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Encyclopedia > Dissociative identity disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 F44.8
ICD-9 300.14
MeSH D009105

Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), is a mental condition whereby a single individual evidences two or more distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. The diagnosis requires that at least two personalities routinely take control of the individual's behavior and that there is associated memory loss that goes beyond normal forgetfulness, often referred to as losing time or acute Dissociative Amnesia[1]. The symptoms of DID must not be the direct result of substance abuse or a more general medical condition in order to be diagnosed. DID was originally named Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), and, as referenced above, that name remains in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // F00-F99 - Mental and behavioural disorders (F00-F09) Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00) Dementia in Alzheimers disease (F01) Vascular dementia (F011) Multi-infarct dementia (F02) Dementia in other diseases classified elsewhere (F020) Dementia in Picks disease (F021) Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F022) Dementia in Huntingtons... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... Look up Identity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Know Your Personality - a poster describing some of the theoretical aspects in the personality research. ... Memory loss can be caused by many things. ... Psychogenic Amnesia is a form of amnesia popularized by popular culture, particularly film. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ...


This condition is not an equivalent for schizophrenia (DSM-IV Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders), as is a common misconception. The term schizophrenia comes from root words for "split mind," but refers more to a fracture in the normal functioning of the brain than the personality. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR is a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and includes all currently recognized mental health disorders. ...


Dissociation is a demonstrated symptom of several psychiatric disorders, including Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301.83), Post-traumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders 309.81[2]), and Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, to name a few. Dissociation is a state of acute mental decompensation in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, and/or memories are compartmentalized because they are too overwhelming for the conscious mind to integrate. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR is a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and includes all currently recognized mental health disorders. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR is a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and includes all currently recognized mental health disorders. ... Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (C-PTSD) is a clinically recognized condition that results from prolonged exposure to prolonged social and/or interpersonal trauma, including instances of physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, torture, chronic early maltreatment in a caregiving relationship, and war. ...


As a diagnosis, DID remains controversial. For many years DID was regarded as a North American phenomenon[3][4][5] with the bulk of the literature still arising there. However, research demonstrates a lack of consensus belief in the validity of DID amongst North American psychiatrists.[6][7] Practitioners who do accept DID as a valid disorder have produced an extensive literature with some of the more recent papers originating outside North America. Criticism of the diagnosis continues, with Piper and Merskey describing it as a culture bound and often iatrogenic condition which they believe is in decline.[5][8] Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the current name of a condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as multiple personality disorder (MPD) and multiple personality syndrome. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-specific syndrome or culture-bound syndrome is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture. ... An iatrogenic (pronounced , IPA) condition is a state of ill health or adverse effect caused by medical treatment, usually due to mistakes made in treatment. ...

Contents

Defining the terms

Dissociation at its simplest means that "two or more mental processes or contents are not associated or integrated." This definition assumes that these elements should normally be associated or integrated in conscious awareness, memory, or identity. [9] Dissociation is a state of acute mental decompensation in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, and/or memories are compartmentalized because they are too overwhelming for the conscious mind to integrate. ...


The DSM-IV characterizes dissociation as "disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment" while the ICD-10 defines it as "partial or complete loss of the normal integration between memories of the past, awareness of identity and immediate sensations, and control of bodily movements."[10] Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Look up Identity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ...


To dissociate is to sever the association of one thing from another. [4]


Multiple personalities occur when the identity of a person dissociates to the extent that they have separate existences with their own "identities, life histories, and enduring patterns of perceiving, thinking about and relating to the environment which is distinct from the habitual personality's mode of being in the world."[11]


Alter derives from alter ego and means one of the individual personalities in a person with multiple personalities. Early literature uses the full term[12] while the later literature uses the word by itself. Alter Ego has multiple meanings: Alter Ego is a game for the Commodore 64 computer. ...


Defining the controversy

One of the primary reasons for the ongoing recategorization of this condition is that there were once so few documented cases (research in 1944 showed only 76[13]) of what was once referred to as multiple personality. Dissociation is recognized as a symptomatic presentation in response to trauma, extreme emotional stress, and, as noted, in association with emotional dysregulation and Borderline Personality Disorder[14]. Often regarded as a dynamic sub-symptomatology, it has become more frequent as an ancillary diagnosis, rather than a primary diagnosis.[citation needed] Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the current name of a condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as multiple personality disorder (MPD) and multiple personality syndrome. ... Trauma can represent: Physical trauma, an often serious and body-altering physical injury, such as the removal of a limb. ... Emotional dysregulation (or affect dysregulation) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is not well modulated. ... Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Personality Disorders 301. ...


