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Encyclopedia > Dissolution of parliament

In parliamentary systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election. A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ...


Usually there is a maximum length of a legislature, and a dissolution must happen before the maximum time. Early dissolutions are allowed in many jurisdictions.

Contents

The Commonwealth of Australia

The House of Representatives, but not the Senate can be dissolved at any time by the Governor-General. The House expires 3 years after its first meeting if not earlier dissolved. The Senate can be dissolved by the Governor-General only when the double dissolution provisions are invoked. The convention is that the Governor-General must act on the advice of the Prime Minister. Although to fulfill this 'convention' during the Australian constitutional crisis of 1975, the Governor-General dismissed the elected Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in order to precipitate an early General Election. Australian House of Representatives chamber Entrance to the House of Representatives The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia. ... Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... Michael Jeffery, the current Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... Image:Ac. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), Australian politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ...


Canada

The House of Commons, but not the Senate, can be dissolved at any time by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister. When the government is denied supply or the confidence, the Prime Minister must either resign and permit another member to form a government, or else advise the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament. Also, a House of Commons that sits for a full 5 years would be automatically dissolved, although this has never occurred. The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian Monarch, who is Canadas Head of State; Canada is one of sixteen Commonwealth realms, all of which share a single... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Loss of Supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. ... In political science confidence refers to a governments support in the legislature. ...


France

The French National Assembly can be dissolved only one year after an election by the French President. The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Symbol of the French government The President of the French Republic (French: ) colloquially referred to as President of France, is Frances elected Head of State. ...


The Federal Republic of Germany

According to the German constitution, the Bundestag can be dissolved by the federal president if the Chancellor loses a vote of confidence, or if a newly elected Bundestag proves unable to elect a chancellor with absolute majority. The second possibility has never occurred yet but the Bundestag has been dissolved in 1972, 1982, and 2005 when the then-ruling chancellors Brandt, Kohl, and Schröder deliberately lost votes of confidence in order that there could be fresh elections. On the last two occasions the decree of dissolution was challenged without success before the Constitutional Court. The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... The President of Germany is Germanys head of state. ... The federal head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament to give members of parliament a chance to register their confidence for a government by means of a parliamentary vote. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...


The second federal legislative body, the Bundesrat, cannot be dissolved. The Bundesrat, German for Federal Council, is a political institution in several countries: Bundesrat of Austria (legislative) Bundesrat of Germany (legislative) Bundesrat of Switzerland: the Swiss Federal Council (executive) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Japan

The House of Representatives, but not the House of Councillors, can be dissolved at any time by the Emperor on the advice of the Prime Minister. The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Councillors chamber, in the National Diet Building in Tokyo. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... The Prime Minister of Japan (内閣総理大臣 Naikaku sōri daijin) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ...


New Zealand

The Parliament can be dissolved or prorogued at any time in its 3-year term by the Governor-General, usually on the advice of the Prime Minister. The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... The Governor-General of New Zealand is the representative of the Sovereign in right of New Zealand (currently, Queen Elizabeth II). ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ...


The Republic of Ireland

The Oireachtas can be dissolved by the President if there is a vote of no confidence in the Taoiseach, but the president may refuse to dissolve it thus preventing an election and allowing the opposition leader to form a government. The president must dissolve the Oireachtas at any time when asked to do so by a Taoiseach who enjoys the confidence of the Oireachtas. The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... Official Seal of the President of Ireland Mary McAleese, the current President of Ireland. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Taoiseach ( or [1]) — plural: Taoisigh ( or [1]) — or, more formally, An Taoiseach[2], is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet, the rough equivalent of a prime minister under the Westminster System. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ...


The United Kingdom

Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister may ask the monarch to dissolve Parliament at any time, though it must be dissolved five years after the last general election as that is the maximum term a parliament may sit by virtue of the Septennial Act 1715, as amended by the Parliament Act 1911, which reduced the Septennial Act's seven-year limit. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ... The Septennial Act 1715 was an Act of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1715, to increase the maximum length of a Parliament (and hence between general elections) from 3 years to 7 years. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ...


Scottish Parliament

Under the Scotland Act 1998, ordinary general elections for the Scottish Parliament are held on the first Thursday in May every four years (1999, 2003, 2007 etc.) The date of the poll may be varied by up to one month either way by the monarch on the proposal of the Presiding Officer. The Scotland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster. ... The Scottish parliamentary election, 1999 was the first general election of the Scottish Parliament, with voting taking place on May 6, 1999. ... The Scottish parliamentary election, 2003, was the second general election of the Scottish Parliament. ... Composition of the new Parliament The 2007 Scottish Parliament election was the third general election[1] to the devolved Scottish Parliament since it was created in 1999. ... The Presiding Officer (Oifigear-Riaghlaidh in Scots Gaelic) is the Speaker, the person elected by the Members of the Scottish Parliament to chair their meetings. ...


If the Parliament itself resolves that it should be dissolved (with at least two-thirds of the Members voting in favour), or if the Parliament fails to nominate one of its members to be First Minister within certain time limits, the Presiding Officer proposes a date for an extraordinary general election and the Parliament is dissolved by the monarch by royal proclamation. The First Minister (First Meinister in Scots; Prìomh Mhinistear in Scots Gaelic) is the leader of Scotlands national devolved government, the Scottish Executive, which was established in 1999 along with the reconvened Scottish Parliament. ... A proclamation (Lat. ...


See also


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