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 2: Still pot 3: Fractionating column 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Teflon tap 1 6: Cold finger 7: Cooling water out 8: Cooling water in 9: Teflon tap 2 10: Vacuum... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (428x634, 28 KB) 1: Stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 2: Still pot 3: Fractionating column 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Teflon tap 1 6: Cold finger 7: Cooling water out 8: Cooling water in 9: Teflon tap 2 10: Vacuum...

Vacuum distillation

Main article: Vacuum distillation

Some compounds have very high boiling points. To boil such compounds, it is often better to lower the pressure at which such compounds are boiled instead of increasing the temperature. Once the pressure is lowered to the vapor pressure of the compound (at the given temperature), boiling and the rest of the distillation process can commence. This technique is referred to as vacuum distillation and it is commonly found in the laboratory in the form of the rotary evaporator. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Büchi Rotavapor R-200 with a V assembly (vertical water condenser). ...


This technique is also very useful for compounds which boil beyond their decomposition temperature at atmospheric pressure and which would therefore be decomposed by any attempt to boil them under atmospheric pressure. The Decomposition Temperature of a substance is the temperature at which the substance decomposes into smaller substances or into its constituent atoms. ...


Air-sensitive vacuum distillation

Some compounds have high boiling points as well as being air sensitive. A simple vacuum distillation system as exemplified above can be used, whereby the vacuum is replaced with an inert gas after the distillation is complete. However, this is a less satisfactory system if one desires to collect fractions under a reduced pressure. To do this a "pig" adaptor can be added to the end of the condenser, or for better results or for very air sensitive compounds a Perkin triangle apparatus can be used. Air sensitive, a term used particularly in chemistry to denote compounds that react with air, typically with atmospheric oxygen (O2) and or atmospheric water (H2O), although reactions with the other constituents of air like carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO2 and nitrogen N2 are also possible. ... Perkin Triangle Distillation Setup T1-T3: Teflon taps, V/G: Vacuum/Gas-line; Cf: Cold Finger, Tm: Thermometer, Vc: Vigreux-column, S: Still, D: Distillate Perkin triangle a piece of specialist distillation apparatus invented by William Perkin FRS, and which was presumably originally triangular is shape. ...


The Perkin triangle, has means via a series of glass or teflon taps to allows fractions to be isolated from the rest of the still, without the main body of the distillation being removed from either the vacuum or heat source, and thus can remain in a state of reflux. To do this, the sample is first isolated from the vacuum by means of the taps, the vacuum over the sample is then replaced with an inert gas (such as nitrogen or argon) and can then be stoppered and removed. A fresh collection vessel can then be added to the system, evacuated and linked back into the distillation system via the taps to collect a second fraction, and so on, until all fractions have been collected. Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... Diagram of typical reflux apparatus. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ...


Short path distillation

Short path vacuum distillation apparatus with vertical condenser (cold finger), to minimize the distillation path; 1: Still pot with stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 2: Cold finger - bent to direct condensate 3: Cooling water out 4: cooling water in 5: Vacuum/gas inlet 6: Distillate flask/Distillate.
Short path vacuum distillation apparatus with vertical condenser (cold finger), to minimize the distillation path; 1: Still pot with stirrer bar/anti-bumping granules 2: Cold finger - bent to direct condensate 3: Cooling water out 4: cooling water in 5: Vacuum/gas inlet 6: Distillate flask/Distillate.

Short path distillation is a distillation technique that involves the distillate traveling a short distance, often only a few centimeters. A classic example would be a distillation involving the distillate traveling from one glass bulb to another, without the need for a condenser separating the two chambers. This technique is often used for compounds which are unstable at high temperatures. Advantages are that the temperature of the boiling liquid does not have to be much higher than the boiling point of the distilling substance, and the gases only have to travel a short distance while in the gas-phase before they can be cooled again to a lower temperature. Image File history File links Short_path_distillation_apparatus. ... Image File history File links Short_path_distillation_apparatus. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Look up condenser in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Other types