The DSM re-dress

There is considerable controversy over the validity of the Multiple personality profile as a diagnosis. Unlike the more empirically verifiable mood and personality disorders, dissociation is primarily subjective for both the patient and the treatment provider. The relationship between dissociation and multiple personality creates conflict regarding the MPD diagnosis. While other disorders require a certain amount of subjective interpretation, those disorders more readily present generally accepted, objective symptoms. The controversial nature of the dissociation hypothesis is shown quite clearly by the manner in which the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has addressed, and re-dressed, the categorization over the years. As a three-letter acronym or abbreviation DSM or dsm can mean several things: // DSM (company), an international chemicals company based in the Netherlands Dependency Structure Matrix Deputy Stage Manager Design Structure Matrix The IATA airport code for Des Moines International Airport in Des Moines, Iowa, United States and issometimes...


The second edition of the DSM referred to this diagnostic profile as Multiple Personality Disorder. The third edition grouped Multiple Personality Disorder in with the other four major Dissociative Disorders. The current edition, the DSM-IV-TR, categorizes the disorder as Dissociative Identity Disorder. The ICD-10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) continues to list the condition as Multiple Personality Disorder. Dissociative disorders are defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ...


The MPD/DID epidemic in North America

Paris[15] in a review offered three possible causes for the sudden increase in people diagnosed with MPD/DID:

  1. The result of therapist suggestions to suggestible people, much as Charcot's hysterics acted in accordance with his expectations.
  2. Psychiatrists' past failure to recognise dissociation being redressed by new training and knowledge.
  3. Dissociative phenomena are actually increasing, but this increase only represents a new form of an old and protean entity: "hysteria."

Paris opines that the first possible cause is the most likely.


Other positions

The debate over the validity of this condition, whether as a clinical diagnosis, a symptomatic presentation, a subjective misrepresentation on the part of the patient, or a case of unconscious collusion on the part of the patient and the professional is considerable (see Multiple personality controversy). Unlike other diagnostic categorizations, there is very little in the way of objective, quantifiable evidence for describing the disorder. This makes the disorder itself subjective, as well as its diagnosis. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the current name of a condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as multiple personality disorder (MPD) and multiple personality syndrome. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The main points of disagreement are these:

  1. Whether MPD/DID is a real disorder or just a fad.
  2. If it is real, is the appearance of multiple personalities real or delusional?
  3. If it is real, whether it should it be defined in psychoanalytic terms.
  4. Whether it can, or should, be cured.
  5. Who should primarily define the experience—therapists, or those who believe that they have multiple personalities.

Skeptics claim that people who present with the appearance of alleged multiple personality may have learned to exhibit the symptoms in return for social reinforcement. One case cited as an example for this viewpoint is the "Sybil" case, popularized by the news media. Psychiatrist Herbert Spiegel [citation needed] stated that "Sybil" had been provided with the idea of multiple personalities by her treating psychiatrist, Cornelia Wilbur, to describe states of feeling with which she was unfamiliar. pychoanalysis today comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind; the term also refers to a specific type of treatment where the analyst, upon hearing the thoughts of the analysand (analytic patient), formulates and then explains the unconscious bases for the patients symptoms and character problems. ... Shirley Ardell Mason (January 25, 1923–February 26, 1998) was an American psychiatric patient and commercial artist whose life was documented in the book and film both released under the name Sybil. ... Cornelia B. Wilbur (1908-1992) was an American psychiatrist. ...


Symptoms

Patients often exhibit a wide array of symptoms that can resemble other neurologic and psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders, schizophrenic disorders, mood psychosis and seizure disorders. Symptoms of this particular disorder can include: Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system and its disorders. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up mood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration... Epilepsy (often referred to as a seizure disorder) is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. ...

Other symptoms may include: Depersonalization, which refers to feeling unreal, removed from one's self, and detached from one's physical and mental processes. The patient feels like an observer of his life and may actually see himself as if he were watching a movie. Derealization refers to experiencing familiar persons and surroundings as if they were unfamiliar and strange or unreal. On the Threshold of Eternity. ... The term phobia, which comes from the Ancient Greek word for fear (φόβος, fobos), denotes a number of psychological and physiological conditions that can range from serious disabilities to common fears to minor quirks. ... Panic attacks are sudden, discrete periods of intense anxiety, fear and discomfort that are associated with a variety of somatic and cognitive symptoms[1]. The onset of these episodes is typically abrupt, and may have no obvious trigger. ... Psychogenic Amnesia is a form of amnesia popularized by popular culture, particularly film. ... Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction (see also sexual function) is difficulty during any stage of the sexual act (which includes desire, arousal, orgasm, and resolution) that prevents the individual or couple from enjoying sexual activity. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... http://www. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Depersonalization is an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, ones mental processes or body. ...


