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Encyclopedia > Disinfectant
Disinfection of a floor using a mop
Disinfection of a floor using a mop

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. Disinfectants should generally be distinguished from antibiotics that destroy microorganisms within the body, and from antiseptics, which destroy microorganisms on living tissue. Sanitisers are high level disinfectants that kill over 99.9% of a target microorganism in applicable situations. Very few disinfectants and sanitisers can sterilise (the complete elimination of all microorganisms), and those that can depend entirely on their mode of application. Bacterial endospores are most resistant to disinfectants, however some viruses and bacteria also possess some tolerance. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Disinfectant was a popular anti-virus software program for the classic Macintosh operating system. ... Image File history File links Disinfection. ... Image File history File links Disinfection. ... A mop in a bucket with a wringer. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ...

Contents

Properties

A perfect disinfectant would offer complete sterilisation, without harming other forms of life, be inexpensive, and non-corrosive. Unfortunately ideal disinfectants do not exist. Most disinfectants are also, by their very nature, potentially harmful (even toxic) to humans or animals. They should be treated with appropriate care. Most come with safety instructions printed on the packaging, which should be read in full before using the disinfectant. Most modern household disinfectants contain Bitrex, an exceptionally bitter substance designed to discourage ingestion, as an added safety measure. Those that are used indoors should never be mixed with other cleaning products as chemical reactions can occur. They are frequently used in hospitals, dental surgeries, kitchens and bathrooms to kill infectious organisms. Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Denatonium, usually available as denatonium benzoate (or under trade names such as Bitrex or Aversion) and as denatonium saccharide, is the most bitter compound known. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... X-rays can reveal if a person has cavities Dentistry is the practical application of knowledge of dental science (the science of placement, arrangement, function of teeth) to human beings. ... A kitchen is a room used for food preparation and sometimes entertainment. ... A typical American bathroom A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context. ...


The choice of the disinfectant to be used depends on the particular situation. Some disinfectants have a wide spectrum (kill nearly all microorganisms), whilst others kill a smaller range of disease-causing organisms but are preferred for other properties (they may be non-corrosive, non-toxic, or inexpensive).


The disinfecting properties of sunlight (ultra-violet) are powerful. Rather than total reliance on chemicals, basic hygiene - a pillar of food safety - is important in the fight against bacteria since they generally prefer a warm-moist-dark environment. There are arguments for creating or maintaining conditions which are not conducive to bacterial survival and multiplication, rather than attempting to kill them with chemicals. Bacteria have a very rapid multiplication rate, which enables them to evolve rapidly. Should some bacteria survive a chemical attack, they give rise to the next generation. Thus they are able to develop resistance to hostile chemicals. For this reason, some question the wisdom of impregnating cloths, cutting boards and worktops in the home with bactericidal chemicals. Hygiene is important in prevention of foodborne illness. Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... A wooden chopping board with a chefs knife. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ...


Types of disinfectants

Disinfection liquid attached to hospital bed
Disinfection liquid attached to hospital bed

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (764 × 1116 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (764 × 1116 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Alcohols

Alcohols, usually ethanol or isopropanol, are wiped over benches and skin and allowed to evaporate for quick disinfection. They have wide microbiocidal activity, are non corrosive, but can be a fire hazard. They also have limited residual activity due to evaporation, which results in brief contact times, and have a limited activity in the presence of organic material. Alcohols are more effective combined with purified water—70% isopropyl alcohol or 62% ethyl alcohol is more effective than 95% alcohol. Alcohol is not effective against fungal or bacterial spores. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ... Isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol is a common name for 2-propanol, an alcohol commonly used for application to the skin, and popularly referred to as rubbing alcohol. ...


Aldehydes

Aldehydes, such as Glutaraldehyde, have a wide microbiocidal activity and are sporocidal and fungicidal. They are partly inactivated by organic matter and have slight residual activity. Glutaraldehyde is a colourless liquid with a pungent odor used to sterilize medical and dental equipment. ...


Halogens

  • Chloramine is used in drinking water treatment instead of chlorine because it produces fewer disinfection byproducts.
  • Chlorine is used to disinfect swimming pools, and is added in small quantities to drinking water to reduce waterborne diseases.
  • Hypochlorites (Sodium hypochlorite), often in the form of common household bleach, are used in the home to disinfect drains, and toilets. Other hypochlorites such as calcium hypochlorite are also used, especially as a swimming pool additive. Hypochlorites yield an aqueous solution of hypochlorous acid that is the true disinfectant. Hypobromite solutions are also sometimes used.
  • Iodine is usually dissolved in an organic solvent or as Lugol's iodine solution. It is used in the poultry industry. It is added to the birds' drinking water. Although no longer recommended because it increases scar tissue formation and increases healing time, tincture of iodine has also been used as an antiseptic for skin cuts and scrapes.