  • In rotary evaporation a vacuum distillation apparatus is used to remove bulk solvents from a sample. Typically the vacuum is generated by a water aspirator or a membrane pump.
  • In a kugelrohr a short path distillation apparatus is typically used (generally in combination with a (high) vacuum) to distill high boiling (> 300 °C) compounds. The apparatus consists of an oven in which the compound to be distilled is placed, a receiving portion which is outside of the oven, and a means of rotating the sample. The vacuum is normally generated by using a high vacuum pump.
  • The process of reactive distillation involves using the reaction vessel as the still. In this process, the product is usually significantly lower-boiling than its reactants. As the product is formed from the reactants, it is vaporized and removed from the reaction mixture. This technique is an example of a continuous vs. a batch process; advantages include less downtime to charge the reaction vessel with starting material, and less workup.
  • Destructive distillation involves the strong heating of solids (often organic material) in the absence of oxygen (to prevent combustion) to evaporate various high-boiling liquids, as well as thermolysis products. The gases evolved are cooled and condensed as in normal distillation. The destructive distillation of wood to give methanol is the root of its common name - wood alcohol.
  • Pervaporation is a method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous membrane.
  • Dry distillation, despite its name, is not truly distillation, but rather a chemical reaction known as pyrolysis in which solid substances are heated in a strongly reducing atmosphere and any volatile fractions are collected.
  • Extractive distillation is defined as distillation in the presence of a miscible, high boiling, relatively non-volatile component, the solvent, that forms no azeotrope with the other components in the mixture.
  • Flash evaporation (or partial evaporation) is the partial vaporization that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of the simplest unit operations.
  • Freeze distillation is an analogous method of purification using freezing instead of evaporation. It is not truly distillation, and does not produce products equivalent to distillation. This process is used in the production of ice beer and ice wine to increase ethanol and sugar content, respectively.
  • Codistillation is distillation which is performed on mixtures in which the two compounds are not miscible.

Rotavapor stands short for rotary evaporator. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... A copper aspirator. ... A diaphragm pump is a positive displacement pump that uses a combination of the reciprocating action of a rubber or teflon diaphragm and suitable non-return check valves to pump a fluid. ... A Kugelrohr is a short path distillation apparatus typically used to distill high boiling (> 300 °C) compounds. ... Reactive distillation is a process where the chemical reactor is also the still. ... Destructive Distillation means driving off (and collecting) gas from some matter by heating it in the absence of air, where pyrolysis occurs during heating. ... Thermolysis (from thermo- meaning heat and -lysis meaning break down) is a chemical process by which a substance is decomposed into other substances by use of heat. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Pervaporation is a method for the separation of mixtures of liquids by partial vaporization through a non-porous membrane. ... An artificial membrane, also called a synthetic membrane, is a membrane prepared for separation tasks in laboratory and industry. ... Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce liquid or gaseous products (which may condense into solids). ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Extractive Distillation is defined as distillation in the presence of a miscible, high boiling, relatively non-volatile component, the solvent, that forms no azeotrope with the other components in the mixture. ... The flash (or partial) evaporation is one of the simplest unit operations. ... These water valves are operated by handles. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fractional freezing. ... In physics and chemistry, freezing is the process whereby a liquid turns to a solid. ... American-style lager beer is a common variety of beer, a type of pale lager, traditionally made and drunk in North America, but also popular in much of the rest of the world. ... Grapes for ice wine, still frozen on the vine. ... “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...

Azeotropic distillation

Interactions between the components of the solution create properties unique to the solution, as most processes entail nonideal mixtures, where Raoult's law does not hold. Such interactions can result in a constant-boiling azeotrope which behaves as if it were a pure compound (i.e., boils at a single temperature instead of a range). At an azeotrope, the solution contains the given component in the same proportion as the vapor, so that evaporation does not change the purity, and distillation does not effect separation. For example, ethyl alcohol and water form an azeotrope of 95% at 78.2 °C. In chemistry, azeotropic distillation is any of a range of techniques used to break an azeotrope in distillation. ... In chemistry, Raoults law states that the vapor pressure of mixed liquids is dependent on the vapor pressures of the individual liquids and the molar vulgar fraction of each present in solution. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ...


If the azeotrope is not considered sufficiently pure for use, there exist some techniques to break the azeotrope to give a pure distillate. This set of techniques are known as azeotropic distillation. Some techniques achieve this by "jumping" over the azeotropic composition (by adding an additional component to create a new azeotrope, or by varying the pressure). Others work by chemically or physically remove or sequester the impurity. For example, to purify ethanol beyond 95%, a drying agent or a desiccant such as potassium carbonate can be added to convert the soluble water into insoluble water of crystallization. Molecular sieves are often used for this purpose as well. A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ... Carbonate of potash redirects here. ... Water of crystallization (alt. ... A molecular sieve is a material containing tiny pores of a precise and uniform size that is used as an adsorbent for gases and liquids. ...