Again, doctors must be careful not to assume that a client has MPD or DID simply because they exhibit some or all of these symptoms. For example, someone may have severe PTSD and self-mutilate with suicidal ideas, which are two of the symptoms listed above, but in order for DID to be diagnosed, there must be two or more distinctly present personalities.


Persons with dissociative identity disorder are often told of things they have done but do not remember and of notable changes in their behavior. They may discover objects, productions, or handwriting that they cannot account for or recognize; they may refer to themselves in the first person plural (we) or in the third person (he, she, they); and they may have amnesia for events that occurred between their mid-childhood and early adolescence. Amnesia for earlier events is normal and widespread.


Causes/etiology

Although many experts dispute the existence of this controversial diagnosis, Dissociative Identity Disorder has been attributed by some to the interaction of several factors: overwhelming stress, dissociative capacity (including the ability to uncouple one's memories, perceptions, or identity from conscious awareness), the enlistment of steps in normal developmental processes as defenses, and, during childhood, the lack of sufficient nurturing and compassion in response to hurtful experiences or lack of protection against further overwhelming experiences[17]. Children are not born with a sense of a unified identity — it develops from many sources and experiences. In overwhelmed children, its development is obstructed, and many parts of what should have blended into a relatively unified identity remain separate. North American studies show that 97 to 98 percent of adults with dissociative identity disorder report abuse during childhood and that abuse can be documented for 85 percent of adults and for 95 percent of children and adolescents with dissociative identity disorder and other closely related forms of Dissociative Disorders. Although these data establish childhood abuse as a major cause among North American patients (in some cultures, the consequences of war and disaster play a larger role), they do not mean that all such patients were abused or that all the abuses reported by patients with dissociative identity disorder really happened. Some aspects of some reported abuse experiences may prove to be inaccurate. Also, some patients have not been abused but have experienced an important early loss (such as death of a parent), serious medical illness, or other very stressful events. For example, a patient who required many hospitalizations and operations during childhood may have been severely overwhelmed but not abused, although parents helping people through these times can act as a preventative measure. [16] Child abuse is the physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians, or others. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Human development requires that children be able to integrate complicated and different types of information and experiences successfully. As children achieve cohesive, complex appreciations of themselves and others, they go through phases in which different perceptions and emotions are kept segregated. Each developmental phase may be used to generate different selves. Not every child who experiences abuse or major loss or trauma has the capacity to develop multiple personalities. Patients with dissociative identity disorder can be easily hypnotized. This capacity, closely related to the capacity to dissociate, is thought to be a factor in the development of the disorder. However, most children who have these capacities also have normal adaptive mechanisms, and most are sufficiently protected and soothed by adults to prevent development of dissociative identity disorder.[16] For the novel by Lucas Hyde, see Hypnosis (novel). ...


Diagnosis

If symptoms seem to be present, the patient should first be evaluated by performing a complete medical history and physical examination. Diagnostic tests, such as X-rays and blood tests, may be used to rule out physical illness or medication side effects as the cause of the symptoms. Certain conditions, including brain diseases, head injuries, drug and alcohol intoxication, and sleep deprivation, can lead to symptoms similar to those of dissociative disorders, including dissociative amnesia. A medical test is any kind of diagnostic medical procedure performed for health reasons. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... ... Sleep deprivation is a general lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ...


If no physical illness is found, the patient might be referred to a psychiatrist or psychologist who may use specially designed interviews and personality assessment tools to evaluate a person for a dissociative disorder.[18]


Diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV-TR)

In summary, the diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders[19] section 300.14[20] of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders require the occurrence of two or more personalities within the same individual, each of which during some time in the person's life is able to take control. This must be combined with extensive areas of memory loss that cannot be explained as within normal limits. The symptoms must not be better explained by substance use or another medical condition. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR is a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and includes all currently recognized mental health disorders. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ...


The personalities are often very different in nature and may represent extremes of what is contained in a normal person. Memories may be asymmetrical with dominant identities remembering more than passive identities.


