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Encyclopedia > Disk operating system

Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically), most often abbreviated as DOS (not to be confused with the DOS family of disk operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform), refer to operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them (e.g., file systems for organizing files of all sorts). Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters (such as hard disks or floppy disks). ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... In computer storage, secondary storage, or external memory, is computer memory that is not directly accessible to the central processing unit of a computer, requiring the use of computers input/output channels. ... In computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... A file in a computer system is a stream (sequence) of bits stored as a single unit, typically in a file system on disk or magnetic tape. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ...


In the early days of microcomputing, memory space was often limited, so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. This component was only loaded if it was needed. Otherwise, disk-access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sector-level. The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling home computer of all time. ... The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ... A sector is a part of a whole. ...


In some cases, the disk operating system component (or even the operating system) was known as DOS.


Sometimes, a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. Examples include DOS/360 and FreeDOS. On the PC compatible platform, an entire family of operating systems was called DOS. DOS/360 was the operating system announced by IBM at the low end for the System/360 in 1964 and delivered in 1965 or 1966. ... FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is an operating system for IBM PC compatible computers. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ...

Contents

History

In the early days of computers, there were no disk drives; delay lines, punched cards, paper tape, magnetic tape, magnetic drums, were used instead. And in the early days of microcomputers, paper tape or audio cassette tape (see Kansas City standard) or nothing were used instead. In the latter case, program and data entry was done at front panel switches directly into memory or through a computer terminal / keyboard, sometimes controlled by a ROM BASIC interpreter; when power was turned off after running the program, the information so entered vanished. The term delay line has multiple meanings: In electronics and derivative fields such as telecommunications, a delay line is rigorously defined as a single-input-channel device, in which the output channel state at a given instant, t, is the same as the input channel state at the instant t... The punch card (or Hollerith card) is a recording medium for holding information for use by automated data processing machines. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... The Magnetic Drum was invented by G. Taushek in 1932 in Austria. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ... The Kansas City standard (abbreviated KCS) for storage of digital (micro)computer data on an ordinary compact audio cassette is also known as the BYTE standard, from its connection with BYTE magazine, or the Processor Technology CUTS (PT Computer Users Tape Standard). ... A front panel was used on early electronic computers to display and allow the alteration of the state of the machines internal registers and memory. ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ... Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ...


Both hard disks and floppy disk drives require software to manage rapid access to block storage of sequential and other data. When microcomputers rarely had expensive disk drives of any kind, the necessity to have software to manage such devices (ie, the 'disk's) carried much status. To have one or the other was a mark of distinction and prestige, and so was having the Disk sort of an Operating System. As prices for both disk hardware and operating system software decreased, there were many such microcomputer systems. Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ...


Mature versions of the Commodore, SWTPC, Atari and Apple home computer systems all featured a disk operating system (actually called 'DOS' in the case of the Commodore 64 (CBM DOS), Atari 800 (Atari DOS), and Apple II machines (Apple DOS)), as did (at the other end of the hardware spectrum, and much earlier) IBM's System/360, 370 and (later) 390 series of mainframes (e.g., DOS/360: Disk Operating System / 360 and DOS/VSE: Disk Operating System / Virtual Storage Extended). Most home computer DOS'es were stored on a floppy disk always to be booted at start-up, with the notable exception of Commodore, whose DOS resided on ROM chips in the disk drives themselves, available at power-on. The Commodore 64 is the best selling single personal computer model of all time. ... The U.S. company SWTPC started in 1964 as DEMCO (Daniel E. Meyer Company). ... An Atari 800XL, one of the most popular machines in the series. ... Apple Inc. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... Commodore DOS, aka CBM DOS, was the disk operating system used with Commodores 8-bit computers. ... Atari DOS, (often just known as DOS), was the disk operating system used with the Atari 8-bit family of computers. ... Beneath Apple DOS was a popular guide to Apple DOS. Apple DOS refers to operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from 1978 through early 1983. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... IBM logo The IBM System/370 (often: S/370) was a model range of IBM mainframes announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the System/360 family. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... SAS 8 on an IBM mainframe under 3270 emulation An IBM mainframe is a mainframe computer made by IBM. // From 1952 into the late 1960s, IBM manufactured and marketed several large computer models, known as the IBM 700/7000 series. ... DOS/360 was the operating system announced by IBM at the low end for the System/360 in 1964 and delivered in 1965 or 1966. ... VSE (Virtual Storage Extended) is an operating system for IBM mainframe computers. ... In computing, booting is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... Front view of the most common version of the Commodore 1541 disk drive, with open disk slot. ...