Chloramine (monochloramine) is chemical compound with the formula NH2Cl. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Drinking water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested by humans. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent; indeed, often it is simply called bleach, though other chemicals are sometimes given that name as well. ... This article is about the chemical whitener. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ... Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. ... Hypochlorous acid is a weak, unstable acid with chemical formula HOCl. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ... Lugols iodine, also known as Lugols solution, first made in 1829, is a solution of iodine named after the French physician J.G.A. Lugol. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tincture of iodine is usually 5% elemental iodine in ethanol, although it is also available in 2%, 3%, and 7% mixtures. ...

Oxidizing agents

Oxidizing agents act by oxidising the cell membrane of microorganisms, which results in a loss of structure and leads to cell lysis and death. Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... This article is about the biological definition of the word Lysis. ...

  • Hydrogen peroxide is used in hospitals to disinfect surfaces. It is sometimes mixed with colloidal silver. It is often preferred because it causes far fewer allergic reactions than alternative disinfectants. Also used in the food packaging industry to disinfect foil containers. A 3% solution is also used as an antiseptic. When hydrogen peroxide comes into contact with the catalase enzyme in cells it is broken down into water and a hydroxyl free radical. It is the damage caused by the oxygen free radical that kills bacteria. However, recent studies have shown hydrogen peroxide to be toxic to growing cells as well as bacteria; its use as an antiseptic is no longer recommended.[citation needed]
  • Ozone is a gas that can be added to water for sanitation.
  • Acidic Electrolyzed Water is a strong oxidising solution made from the electrolysis of ordinary tap water in the presence of a specific amount of salt, generally sodium chloride. Anolyte has a typical pH range of 3.5 to 8.5 and an Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP) of +600 to +1200 mV. The most powerful anolyte disinfecting solution is that produced at a controlled 5.0 to 6.3 pH where the predominant oxchlorine species is hypochlorous acid. This environmentally-responsible disinfectant is highly efficacious against bacteria, fungus, mold, spores and other micro-organisms, in very short contact times. It may be applied as liquid, fog or ice.
  • Peracetic acid is a disinfectant produced by reacting hydrogen peroxide with acetic acid. It is broadly effective against microorganisms and is not deactivated by catalase and peroxidase, the enzymes which break down hydrogen peroxide. It also breaks down to food safe and environmentally friendly residues (acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide), and therefore can be used in non-rinse applications. It can be used over a wide temperature range (0-40°C), wide pH range (3.0-7.5), in clean-in-place (CIP) processes, in hard water conditions, and is not affected by protein residues.
  • Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a red crystalline powder that colours everything it touches, and is used to disinfect aquariums. It is also used widely in community swimming pools to disinfect ones feet before entering the pool. Typically, a large shallow basin of KMnO4/water solution is kept near the pool ladder. Participants are required to step in the basin and then go into the pool. Additionally, it is widely used to disinfect community water ponds and wells in tropical countries, as well as to disinfect the mouth before pulling out teeth. It can be applied to wounds in dilute solution; potassium permanganate is a very useful disinfectant.
  • Potassium peroxymonosulfate, the principal ingredient in Virkon, is a wide-spectrum disinfectant used in labs. Virkon kills bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is used as a 1% solution in water, and keeps for one week once it is made up. It is expensive, but very effective, its pink colour fades as it is used up so it is possible to see at a glance if it is still fresh.