Screening and diagnostic instruments

The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D)[21] may be used to make a diagnosis. This interview takes about 30 minutes to 1.5 hours, depending on the subject's experiences. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) is a semistuctured interview for making most of the major DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric diagnoses. ...


The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS)[22] is a highly structured interview which discriminates between various DSM-IV diagnoses. The DDIS can usually be administered in 30-45 minutes.


The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)[23] is a simple, quick, and validated[24] questionnaire that has been widely used to screen for dissociative symptoms. Tests such as the DES provide a quick method of screening subjects so that the more time-consuming structured clinical interview can be used in the group with high DES scores. Depending on where the cutoff is set, people who would subsequently be diagnosed can be missed. An early recommended cutoff was 15-20[25] and in one study a DES with a cutoff of 30 missed 46 percent of the positive SCID-D[21] diagnoses and a cutoff of 20 missed 25%.[26] The reliability of the DES in non-clinical samples has been questioned.[27]


Pathophysiology

Reviews of the literature have discussed the findings of various psychophysiologic investigations of DID.[28][29] Many of the investigations include testing and observation in the one person but with different alters. Different alter states show distinct physiological markers.[30] EEG studies have shown distinct differences between alters,[31][32] findings another study failed to replicate.[33] Another study concluded that the differences involved intensity of concentration, mood changes, degree of muscle tension, and duration of recording, rather than some inherent difference between the brains of persons with multiple personalities and those of persons with single personalities.[34] One EEG study comparing DID with hysteria showed differences between the two diagnoses.[35] A postulated link between epilepsy and DID has been disputed by a number of authors.[36][37] Some brain imaging studies have shown differing cerebral blood flow with different alters[38][39] while another has failed to replicate this finding.[40] A different imaging study showed that findings of smaller hippocampal volumes in patients with a history of exposure to traumatic stress and an accompanying stress-related psychiatric disorder were also demonstrated in DID.[41] This study also found smaller amygdala volumes. Studies have demonstrated various changes in visual parameters between alters.[42][43][44] One twin study showed hereditable factors were present in DID.[45] Pathophysiology is the study of the disturbance of normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions, either caused by a disease, or resulting from a disease or abnormal syndrome or condition that may not qualify to be called a disease. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... EEG can mean: Electroencephalography - the method and science of recording and interpreting traces of brain electrical activity as recorded from the skull surface or the device used to record such traces Emperor Entertainment Group - A Hong Kong entertainment company. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with functional neuroimaging. ... Cerebral blood flow, or CBF, is the amount of blood that enters the brain. ... The hippocampus is structurally located inside the medial temporal lobe of the brain. ... In medical terms, stress is the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Twin studies are one of a family of designs in behavior genetics which aid the study of individual differences by highlighting the role of environmental and genetic causes on behavior. ...


Treatment/management

The most common approach to treatment aims to relieve symptoms, to ensure the safety of the individual, and to reconnect the different identities into one well-functioning identity. There are, however, other equally respected treatment modalities that do not depend upon integrating the separate identities. Treatment also aims to help the person safely express and process painful memories, develop new coping and life skills, restore functioning, and improve relationships. The best treatment approach depends on the individual and the severity of his or her symptoms. Treatment is likely to include some combination of the following methods:

  • Psychotherapy[46][47]: This kind of therapy for mental and emotional disorders uses psychological techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight into problems.
  • Cognitive therapy: This type of therapy focuses on changing dysfunctional thinking patterns.
  • Medication: There is no medication to treat the Dissociative Disorders themselves. However, a person with a Dissociative Disorder who also suffers from depression or anxiety might benefit from treatment with a medication such as an antidepressant or anti-anxiety medicine.
  • Family therapy: This kind of therapy helps to educate the family about the disorder and its causes, as well as to help family members recognize symptoms of a recurrence.
  • Expressive therapy such as art therapy, dance/movement therapy and music therapy: These therapies allow the patient to explore and express his or her thoughts and feelings in a safe and creative way.
  • Clinical hypnosis: This is a treatment technique that uses intense relaxation, concentration and focused attention to achieve an altered state of consciousness or awareness[18]
  • Behavior therapy: As an increasing number of therapists view DID as iatrogenic, or caused by reinforcing treatment teams, new approaches have emerged. Current standards of care may involve requiring the patient respond to a single name, and refusing to speak with the patient if she or he is a different sex, age, or person than initially presented. As the patient begins to respond more consistently to a single name, and speak in the first person, more traditional therapy for trauma may begin. Though some dislike this approach or criticize it as disrespectful of the client, it is highly effective, and many published accounts confirm this approach. See Kohlenberg & Tsai's "Functional Analytic Psychotherapy" (1991) for a more detailed explanation of this approach.
  • Ego-state therapy: Ego-state therapy is used to help non-dissociative individuals resolve conflicts among different parts of themselves (i.e. ego states); since DID is an extreme differentiation among ego states, many therapists find the approach useful in working with dissociative clients.[48]

Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... This article is about Becks Cognitive Therapy. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Dissociative disorders are defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception. ... Dissociative disorders are defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, and earlier generally referred to as marriage therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... Expressive therapy know alse as art therapy provides the means and support to express and explore feelings, thought problems and potentials through the use of art media and imagery. ... Art therapy was invented by the great philosopher David Chapelle of the enlightenent era. ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ... Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. ... Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Prognosis

Dissociative Identity Disorder does not disappear suddenly, although its symptoms will change in level of severity. A patient's progress can be divided in three groups. The first group tend to have dissociative and post-traumatic symptoms, function well and recover completely with specific treatment. The second group have dissociative symptoms, usually mixed with symptoms from personality disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, or substance abuse disorders. Improvement is slower, as treatment may be less successful, longer, and more difficult. The third group have severe comorbid psychopathology, and may be emotionally attached to their supposed abusers. This group requires long-term treatment to manage the symptoms rather than to achieve integration.[16] In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity refers to: The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ...


Prevention/screening

Strategies to prevent the development of DID depend upon how the etiology of the disorder is perceived. Early childhood trauma is frequently attributed as an etiology of DID, and so from this viewpoint, prevention of childhood trauma should reduce the incidence of DID. Those who believe that DID is often caused by suggestions from the clinician to suggestible people, caution clinicians against contributing to the diagnosis.[49][8]


Epidemiology

The true prevalence of the disorder is hard to determine. The DSM notes the sharp rise in reported cases and states that, "Some believe that the greater awareness of the diagnosis among mental health professionals has resulted in the identification of cases that were previously undiagnosed. In contrast, others believe that the syndrome has been overdiagnosed in individuals who are highly suggestive."[50] The DSM does not give a figure. Reports in the literature are often given by advocates for the condition and figures from psychiatric populations (inpatients and outpatients) show a wide diversity from different countries: India (0.015% per year[51]), Switzerland (0.05%-0.1%[52]), China (0.4%[53]), Germany (0.9%[54]), The Netherlands (2%[55]), U.S. (6%,[26] Approx., 6-8%,[56] 10%[57]), and Turkey (14%[58]). Figures from the general population show less diversity: China (0%[53]), Turkey (0.4% for a general sample[59] and 1.1% for a female sample[60]), and Canada (1%[61]). In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ...


History

An intense interest in spiritualism, parapsychology and hypnosis continued throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries,[4] running in parallel with John Locke's views that there was an association of ideas requiring the coexistence of feelings with awareness of the feelings.[62] Hypnosis, which was pioneered in the late 1700s by Franz Mesmer and Armand-Marie Jacques de Chastenet, Marques de Puységur, challenged Locke's association of ideas. Hypnotists observed second personalities emerging during hypnosis and wondered how two minds could coexist.[4] Early cases of what would now be diagnosed as DID appeared at this time and were treated by hypnosis.[62][63] The 19th century saw a number of increasingly sophisticatedly reported cases of multiple personalities which Rieber[62] estimated would be close to 100. Epilepsy was seen as a factor in some cases[62] and discussion of this connection continues into the present era.[33][37] // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... For the novel by Lucas Hyde, see Hypnosis (novel). ... Franz Anton Mesmer His Grave Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) discovered what he called animal magnetism and others often called mesmerism. ... Although Armand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marquis de Puységur (1751-1825), was a French aristocrat from one of the most illustrious families of the French nobility, he is now remembered as one of the pre-scientific founders of hypnotism (then known as animal magnetism, or Mesmerism). ...


By the late 19th century there was a general realization that emotionally traumatic experiences could cause long-term disorders which may manifest with a variety of symptoms.[64] It was in this climate that Jean-Martin Charcot introduced his ideas of the impact of nervous shocks as a cause for a variety of neurological conditions. One of Charcot's students, Pierre Janet, took these ideas and went on to developed his own theories of dissociation.[65] Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Pierre Marie Félix Janet, (May 30, 1859 - February 24, 1947) was a pioneering French psychologist in the field of dissociation and traumatic memory. ...