In large machines there were other disk operating systems, such as IBM's VM, DEC's RSTS / RT-11 / VMS / TOPS-10 / TWENEX, MIT's ITS / CTSS, Control Data's assorted NOS variants, Harris's Vulcan, Bell Labs' Unix, and so on. In microcomputers, SWTPC's 6800 and 6809 machines used TSC's FLEX disk operating system, Radio Shack's TRS-80 machines used TRS-DOS, their Color Computer used OS-9, and most of the Intel 8080 based machines from IMSAI, MITS (makers of the legendary Altair 8800), Cromemco, North Star, etc used the CP/M-80 disk operating system. See list of operating systems. VM may stand for: Virtual memory Virtual machine VM, IBMs virtual machine operating system VM nerve agent, a chemical weapon agent Voice mail VM Corporation, a manufacturer of audio equipment Voynich manuscript This page expands and disambiguates a two-letter combination which might be an abbreviation, an English word... RSTS/E (an acronym for Resource Sharing Time Sharing Extended) was a multi-user time-shared operating system developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers, and used primarily during the 1970s and 1980s, although some installations were still being upgraded well into... RT-11 (for Run Time or Real Time) was a real-time operating system for the DEC PDP-11. ... OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned... The TOPS-10 System was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 released in 1964 and later on for the DEC-System10. ... The TOPS-20 operating system by DEC - the second proprietary OS for the PDP-10 - preferred by most PDP-10 hackers over TOPS-10 (that is, by those who were not ITS or WAITS partisans). ... ITS, the Incompatible Timesharing System, was an early, revolutionary, and influential MIT time-sharing operating system; it was developed principally by the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT, with some help from Project MAC. ITS development was initiated in the late 1960s by those (the majority of the MIT AI Lab... This article is about the MIT Project MAC operating system. ... Network operating system (NOS): Software that (a) controls a network and its message (e. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling home computer of all time. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The FLEX operating system was developed by the company TSC for the Motorola 6800 in the 1970s. ... RadioShack Corporation (formerly Radio Shack) (NYSE: RSH) runs a chain of electronics retail stores in the United States, as well as parts of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... TRS-DOS was the Disk Operating System for the Tandy TRS-80 line of 8-bit Z-80 micro-computers that were sold through Radio Shack through the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... 4k TRS-80 Color Computer from 1981, 26-3001 The Radio Shack TRS-80 color computer (also called Tandy Color Computer, or CoCo) was a home computer based around the Motorola 6809E processor and part of the TRS-80 line. ... For Mac OS 9, see Mac OS 9. ... Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) was an Albuquerque, New Mexico company founded in 1968 by Ed Roberts. ... Altair 8800 The MITS Altair 8800 was a microcomputer design from 1975, based on the Intel 8080A CPU. Sold as a kit through Popular Electronics magazine, the designers intended to sell only a few hundred to hobbyists, and were surprised when they sold over ten times that many in the... Cromemco was a Mountain View, California microcomputer company that began as a partnership in 1974 between Harry Garland and Roger Melen, two Stanford PhD students. ... The North Star is a title of the star best suited for navigation northwards. ... CP/M (Command Processor for Microcomputers) was an operating system for Intel 8080/85 and Zilog Z80 based microcomputers. ... Operating systems can be categorized by technology (Unix-like or others such as Windows), ownership and license (proprietary or open source), working state (historic like MS-DOS and OS/2 or current like Linux and Windows), application (general like Linux, Windows), desktop only (MS-DOS, MacOS), mainframe only (VM), real...


Usually, a disk operating system was loaded from a disk. Only a very few comparable DOSes were stored elsewhere than floppy disks; among these exceptions were the British BBC Micro's optional Disc Filing System, DFS, offered as a kit with a disk controller chip, a ROM chip, and a handful of logic chips, to be installed inside the computer; and Commodore's CBM DOS, located in a ROM chip in each disk drive. The BBC Micro, affectionately known as the Beeb, was an early home computer. ... The Disc Filing System (DFS) is a computer filing system developed by Acorn Computers Ltd. ... Commodore is the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... Commodore DOS, aka CBM DOS, was the disk operating system used with Commodores 8-bit computers. ...


Examples of disk operating systems that were extensions to the OS

  • The DOS operating system for the Apple Computer's Apple II family of computers. This was the primary operating system for this family from 1979 with the introduction of the floppy disk drive until 1983 with the introduction of ProDOS; many people continued using it long after that date. Usually it was called Apple DOS to distinguish it from MS-DOS.
  • Commodore DOS, which was used by 8-bit Commodore computers. Unlike most other DOS systems, it was integrated into the disk drives, not loaded into the computer's own memory.
  • Atari DOS, which was used by the Atari 8-bit family of computers. The Atari OS only offered low-level disk-access, so an extra layer called DOS was booted off a floppy that offered higher level functions such as filesystems.
  • MSX-DOS, for the MSX computer standard. Initial version, released in 1984, was nothing but MS-DOS 1.0 ported to Z80; but in 1988 it evolved to version 2, offering facilities such as subdirectories, memory management and environment strings. The MSX-DOS kernel resided in ROM (built-in on the disk controller) so basic file access capacity was available even without the command interpreter, by using BASIC extended commands.
  • Disc Filing System (DFS) This was an optional component for the BBC Micro, offered as a kit with a disk controller chip, a ROM chip, and a handful of logic chips, to be installed inside the computer. See also Advanced Disc Filing System.
  • AMSDOS, for the Amstrad CPC computers.
  • GDOS and G+DOS, for the +D and DISCiPLE disk interfaces for the ZX Spectrum.