Immiscible liquids, such as water and toluene, easily form azeotropes. Commonly, these azeotropes are referred to as a low boiling azeotrope because the boiling point of the azeotrope is lower than the boiling point of either pure component. The temperature and composition of the azeotrope is easily predicted from the vapor pressure of the pure components, without use of Raoult's law. The azeotrope is easily broken in a distillation set-up by using a liquid-liquid separator ( a decanter ) to separate the two liquid layers that are condensed overhead. Only one of the two liquid layers is refluxed to the distillation set-up.


High boiling azeotropes, such as a 20 weight percent mixture of hydrochloric acid in water also exist. As implied by the name, the boiling point of the azeotrope is greater than the boiling point of either pure component.


To break azeotropic distillations and cross distillation boundaries, such as in the DeRosier Problem, it is necessary to increase the composition of the light key in the distillate.


Breaking an azeotrope with unidirectional pressure manipulation

A vacuum distillation can be used to "break" an azeotropic mixture. Varying the temperature of the vapour generating flask when distilling an azeotrope from cold to the solutions boiling point does not produce a continuously sliding ratio of product to contaminate in the distillate. The two separate boiling points still remain, they merely overlap; these can be thought of as required activation energies for the release of a particular vapour. By exposing an azeotrope to a vacuum, it's possible to bias the boiling point of one away from the other by exploiting the difference between each components vapour pressure. When the bias is great enough, the two boiling points no longer overlap and so the azeotropic band disappears.


This method is not without drawbacks. As an example, exposing a solution of water and ethanol to a 70 torr vacuum will allow for absolute ethanol to be distilled. However, due to the low pressure atmosphere, the ethanol vapour requires a significantly cooler condenser surface to liquefy, going from 78.3 °C at atmospheric pressure to 24.5 °C at 70 torr; failure to provide such results in the vapours passing through the condenser and into the vacuum source. This can also affect the efficiency of the condenser, as the liquefying temperature drops towards the minimum the condensing equipment can cool to, the thermal gradient across the liquefying surfaces reduces and, so with it, the rate at which heat can be extracted from the vapour.


Conversely, increasing a distillation pressure can also break an azeotrope, but will bring with it the possibility of thermal decomposition, for organic compounds in particular, and may be more beneficial to high temperature tolerant distillations, such as those of the metallic salts.


Pressure-swing Distillation

This method of distillation can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures and relies on a principle similar to vacuum distillation, that being the manipulation of boiling points by altering the pressure of the atmosphere to which a solution is exposed.


It might be chosen over pure vacuum distillation of an azeotrope if that solution, for instance, had such a low liquefying point at the pressure required to break the azeotrope that the equipment was unable to provide for it, allowing the product to stream out of the condenser and into the vacuum source. Here, rather than manipulate just one boiling point, one or more are altered, one after the other; with the number of pressure alternations being determined by the number of components in the feed solution considered to be contaminants. This could be beneficial to a purification as it is likely to create less extreme thermal requirements. Simply, instead of swinging distillation pressure in one direction alone in an attempt to break the azeotrope in one step, the break is performed in two or more steps with pressure swung in two directions to create an operating band centered around more accessible temperatures; perhaps going from a negative pressure to atmospheric and on to a positive pressure. In essence, pressure-swing distillation is an attempt to reduce extreme conditions by dispersing the manipulation load across the equipment generating the distillation environment.


If a continuous feed is desired, or the distillation pressures required are extreme enough to warrant specialised design, each step may require a physically separate column. If only a batch run is required and the same column can perform under all the required pressures, this single column may suffice; with the vapour generating flask being emptied after the first distillation, the first distillate run back to the start and the distillation rerun under the second pressure conditions, and so on.


Selection of which component the distillate should be biased towards may be made based on the energy required to evaporate it from the feed solution.