In the early 20th century interest in dissociation and MPD waned for a number of reasons. After Charcot's death in 1893, many of his "hysterical" patients were exposed as frauds and Janet's association with Charcot tarnished his theories of dissociation.[4] Sigmund Freud recanted his earlier emphasis on dissociation and childhood trauma.[4] Freud, a man who actively promoted his ideas and enlisted the help of others, won out over the "lone wolf" Janet who did not train students in a teaching hospital.[62] Psychologists found that science was hard to reconcile with a "soul" or an "unconscious". In 1910, Eugen Bleuler introduced the term "schizophrenia" to replace "dementia praecox" and a review of the Index Medicus from 1903 through 1978 showed a dramatic decline in the number of reports of multiple personality after the diagnosis of schizophrenia "caught on," especially in the United States.[66] Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... Eugene Bleuler (b. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The public, however, were exposed to psychological ideas which took their interest. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and many short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, had a formidable impact[62]. In 1957, the publication of the book The Three Faces of Eve, and the popular movie which followed it, the American public's interest in multiple personality was revived. In 1974, the highly influential book Sybil was published and six years later the diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder was included in the DSM. As media coverage spiked, diagnoses climbed. There were 200 reported cases of MPD from 1880 to 1979, and 20,000 from 1980 to 1990.[67] Joan Acocella reports that 40,000 cases were diagnosed from 1985 to 1995.[68] The majority of diagnoses are made in North America, particularly the United States, and in English-speaking countries more generally[69] with reports recently emerging from other countries.[51][52][53][54][55][58][59] Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850 – December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... The Three Faces of Eve is a 1957 film which tells the true story of a woman who suffered from Dissociative identity disorder. ... Sybil is a book written by Flora Rheta Schreiber in 1973 about a woman named Shirley Ardell Mason, who is referred to in the book by the pseudonym Sybil Dorsett. ... Joan Acocella is an American journalist who is dance critic for the The New Yorker. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In popular culture

Main article: DID/MPD in fiction

DID/MPD is common in pop culture fiction. See DID/MPD in fiction for further information. The idea of multiple personalities has been popularized, often in an exaggerated or factually incorrect form. ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... The idea of multiple personalities has been popularized, often in an exaggerated or factually incorrect form. ...


See also

Look up multiple personality in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up multiple personalities in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) is a semistuctured interview for making most of the major DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric diagnoses. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, also known as DSM-IV-TR is a manual published by the American Psychiatric Association and includes all currently recognized mental health disorders. ... Dissociative disorders are defined as conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception. ... Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the current name of a condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as multiple personality disorder (MPD) and multiple personality syndrome. ... A repressed memory, according to some theories of psychology, is a memory (often traumatic) of an event or environment which is stored by the unconscious mind but outside the awareness of the conscious mind. ... Recovered memory therapy (RMT) is a psychotherapy that was developed in the 1980s as a way to recover “lost” childhood memories of abuse, as well as other memories of neglect and abuse. ... In the field of psychology, a fugue state is usually defined by the term dissociative fugue. ... Depersonalization is an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, ones mental processes or body. ... Psychogenic Amnesia is a form of amnesia popularized by popular culture, particularly film. ... Dissociation is a state of acute mental decompensation in which certain thoughts, emotions, sensations, and/or memories are compartmentalized because they are too overwhelming for the conscious mind to integrate. ... Shirley Ardell Mason (January 25, 1923–February 26, 1998) was an American psychiatric patient and commercial artist whose life was documented in the book and film both released under the name Sybil. ... The woman who wrote Im Eve, chronicling the story of Eve Black, Eve White, and Jane. ... Author of When Rabbit Howls (1987), perhaps the first autobiographical account of Multiple Personality Disorder by an individual, rather than by their therapist. ... The Three Faces of Eve is a 1957 film which tells the true story of a woman who suffered from Dissociative identity disorder. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ... Hidden personality is the part of our personality structure that is determined by unconscious processes. ... Philosophical Explanations is a wide-ranging metaphysical and ethical treatise written by Robert Nozick and published in 1981. ...

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dissociative Identity Disorder: Amnesia and Related Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition (1042 words)
Dissociative identity disorder appears to be caused by the interaction of several factors.
Dissociative identity disorder is chronic and potentially disabling or fatal, although many with the disorder function very well and lead creative and productive lives.
People with dissociative identity disorder may not be able to recall things they have done or account for changes in their behavior.
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