Apple Inc. ... The Apple II was one of the most popular personal computers of the 1980s. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that comprises a circular piece of thin, flexible (hence floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic wallet. ... For Australian-based Objectivist Prodos Marinakis and the prodos institute, see here. ... Beneath Apple DOS was a popular guide to Apple DOS. Apple DOS refers to operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from 1978 through early 1983. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Commodore DOS, aka CBM DOS, was the disk operating system used with Commodores 8-bit computers. ... Commodore is the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... Atari DOS, (often just known as DOS), was the disk operating system used with the Atari 8-bit family of computers. ... An Atari 800XL, one of the most popular machines in the series. ... MSX official logo Sony MSX 1, Model HitBit-10-P MSX is the name of a standard for home computers in the 1980s. ... Sony MSX 1, Model HitBit-10-P MSX was the name of a standardized home computer architecture in the 1980s. ... The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ... The Disc Filing System (DFS) is a computer filing system developed by Acorn Computers Ltd. ... The BBC Micro, affectionately known as the Beeb, was an early home computer. ... The Advanced Disc Filing System (ADFS) is a computing file system particular to the Acorn computer range introduced in the disc drive add-on for the Acorn Electron. ... Disc Operatating system that worked on the 8-Bit Amstrad CPC Computer (and various clones). ... The Amstrad CPC was a series of 8-bit home computers produced by Amstrad during the 1980s and early 1990s. ... The +D (or Plus D) was a floppy disk and printer interface for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum home computer, developed as a successor to Miles Gordon Technologys earlier product, the DISCiPLE. It was designed to be smaller, cheaper, simpler and thus more reliable. ... A disciple (from the Latin discipulus, a pupil) is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and understands, his teacher... The ZX Spectrum is a home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research Ltd. ...

Examples of Disk Operating Systems that were the OS itself

  • The DOS/360 initial/simple operating system for the IBM System/360 family of mainframe computers (it later became DOS/VSE, and was eventually just called VSE).
  • The DOS operating system for DEC PDP-11 minicomputers (this OS and the computers it ran on were nearly obsolete by the time PCs became common, with various descendants and other replacements).
  • DOS for the IBM PC compatible platform
Main article: DOS
The best known family of operating systems named "DOS" is that running on IBM PCs type hardware using the Intel CPUs or their compatible cousins from other makers. Any DOS in this family is usually just referred to as DOS. The original was licensed to IBM by Microsoft, and marketed by them as "PC-DOS". When Microsoft licenced it to other hardware manufacturers, it was called MS-DOS. Digital Research produced a compatible variant known as "DR-DOS", which was eventually taken over (after a buyout of Digital Research) by Novell. This became "OpenDOS" for a while after the relevant division of Novell was sold to Caldera International, now called SCO. There is also a free version named "FreeDOS".

DOS/360 was the operating system announced by IBM at the low end for the System/360 in 1964 and delivered in 1965 or 1966. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... System/360 Model 65 operators console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and emergency pull switch (upper right). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... VSE (Virtual Storage Extended) is an operating system for IBM mainframe computers. ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Microsoft is one of few companies engaging itself in the console wars Where they are up against sony, nintendo, and of course sharps new console which may cause a threat. ... IBM PC-DOS was one of the three major operating systems that dominated the personal computer market from about 1985 to 1995. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Digital Research, Inc. ... DR-DOS is a PC DOS-compatible operating system for IBM PC-compatible personal computers, originally developed by Gary Kildalls Digital Research and derived from CP/M-86. ... Novell was also the name of a road bicycle racing team. ... OpenDOS is a freeware DOS-like and MS-DOS-compatible operating system. ... The SCO Group, Inc. ... The SCO Group, Inc. ... This article is about free software as defined by the sociopolitical free software movement; for information on software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is an operating system for IBM PC compatible computers. ...

See also

An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Disk operating system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (559 words)
Most home computer DOS'es were stored on a floppy disk always to be booted at start-up, with the notable exception of Commodore, whose DOS resided on ROM chips in the disk drives themselves, available at power-on.
In microcomputers, SWTPC's 6800 and 6809 machines used TSC's FLEX disk operating system, Radio Shack's TRS-80 machines used TRS-DOS, their Color Computer used OS-9, and most of the Intel 8080 based machines from IMSAI, MITS (makers of the legendary Altair 8800), Cromemco, North Star, etc used the CP/M-80 disk operating system.
PC-DOS/MS-DOS (and CP/M) The best known family of operating systems named "DOS" is that running on IBM PCs type hardware using the Intel CPUs or their compatible cousins from other makers.
MS-DOS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1795 words)
An example of MS-DOS's command-line interface, this one showing that the current directory is the root of drive C. Microsoft's disk operating system, MS-DOS was the dominant operating system for the PC compatible platform during the 1980s.
Although its role as a desktop computer operating system has greatly diminished, today it is still used in various embedded x86 systems due to its simplistic architecture, minimal memory requirements, and minimal processor speed requirements.
MS-DOS was not designed to be a multi-user or multitasking operating system, but many attempts were made to retrofit these capabilities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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