Pressure-swing distillation is employed during the purification of ethyl acetate after its catalytic synthesis from ethanol. R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , Flash point −4 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylate esters Methyl acetate, Butyl acetate Related compounds Acetic acid, ethanol Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Industrial distillation

Typical industrial distillation towers
Typical industrial distillation towers

Large scale industrial distillation applications include both batch and continuous fractional, vacuum, azeotropic, extractive, and steam distillation. The most widely used industrial applications of continuous, steady-state fractional distillation are in petroleum refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants and natural gas processing plants. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1609x2120, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Distillation Fractional distillation Fractionating column User talk:Shanel Reflux Continuous distillation User talk:Randfan/Super Desk Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1609x2120, 552 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Distillation Fractional distillation Fractionating column User talk:Shanel Reflux Continuous distillation User talk:Randfan/Super Desk Metadata This... Continuous distillation is a distillation process, which does not require interruption for adding raw material. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... A Chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. ... A natural gas processing plant Natural gas processing plants are used to purify the raw natural gas extracted from underground gas fields and brought up to the surface by gas wells. ...


Industrial distillation[14][15] is typically performed in large, vertical cylindrical columns known as distillation towers or distillation columns with diameters ranging from about 65 centimeters to 16 meters and heights ranging from about 6 meters to 90 meters or more. When the process feed has a diverse composition, as in distilling crude oil, liquid outlets at intervals up the column allow for the withdrawal of different fractions or products having different boiling points or boiling ranges. The "lightest" products (those with the lowest boiling point) exit from the top of the columns and the "heaviest" products (those with the highest boiling point) exit from the bottom of the column and are often called the bottoms. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Alternate use: Boiling Point, English title of Kitano Takeshis film 3-4X Jūgatsu; Boiling Point (TV series) The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid. ...

Diagram of a typical industrial distillation tower
Diagram of a typical industrial distillation tower

Large-scale industrial towers use reflux to achieve a more complete separation of products. Reflux refers to the portion of the condensed overhead liquid product from a distillation or fractionation tower that is returned to the upper part of the tower as shown in the schematic diagram of a typical, large-scale industrial distillation tower. Inside the tower, the downflowing reflux liquid provides cooling and condensation of the upflowing vapors thereby increasing the efficacy of the distillation tower. The more reflux is provided for a given number of theoretical plates, the better is the tower's separation of lower boiling materials from higher boiling materials. Alternatively, the more reflux is provided for a given desired separation, the fewer theoretical plates are required. Image File history File links Distillation_Column. ... Diagram of typical reflux apparatus. ... A theoretical plate in separation processes is a hypothetical zone in which two phases establish an equilibrium, also referred to as an equilibrium stage or a theoretical tray. ...


Such industrial fractionating towers are also used in air separation, producing liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, and high purity argon. Distillation of chlorosilanes also enables the production of high-purity silicon for use as a semiconductor. General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Chlorosilanes are a group of reactive, chlorine-containing chemical compounds, related to silane and used in many chemical processes. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... A semiconductor is a solid whose electrical conductivity is in between that of a conductor and that of an insulator, and can be controlled over a wide range, either permanently or dynamically. ...

Section of an industrial distillation tower showing detail of trays with bubble caps
Section of an industrial distillation tower showing detail of trays with bubble caps

Design and operation of a distillation tower depends on the feed and desired products. Given a simple, binary component feed, analytical methods such as the McCabe-Thiele method[15][16] or the Fenske equation[15] can be used. For a multi-component feed, simulation models are used both for design and operation. Moreover, the efficiencies of the vapor-liquid contact devices (referred to as "plates" or "trays") used in distillation towers are typically lower than that of a theoretical 100% efficient equilibrium stage. Hence, a distillation tower needs more trays than the number of theoretical vapor-liquid equilibrium stages. Image File history File links Bubble_Cap_Trays. ... The graphical approach presented by McCabe and Thiele in 1925, the McCabe-Thiele Method is considered the simplest and perhaps most instructive method for analysis of binary distillation. ... The Fenske equation in fractional distillation is an equation for calculating the minimum number of theoretical plates required for separation of a binary feed stream by a fractionation column operated at total reflux (i. ... This article is about the general term. ... A theoretical plate in separation processes is a hypothetical zone in which two phases establish an equilibrium, also referred to as an equilibrium stage or a theoretical tray. ...


In industrial uses, sometimes a packing material is used in the column instead of trays, especially when low pressure drops across the column are required, as when operating under vacuum.

