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Encyclopedia > Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
History of the
Ottoman Empire
Periods:
Rise (1299–1453)
Growth (1453–1683)
Stagnation (1683–1827)
Decline (1828–1908)
Dissolution (1908–1922)
Graphical timeline

This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. Image File history File links 20pxOttomanicon. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... The Ottoman Interregnum (also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate; Fetret Devri in Turkish) was a period in the beginning of the 15th century when chaos reigned in the Ottoman Empire following the defeat of Sultan Bayezid I in 1402 by the Tatar warlord Tamerlane. ... The Sultanate of Women (Turkish: Kadınlar Saltanatı) is the nearly 130-year period, in the 16th and 17th centuries, during which the women of the Harem of the Ottoman Empire exerted extraordinary political influence. ... Köprülü Era (1656-1703) was the period which Ottoman Empires politics were set by the Grand Viziers, mainly Köprülü family, which was notable family of imperial bureaucrats. ... The Tulip Era is an important period for the Ottoman Empire. ... The Nizam-I Cedid (Turkish: New Order) was a series of reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire sultan Selim III during the late eighteenth century in a drive to catch up militarily and politically with the Western Powers. ... Graphical timeline Caricature; changes in the form, not in the mind The Tanzimat was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that lasted from 1839 to 1876. ... Graphical timeline The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of a Basic Law by Abdülhamid II on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878 when the constitution was suspended. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe marked the better part of the history of southeastern Europe, notably, giving infamy to the Balkans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Graphical timeline Ottoman wars in Near East covers the Levant, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Cacuses. ... Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...

Contents

Balkan Wars

For more details on this topic, see First Balkan War.
For more details on this topic, see Second Balkan War.

The Ottoman army in the Balkans was large and appeared on the surface to be modern. However, this was just a façade as the Ottoman army was largely corrupt, poorly led, poorly trained, and ineffective. // Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Serbia Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Strength 350,000 men Bulgaria... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Greece:King Constantine, Romania: Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 200,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... ...


In 1913 a nationalist uprising broke out in Albania, and on October 8, the Balkan League, consisting of Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria, mounted a joint attack on the Ottoman Empire, starting the First Balkan War. Albania declared independence on November 28, Turkey agreed to a ceasefire on December 2, and its territory losses were finalized in 1913 in the treaties of London and Bucharest. Albania became independent, and the Empire lost almost all of its European territory (Kosovo, Sanjak of Novi Pazar, Macedonia and western Thrace) to the four allies. October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... The Balkan League refers to the alliance of Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria against the Ottoman Empire during the Balkan Wars. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Serbia Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Strength 350,000 men Bulgaria... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... This page is about a region in Serbia and Montenegro; for districts of the Ottoman Empire, see Sanjak. ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ...


The three new Balkan states formed at the end of the 19th century and Montenegro, sought additional territories from the Albania, Macedonia, and Thrace, behind their nationalistic arguments. The incomplete emergence of these nation-states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century set the stage for the Balkan Wars. Initially under the encouragement of Russia, a series of agreements were concluded: between Serbia and Bulgaria in March 1912 and between Greece and Bulgaria in May 1912. Montenegro subsequently concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria respectively in October 1912. The Serbian-Bulgarian agreement specifically called for the partition of Macedonia which resulted in the First Balkan War. The Second Balkan War soon followed. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, the bright dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006   -  Recognized... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian, English 3 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Serbia Commanders Nizam Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Strength 350,000 men Bulgaria... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Greece:King Constantine, Romania: Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 200,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The...

Relations before World War I

For more details on this topic, see Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913.

Italy declared war on the Empire on September 29, 1911, demanding the turnover of Tripoli and Cyrenaica. The empire's response was weak so Italian forces took those areas on November 5 of that year (this act was confirmed by an act of the Italian Parliament on February 25, 1912). The Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913 was a short-lived agreement signed in July 1913 between the Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI and the British over several issues. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


World War I

The Ottoman Empire, ruled effectively by the Three Pashas, sided diplomatically with the Central Powers, in large part because Russia was one of the Allies. The Three Pashas are the famous Pashas who enabled the Ottoman Empire to enter the WWI. Talat, along with Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha formed a group called the three pashas. ... European military alliances in 1914. ...


Ottoman-German alliance was negotiated. In exchange for money and future control over Russian territory, the Ottoman Government abandoned a neutral position and sided with Germany. The Ottoman-German Alliance was an alliance established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2nd, 1914. ...


Entering the War

By allowing the German battlecruisers the Goeben and the Breslau (flying the flag of the Ottoman Empire no less) to shoot at Russian ships in Odessa on October 24, 1914, the Ottoman government clearly allied itself with Germany and Austria-Hungary. As a result of this apparently deliberate and unprovoked attack, Britain, France, and Russia all declared war on the Ottoman Empire within the first 5 days of November. HMS Hood (left) and the battleship HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... SMS Goeben was a Moltke-class battlecruiser of the Kaiserliche Marine (German Navy) that was launched in 1911 and named after the Franco-Prussian War general August von Goeben. ... The SMS Breslau was a Magdeburg-class light cruiser of the German Kaiserliche Marine, launched on 16 May 1911 and commissioned in 1912. ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...

see: Notification of Neutrality, August 18, CUP Declaration of War, November 14

Military Conflicts

In a final effort to regain some of these lost territories and to challenge British authority over the Suez canal, a triumvirate—the Three Pashas, led by Minister of War Enver Pasha—agreed to join the Central Powers in World War I. The military activities of the period is covered under Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW... The Three Pashas are the famous Pashas who enabled the Ottoman Empire to enter the WWI. Talat, along with Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha formed a group called the three pashas. ... Ismail Enver Ismail Enver, known to Europeans during his political career as Enver Pasha ( Istanbul, November 22, 1881 - August 4, 1922) was a military officer and a leader of the Young Turk revolution in the closing days of the Ottoman Empire. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW...


