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Encyclopedia > Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
ICD-10 D65
ICD-9 286.6

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. This depletes the body of its platelets and coagulation factors, and there is a paradoxically increased risk of hemorrhage. It occurs in critically ill patients, especially those with Gram-negative sepsis (particularly meningococcal sepsis) and acute promyelocytic leukemia. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The coagulation of blood is a complex process during which blood forms solid clots. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe infection. ... Neisseria is a genus of bacteria, included among the proteobacteria, a large group of gram-negative forms. ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of white blood cells. ...

Contents


Causes

There are a variety of causes of DIC, all usually causing the release of chemicals into the blood that instigates the coagulation.

  • Sepsis, particularly with gram-negative bacteria.
  • Tissue trauma such as burns, accidents, surgery or shock.
  • Obstetric complications, with chemicals from the uterus being released into the blood, or from amniotic fluid embolisms, and eclampsia can be causes. Another obstetric condition which can cause DIC is abruptio placentae.
  • Malignant cancers, or widespread tissue damage (e.g. burns), or hypersensitivity reactions all can produce the chemicals leading to a DIC.
  • Liver disease
  • Incompatible blood transfusion reactions
  • Envenomation by some venomous snakes such as the Stephens Banded Snake, Hoplocephalus stephensi (from the family of Elapidae).

In medicine, shock (hypoperfusion) is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by inability of the circulatory system to supply enough oxygen to meet tissue requirements. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The amniotic sac is a tough but thin transparent pair of membranes which holds a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. ... In medicine, an embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... Placental abruption (Also known as abruptio placenta) in biology, is the separation of the placental lining from the uterus of a female. ... Hypersensitivity is an immune response that damages the bodys own tissues. ... Genera Acanthophis - death adder Aspidelaps - shieldnose cobra Aspidomorphus - collared adder Austrelaps Boulengerina - water cobra Bungarus - Indian krait Cacophis - dwarf crowned snake Calliophis - Oriental coral snake Demansia - venomous whip snake Dendroaspis - mamba Denisonia - ornamental snake Drysdalia - Australian crown snake Echiopsis - bardick snake Elapognathus - little brown snake Elapsoidea - venomous garter snake Furina...

Diagnosis

Although numerous blood tests are often performed on patients prone to DIC, the important measures are: full blood count (especially the platelet count), fibrin degradation products or D-dimer tests (markers of fibrinolysis), bleeding time and fibrinogen levels. Decreased platelets, elevated FDPs or D-dimers, prolonged bleeding time and decreased fibrinogen are markers of DIC. Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... A full blood count (FBC) or complete blood count (CBC) is a test requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patients blood. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... D-dimer is a blood test performed in the medical laboratory to diagnose thrombosis. ... Fibrinolysis is the process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down. ... Bleeding time is a medical test done on someone to assess their platelet function. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ...


Pathophysiology

Various factors can activate the system of coagulation, but the end result is formation of fibrin, a mesh-like protein. The fibrin deposition can block blood vessels, leading to ischemic damage to some tissues. Red blood cells are damaged as well as they get shredded by the fibrin, leading to microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA). Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... In medicine, ischemia (Greek ισχαιμία, isch- is restriction, hema or haema is blood) is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue. ... In medicine (hematology) microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) is a subgroup of hemolytic anemia (anemia, loss of red blood cells through destruction) caused by factors in the small blood vessels. ...


Treatment

The underlying cause must be treated initially. Anticoagulants are not given, as by now all the coagulation factors and platelets have been used up. These must be replaced, by platelet transfusion and fresh frozen plasma, to restore normal levels. Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


DIC results in lower fibrinogen (as it has all been converted to fibrin), and this can be tested for in the hospital lab. A more specific test is for "fibrin split products" (FSPs) or "fibrin degradation products" (FDPs) which are produced when fibrin undergoes degradation when blood clots are dissolved by fibrinolysis. Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... Fibrinolysis is the process where a fibrin clot, the product of coagulation, is broken down. ...


In some situations, infusion with antithrombin may be necessary. A new development is drotrecogin alfa (Xigris®), a recombinant activated protein C product. Activated Protein C (APC) deactivates clotting factors V and VIII, and the presumed mechanism of action of drotrecogin is the cessation of the intravascular coagulation. Due to its high cost, it is only used strictly on indication in intensive care patients. Image:Antithrombin. ... omg p00 Xigris is a brand name for a drug composed of activated drotrecogin alfa, manufactured by Eli Lilly to treat severe sepsis. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... Protein C is a major physiological anticoagulant. ... Factor V is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor. ... Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. ... Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ...


The prognosis for those with DIC, depending on its cause, is often grim, leading the acronym to be known colloquially as "death is coming" [1].


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (443 words)
DIC is a disorder of the "clotting cascade." It results in depletion of clotting factors in the blood.
DIC is when your body's blood clotting mechanisms are activated throughout the body instead of being localized to an area of injury.
Risk factors are recent sepsis, recent injury or trauma, recent surgery or anesthesia, complications of labor and delivery, leukemia or disseminated cancer, recent blood transfusion reaction, and severe liver disease.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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