Large-scale, industrial vacuum distillation column
Large-scale, industrial vacuum distillation column[17]

This packing material can either be random dumped packing (1-3" wide) such as Raschig rings or structured sheet metal. Liquids tend to wet the surface of the packing and the vapors pass across this wetted surface, where mass transfer takes place. Unlike conventional tray distillation in which every tray represents a separate point of vapor-liquid equilibrium, the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve in a packed column is continuous. However, when modeling packed columns, it is useful to compute a number of "theoretical stages" to denote the separation efficiency of the packed column with respect to more traditional trays. Differently shaped packings have different surface areas and void space between packings. Both of these factors affect packing performance. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Raschig rings are referred to as random packing and are used in commercial fractional distillation columns to reduce pressure loss (versus using trays), while maintaining good efficiency and economy. ... The term Structured packing refers to a range of specially designed materials for use in distillation columns and chemical reactors. ... Mass transfer is the phrase commonly used in engineering for physical processes that involve molecular and convective transport of atoms and molecules within physical systems. ...


Another factor in addition to the packing shape and surface area that affects the performance of random or structured packing is the liquid and vapor distribution entering the packed bed. The number of theoretical stages required to make a given separation is calculated using a specific vapor to liquid ratio. If the liquid and vapor are not evenly distributed across the superficial tower area as it enters the packed bed, the liquid to vapor ratio will not be correct in the packed bed and the required separation will not be achieved. The packing will appear to not be working properly. The Height Equivalent of a Theoretical Plate (HETP) will be greater than expected. The problem is not the packing itself but the mal-distribution of the fluids entering the packed bed. Liquid mal-distribution is more frequently the problem than vapor. The design of the liquid distributors used to introduce the feed and reflux to a packed bed is critical to making the packing perform to it maximum efficiency. Methods of evaluating the effectiveness of a liquid distributor to evenly distribute the liquid entering a packed bed can be found in references.[18][19]. Considerable work as been done on this topic by Fractionation Research, Inc. (commonly known as FRI).[20] A theoretical plate in separation processes is a hypothetical zone in which two phases establish an equilibrium, also referred to as an equilibrium stage or a theoretical tray. ... A theoretical plate in separation processes is a hypothetical zone in which two phases establish an equilibrium, also referred to as an equilibrium stage or a theoretical tray. ...


Distillation in food processing

Distilled beverages

Main article: Distilled beverage

Carbohydrate-containing plant materials are allowed to ferment, producing a dilute solution of ethanol in the process. Spirits such as whiskey and rum are prepared by distilling these dilute solutions of ethanol. Other components than ethanol are collected in the condensate, including water, esters, and other alcohols which account for the flavor of the beverage. A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ... Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... This article is about the beverage. ...


References

Separation processes
Processes
Acid-base extraction • ChromatographyCrystallization • Dissolved air flotation • DistillationDryingElectrochromatographyFiltrationFlocculationFroth flotation • Liquid-liquid extraction • RecrystallizationSedimentationSublimation
Devices
API oil-water separator • Centrifuge • Mixer-settler • Protein skimmerSublimation apparatusStill
Multiphase systems
Aqueous two phase systemAzeotropeEutectic
This box: view  talk  edit
  1. ^ Martin Levey (1956). "Babylonian Chemistry: A Study of Arabic and Second Millenium B.C. Perfumery", Osiris 12, p. 376-389.
  2. ^ a b Colin Archibald Russell (2000). Chemistry, Society and Environment: A New History of the British Chemical Industry. Royal Society of Chemistry, p.69. ISBN 0854045996. 
  3. ^ Edgar Ashworth Underwood. Science, Medicine, and History: Essays on the Evolution of Scientific Thought and Medical. Oxford University Press, 251. 
  4. ^ a b Charles Simmonds (1919). Alcohol: With Chapters on Methyl Alcohol, Fusel Oil, and Spirituous Beverages. Macmillan and Co. Ltd, 6. 
  5. ^ Biology, Joan Solomon, Pat O'Brien, Peter Horsfall, Nelson Thornes, p.41
  6. ^ Microscale Laboratory Techniques - Distillation from McMaster University
  7. ^ Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science. Knowledge House Publishers, Appendix B. ISBN 0911119434. 
  8. ^ A. Wolf, G. A. Bray, B. M. Popkin (2007). "A short history of beverages and how our body treats them". Obesity Reviews. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00389.x. 
  9. ^ Sealing Technique, accessed 16 November 2006.
  10. ^ Traditional Alembic Pot Still, accessed 16 November 2006.
  11. ^ ST07 Separation of liquid - liquid mixtures (solutions), DIDAC by IUPAC
  12. ^ Fractional Distillation
  13. ^ Spinning Band Distillation at B/R Instrument Corporation (accessed 8 September 2006)
  14. ^ Kister, Henry Z. (1992). Distillation Design, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-034909-6. 
  15. ^ a b c Perry, Robert H. and Green, Don W. (1984). Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-049479-7. 
  16. ^ Seader, J. D., and Henley, Ernest J.. Separation Process Principles. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-58626-9. 
  17. ^ Energy Institute website page
  18. ^ Random Packing, Vapor and Liquid Distribution: Liquid and gas distribution in commercial packed towers, Moore, F., Rukovena, F., Chemical Plants & Processing, Edition Europe, August 1987, p. 11-15
  19. ^ Structured Packing, Liquid Distribution: A new method to assess liquid distributor quality, Spiegel, L., Chemical Engineering and Processing 45 (2006), p. 1011-1017
  20. ^ Packed Tower Distributors: Commercial Scale Experiments That Provide Insight on Packed Tower Distributors, Kunesh, J. G., Lahm, L., Yanagi, T., Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 1987, vol. 26, p. 1845-1850 FRI (click on "Available Materials" and scroll to "Staff Publications")