Chlorine dioxide is a reddish-yellow gas which is one of several known oxides of chlorine. ... Sodium chlorite is a chemical compound used in the manufacture of paper. ... Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is an oxidizing agent. ... Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula K[ClO3]. In pure form, it is a white crystalline substance. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , ,, , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Colloidal silver is a colloid of silver particles in water. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Catalase (human erythrocyte catalase: PDB 1DGF, EC 1. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... It has been suggested that Ozone generator be merged into this article or section. ... Alkaline Electrolyzed Water and Acidic Electrolyzed Water are produced by the electrolysis of ordinary tap water in the presence of a specific amount of salt, generally sodium chloride. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Domestic water system. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Properties: CAS no 79-21-0 Synonyms peroxy acetic acid, acetylhydroperoxide, PAA Physical data Melting point: 0. ... Catalase (human erythrocyte catalase: PDB 1DGF, EC 1. ... Glutathione Peroxidase 1 A peroxidase (eg. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Deposits on walls and microbiological growth take place in any pharmaceutical and food plant. ... Hard water water that has a high mineral content (water with a low mineral content is known as soft water). ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Potassium peroxymonosulfate, KHSO5, is widely used as an oxidizing agent. ... Virkon is a brand name of the powerful disinfectant, Potassium Peroxymonosulfate/ Sodium Chloride, often used in laboratories for cleaning up spills, soaking equipment or wiping benches. ... Virkon is a brand name of the powerful disinfectant, Potassium Peroxymonosulfate/ Sodium Chloride, often used in laboratories for cleaning up spills, soaking equipment or wiping benches. ...

Phenolics

Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and handwashes. In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ...

  • Phenol is probably the oldest known disinfectant as it was first used by Lister, when it was called carbolic acid. It is rather corrosive to the skin and sometimes toxic to sensitive people.
  • O-phenylphenol is often used instead of Phenol, since it is somewhat less corrosive.
  • Hexachlorophene is a phenolic that was once used as a germicidal additive to some household products but was banned due to suspected harmful effects.
  • Thymol, derived from the herb thyme, is the active ingredient in the only 100% botanical disinfectant with an EPA registration (#74771-1), Benefect. Registered as "broad spectrum," or hospital-grade, it is also the only disinfectant with a green certification, Environmental Choice.

Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... 2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dettol. ... Dettol (also called parachlorometaxylenol, or PCMX) is the name of a commercial liquid antiseptic belonging to a product line of household products manufactured by the Reckitt Benckiser corporation, known in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, India and in various parts of North America for famous brand names such as... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Hexachlorophene also known as Nabac is an antiseptic agent. ... Thymol is a phenol derivative of cymene, C10H13OH, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. ...

Quaternary ammonium compounds

Quaternary ammonium compounds (Quats), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Some have been used as low level disinfectants. They are effective against bacteria, but not against some species of Pseudomonas bacteria or bacterial spores. Quats are biocides which also kill algae and are used as an additive in large-scale industrial water systems to minimize undesired biological growth. Quaternary ammonium compounds can also be effective disinfectants against enveloped viruses. Quaternary ammonium cation. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans...


Other

High-intensity shortwave ultraviolet light can be used for disinfecting smooth surfaces such as dental tools, but not porous materials that are opaque to the light such as wood or foam. Ultraviolet light fixtures are often present in microbiology labs, and are activated only when there are no occupants in a room (e.g., at night). Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


Relative effectiveness of disinfectants

One way to compare disinfectants is to compare how well they do against a known disinfectant and rate them accordingly. Phenol is the standard, and the corresponding rating system is called the "Phenol coefficient". The disinfectant to be tested is compared with phenol on a standard microbe (usually Salmonella typhi or Staphylococcus aureus). Disinfectants that are more effective than phenol have a coefficient > 1. Those that are less effective have a coefficient < 1. Phenol coefficient is a measure of the bactericidal activity of a chemical compound in relation to phenol. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , (literally Golden Cluster Seed) the most common cause of staph infections, is a spherical bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a person, that can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis...


Home disinfectants

By far the most cost-effective home disinfectant is the commonly used chlorine bleach (a 5% solution of Sodium hypochlorite) which is effective against most common pathogens, including such difficult organisms tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis), hepatitis B and C, fungi, and antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococcus and enterococcus. It even has some disinfectant action against parasitic organisms [1]. Positives are that it kills the widest range of pathogens of any inexpensive disinfectant; it is extremely powerful against viruses and bacteria at room temperature; it is commonly available and inexpensive; and it breaks down quickly into harmless components (primarily table salt and oxygen). Negatives are that it is caustic to the skin and eyes, especially at higher concentrations; like many common disinfectants, it degrades in the presence of organic substances; it smells bad; it is not effective against giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium; and extreme caution must be taken not to combine it with ammonia or any acid (such as vinegar( as this may cause noxious gases to be formed). The best practice is not to add anything to household bleach except water. Dilute bleach can be tolerated on the skin for a period of time by most persons, as witnessed by the long exposure to extremely dilute "chlorine" (actually sodium or calcium hypochlorite) many children get in swimming pools. Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent; indeed, often it is simply called bleach, though other chemicals are sometimes given that name as well. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Binomial name Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis. ... Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Species E. faecalis etc. ... Binomial name (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (synonymous with Lamblia intestinalis and Giardia duodenalis) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that colonises and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis. ... Species Cryptosporidium bailey Cryptosporidium meleagridis Cryptosporidium muris Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidium serpentis Cryptosporidium is a protozoan pathogen of the Phylum Apicomplexa and causes a diarrheal illness called cryptosporidiosis. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Calcium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with formula Ca(ClO)2. ...