The Allies—including the newly formed Australian and New Zealand Army Corps ("ANZACs")—were defeated in the Battle of Gallipoli, Iraq, and the Balkans, while British naval landing attempts were repulsed and some territories were regained. Fighting the Russians in the Caucasus, however, the Ottomans lost ground—and over 100,000 soldiers—in a series of battles. The 1917 Russian revolution gave the Ottomans a chance to regain these areas, but continued British offensives ultimately proved to be too much. The Ottomans were eventually defeated due to key attacks by the British general Edmund Allenby, as well as assistance from the Arab Revolt. Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... An ANZAC soldier gives water to a wounded Turk The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ...


During the World War I Ottoman government also faced difficulties on the home front, including isolated Armenian rebellions in eastern Anatolia that led to an order for the Tehcir Law of June 1, 1915 to February 8, 1916 (deportation) of Armenians from the region. Most academics define the deportations as the Armenian Genocide.[1] This view is disputed by the Turkish Government, which maintains that most of the Armenian mortalities were the result of conditions that had effect on World War I casualties, and the civil war within the historical roots of the region, which pushed Armenian and Muslim populations, back-and-forth within the war zone. Turkish authorities also claim that deportations (Tehcir Law) were not the main contribution to total Armenian mortality during the World War I and the claims for an organized crime against the Armenians, by Teskilati Mahsusa or the special organization were also in dispute, even if the very bad conditions of the Armenians (also some Muslims) were not. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Armenian rebellions were the rebellions of ethnic Armenian citizens of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Tehcir Law The Tehcir Law was a law of the Ottoman Empire setting the rules and conditions of the tehcir (forced relocations)[1][2]. The law was passed by the parliament on May 27, 1915 and came into force on June 1, 1915, with publication in Takvim-i Vekayi... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Pie chart showing deaths by alliance and military/civilian. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... now. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... The Tehcir Law The Tehcir Law was a law of the Ottoman Empire setting the rules and conditions of the tehcir (forced relocations)[1][2]. The law was passed by the parliament on May 27, 1915 and came into force on June 1, 1915, with publication in Takvim-i Vekayi... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Teskilati Mahsusa (ottoman: Teşkilat-i Mahsusa) is an Ottoman imperial government organization, which dealed with both Arab separatism and Western imperialism. ... Special Organization was name given to a three member executive committee established by the Committee of Union and Progress of the Ottoman Empire. ...


End of the War

The four years were a disaster to Ottoman Empire. The land loss was enormous, human loss was bigger, which Ottoman Muslim casualties was only one part of the story. The initial peace agreement with the Ottoman Empire was the Armistice of Mudros. Ottoman Muslim casualties during the WWI, 1914–1918, was estimated to be approaching (high value) to 4,000,000 within the boarders of 1914, which 2,500,000 (confines of the Anatolia) was verified by official records. ... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port...


On November 2 after the Armistice of Three Pashas, escaped from Constantinople, but they will be faced with the executors of the Armenian Genocide. The parliament in Istanbul could not function, and in the end the British closed the parliament. The Three Pashas are the famous Pashas who enabled the Ottoman Empire to enter the WWI. Talat, along with Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha formed a group called the three pashas. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


The End

See also: Treaty of Sèvres

The initial peace agreement with the Ottoman Empire was the Armistice of Mudros, followed by the Treaty of Sèvres. The United Kingdom obtained virtually everything it had sought—according to the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement made together with France in 1916, while the war was still going on—from the empire's partition. The Treaty of Sevres was signed by the Ottoman Empire but it was destined never to be ratified. Its terms were admittedly severe, and they were widely criticized as vindictive. The subsequent years showed that it was also impracticable. Sèvres was the end of the Ottoman Empire. Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, made peace between the Allied and Associated Powers1 and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI who was trying to save his throne but was rejected by the independence movement in...


Elections were held throughout Anatolia and with the participation of some parliamentarians, who had escaped from Istanbul, a new government was formed in Ankara. The rest of the story is the Turkish War of Independence. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


The Treaty of Lausanne announced the new Turkish State internationally. This new state gave the 'coup de grâce' to the Ottoman state, in 1922, with the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new republican assembly of Turkey. The last official remnant of the empire—the title of caliphate—was constitutionally abolished several months later, on 3 March 1924. Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Mehmed VI (Arabic: محمد السادس), original name Mehmed Vahdettin or Mehmed Vahideddin, (January 14, 1861 – May 16, 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918–1922. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


References

  1. ^ Josh Belzman. "PBS effort to bridge controversy creates more", MSNBC, April 23, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-05. 

MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (279th in leap years). ...

See also

Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ottoman - definition of Ottoman in Encyclopedia (1069 words)
The Ottoman Empire was a state that existed from 1281 to 1923 and that, at its height, comprised Anatolia, the Middle East, part of North Africa, and south-eastern Europe, established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia and ruled by the Osmanli dynasty.
The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman I in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north.
The Ottoman Empire was defeated by the Allies during the war and its territories were colonized by the victors.
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