Barring a few exceptions, almost every element or compound is found in an impure state i. ... Image File history File links ChemSepProcDiagram. ... Acid-base extraction in chemistry is a procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extractions to purify amines and acids from mixtures based on their chemical properties. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... Frost crystallization on a shrub. ... Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters (or other waters) by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids. ... Technically, drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state. ... Electrochromatography is a chemical separation technique in analytical chemistry, biochemistry and molecular biology used to resolve and separate mostly large biomolecules such as proteins. ... Look up filtration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Froth Flotation is a selective process for separating minerals from gangue by using surfactants and wetting agents. ... Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their solution preferences for two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. ... Insulin crystals Recrystallization is an essentially physical process that has meanings in chemistry, metallurgy and geology. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An API oil-water separator is a device designed to separate gross amounts of oil and suspended solids from the wastewater effluents of oil refineries, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants and other industrial sources. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Mixer-settlers are used when there will only be one equilibrium stage in the process. ... A protein skimmer or foam fractionator is a device used mostly in saltwater aquaria to remove organic compounds from the water before they break down into nitrogenous waste. ... Simple sublimation apparatus. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS)or aqueous two phase systems are clean alternatives for traditional organic-water solvent extraction systems. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... A eutectic or eutectic mixture is a mixture of two or more elements which has a lower melting point than any of its constituents. ... Royal Society of Chemistry The Royal Society of Chemistry is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of advancing the chemical sciences. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Distillation Design provides complete coverage of the design of industrial distillation columns for the petroleum refining, chemical and petrochemical plants, natural gas processing, pharmaceutical, food and alcohol distilling industries. ... Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook was first published in 1934 and the seventh edition was published in 1997. ...

External links

Look up Distillation in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Gallery

Chemistry on its beginnings used retorts as laboratory equipment exclusively for distillation processes.
A simple set-up to distill dry and oxygen-free toluene.
Diagram of an industrial-scale vacuum distillation column as commonly used in oil refineries
A rotary evaporator is able to distill solvents more quickly at lower temperatures through the use of a vacuum.
Distillation using semi-microscale apparatus. The jointless design eliminates the need to fit pieces together. The pear-shaped flask allows the last drop of residue to be removed, compared with a similarly-sized round-bottom flask The small holdup volume prevents losses. A pig is used to channel the various distillates into three receiving flasks. If necessary the distillation can be carried out under vacuum using the vacuum adapter at the pig.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Distillation Group, Inc. Distillation (2049 words)
Distillation of ethanol for both consumption and other uses was one of the first major industries ever developed.
Batch distillation is when the amount going into the still and the amount going out of the still is not supposed to be the same all the time.
Extractive distillation uses a MSA that increases the volatility difference between the compounds to be separated.
Distillation (4354 words)
This is why the distillate is frequently chilled in an ice bath during the distillation.
In order for this distillation to be successful, it is important to allow the condensed liquid which is enriched in the less volatile component relative to its vapor, to return to the pot.
The basis of the separation by steam distillation is that while the water and organic condensed phases are immiscible, the vapors of both are miscible.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m