To use chlorine bleach effectively, the surface or item to be disinfected must be clean. In the bathroom, special caution must be taken to wipe up urine. A 1 to 20 solution in water is effective simply by being wiped on and left to dry. The user should wear rubber gloves and, in tight airless spaces, goggles. If parasitic organisms are suspected, it should be applied at 1 to 1 concentration, or even undiluted; extreme caution must be taken to avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes. Protective goggles and good ventilation are mandatory when applying concentrated bleach.


Where one does not want to risk the corrosive effects of bleach, alcohol-based disinfectants are reasonably inexpensive and quite safe. The great drawback to them is their rapid evaporation; sometimes effective disinfection can be obtained only by immersing an object in the alcohol.


References

  1. ^ EPA's Registered Sterilizers, Tuberculocides, and Antimicrobial Products Against HIV-1, and Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses. (Obtained January 4, 2006)

See also

An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (anti-parasitic activity). ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures is the common name give to the sanitation procedures in food production plants which are required by the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the USDA and regulated by 9 CFR part 416 in conjuction with 21 CFR part 178. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ...

External links

Alliance for Consumer Education [2] An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Acridine, C13H9N, is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle. ... Chemical structure of Acrinol Ethacridine lactate is an aromatic organic compound based on acridine. ... Aminoacridine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Euflavine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Biguanides (ATC A10 BA) form a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus treatment. ... An amidine is a functional group or type of chemical compound that has two amine groups attached to the same carbon atom with one carbon-nitrogen double bond,exactly its derivate of acid,when suspended the double bond is protonized: HN=CR-NH2. ... Dibrompropamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... Propamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Hexamidine is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Polihexanide is a polymer which functions as an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Hexachlorophene also known as Nabac is an antiseptic agent. ... Policresulen is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Triclosan (chemically 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a potent wide spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dettol. ... 2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group. ... Nitrofuran is a class of theraputic antibacterial agent (it cures disease) it includes drugs such as Nitrofurazone, Furazolidone, Nitrofurantoin and Furaltadone. ... Nitrofurazone, 2-((5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene)hydrazinecarboxamide, chemical formula C6H6N4O4, is a pale yellow crystalline compound. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... Betadine is the name of a consumer-available antiseptic used to treat minor cuts on mammals. ... Diiodohydroxypropane is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzo[b]pyridine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Dequalinium is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorquinaldol is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Oxyquinoline is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Clioquinol is a powerful anti-infective drug available for topical (Vioform) and internal (Enterovioform) use. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Cetylpyridinium chloride is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound in some types of mouthwash such as Crest Pro-Health. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Mercuric amidochloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenylmercuric borate is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Mercury(II) chloride (also called mercuric chloride and corrosive sublimate) is a poisonous white soluble crystalline salt of mercury. ... Mercurochrome chemical formula Merbromin (marketed as Mercurochrome, Merbromine, Sodium mercurescein, Asceptichrome, Supercrome and Cinfacromin) is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes. ... Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), formerly and still commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. ... Mercury(II) iodide (HgI2) is a chemical compound with an appearance of red-orange crystals. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , ,, , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related compounds Water Ozone Hydrazine Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in... Eosin is an orange-pink dye derived from coal tar. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 15 °C RTECS number UH8225000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Tosylchloramide sodium is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. A solution of sodium hypochlorite is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent; indeed, often it is simply called bleach, though other chemicals are sometimes given that name as well. ... “Grain alcohol” redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Infection Control Today - 01/2001: Disinfection of Bloodborne Pathogens (1393 words)
For the disinfection of bloodborne pathogens knowledge of the basic principles of disinfection is needed to prevent the risk of disease transmission via inanimate objects.
Disinfection is the process that eliminates many or all pathogenic microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores from inanimate objects.
The disinfectant in sufficient concentrations at the correct temperature must remain in contact with the surfaces for a specific period of time to allow penetration of all the microbial cell walls and deactivation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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