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For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Acceptance (disambiguation). ... For the change in vowel and consonant quality in Celtic languages, see Affection (linguistics). ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the emotion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... what up?? Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components (Seligman, Walker & Rosenhan, 2001). ... Compassion is best described as an understanding of the emotional state of another; not to be confused with empathy. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... This article is about the mental state. ... Ecstasy is a category of altered states of consciousness or trancelike states in which an individual transcends ordinary consciousness and as a result has a heightened capacity for exceptional thought, intense concentration on a specific task, extraordinary physical abilities or intense emotional experience. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... Embarrassment is an unpleasant emotional state experienced upon having a socially or professionally unacceptable act or condition witnessed by or revealed to others. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... For other uses, see Fear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Forgiveness (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Guilty” redirects here. ... “Thanks” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Anticipatory Grief be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... For the emotion Hatred please see Hate Hatred (Nenavist) is a Soviet film of 1975 directed by Samvel Gasparov. ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ... Horror is the feeling of revulsion that usually occurs after something frightening is seen, heard, or otherwise experienced. ... Anger is a term for the emotional aspect of aggression, as a basic aspect of the stress response in animals whereby a perceived aggravating stimulus provokes a counterresponse which is likewise aggravating and threatening of violence. ... Homesickness is generally described as a feeling of longing for ones familiar surroundings. ... Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind, one of unmanageable fear or emotional excesses. ... Loneliness is an emotional state in which a person experiences a powerful feeling of emptiness and isolation. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... I PITY THE FOOL is also Mr. ... Look up Pleasure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pride is the name of an emotion which refers to a strong sense of self-respect, a refusal to be humiliated as well as joy in the accomplishments of oneself or a person, group, nation or object that one identifies with. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Regret is often felt when someone feels sadness, shame, or guilt and primarily regret after commiting an action that the person later wishes that they had not done. ... People feel remorse when reflecting on their actions that they believe are wrong. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ... Suffering is any aversive (not necessarily unwanted) experience and the corresponding negative emotion. ... Wide eyes are a common human physiological expression of emotional surprise. ... ...

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A woman showing disgust.
A woman showing disgust.

Disgust is an emotion that is typically associated with things that are perceived as unclean, inedible, or infectious. In The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin wrote that disgust refers to something revolting. Primarily in relation to the sense of taste, as actually perceived or vividly imagined; and secondarily to anything which causes a similar feeling, through the sense of smell, touch, and even of eyesight. Disgust is one of the basic emotions of Robert Plutchik's theory of emotions. Disgust invokes a characteristic facial expression, one of Paul Ekman's six universal facial expressions of emotion. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Unclean can refer to Something that is not clean Ritual purification Unclean animals in the Bible This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... If somthing is inedible, you can not eat it. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by the British naturalist Charles Darwin published in 1872, on how animals and humans express and signal to others their emotions. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The feeling component of emotion encompasses a vast spectrum of possible responses. ... Paul Ekman (born 1934) is a psychologist and has been a pioneer in the study of emotions and facial expressions. ...

Disgust may be further subdivided into physical disgust, associated with physical or metaphorical uncleanness, and moral disgust, a similar feeling related to courses of action. Unclean can refer to Something that is not clean Ritual purification Unclean animals in the Bible This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ...


Origins and development

Disgust is thought to have its origins in (and in some cases to be identical to) instinctive reactions that evolved as part of natural selection for behavior which tended to prevent food poisoning, or exposure to danger or infection. Disgust is frequently associated with waste products such as feces or urine, secretions from the human body (such as mucus), and with decomposing flesh, and insects, such as maggots, associated with it.[citation needed] For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Spoilage” redirects here. ... Flesh by definition is composite of all the soft parts of the body of a human or animal which is between the skin and the bones. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Look up maggot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

As in other human instinctual drives, disgust has an instinctual and a socially constructed aspect. Psychologist Paul Rozin has studied the development of feelings of disgust in children. This article is about modern humans. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... Paul Rozin is a psychology professor at the University of Pennsylvania. ...

Jonathan Haidt is a researcher whose work involves exploring the relationship between disgust and various traditional concepts of morality. His theory of social intuitionism seeks to explain the apparently pre-rational and visceral reactions to violations of the moral order. Jonathan Haidt is associate professor of psychology at the University of Virginia. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behaviour) has three principal meanings. ... Social intuitionism is a movement in moral psychology that arose in contrast to more heavily rationalist theories of morality, like that of Lawrence Kohlberg. ...

Disgust and shame

Martha Nussbaum, a leading American philosopher, wrote a book published in 2004 entitled Hiding From Humanity: Disgust, Shame, and the Law which examines the relationship of disgust and shame to a society's laws. Martha Nussbaum Martha Nussbaum (born Martha Craven on May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher with a particular interest in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, political philosophy and ethics. ... For other uses, see Shame (disambiguation). ...

A recent study found that women and children were more sensitive to disgust than men. Researchers attempted to explain this finding in evolutionary terms. While some find wisdom in adhering to one's feelings of disgust, some scientists have asserted that "reactions of disgust are often built upon prejudices that should be challenged and rebutted." Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...

Brain structures

Functional MRI experiments have revealed that the anterior insula in the brain is particularly active when experiencing disgust, when being exposed to offensive tastes, and when viewing facial expressions of disgust.[1] Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the use of MRI to measure the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ...

Huntington's disease

Many patients suffering from Huntington's disease, a genetically transmitted progressive neurodegenerative disease, are unable to recognize expressions of disgust in others and also don't show reactions of disgust to foul odors or tastes.[2] The inability to recognize disgust in others appears in carriers of the Huntington gene already before the disease has broken out.[3]


  1. ^ Phillips ML et al. A specific neural substrate for perceiving facial expressions of disgust. Nature. 1997 Oct 2;389(6650):495-8. PMID 9333238
  2. ^ Mitchell IJ, Heims H, Neville EA, Rickards H. Huntington's disease patients show impaired perception of disgust in the gustatory and olfactory modalities. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 17:119-121, February 2005. PMID 15746492
  3. ^ Sprengelmeyer R, Schroeder U, Young AW, Epplen JT. "Disgust in pre-clinical Huntington's disease: a longitudinal study." Neuropsychologia. 2006;44(4):518-33. Epub 2005 Aug 11. PMID 16098998

See also

A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Phobia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ...

External links

Look up Disgust in
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  Results from FactBites:
Anatomy of Disgust (969 words)
Is disgust an instinctive reaction or are we taught to be disgusted?
She found that when we feel disgusted, a part of the brain is stimulated which is much older than the part which deals with rational thought.
She concluded that disgust was so deeply ingrained that it could not be determined purely by cultural influences.
The Chronicle: 8/6/2004: Danger to Human Dignity: the Revival of Disgust and Shame in the Law (3480 words)
Disgust is distinct from both distaste, a negative reaction motivated by sensory factors, and from a sense of danger, motivated by anticipated harmful consequences.
Disgust concerns the borders of the body: the possibility that an offensive substance may be incorporated into and debase a person.
But if disgust is problematic in principle, we have all the more reason to regard it with suspicion when we observe that throughout history it has been used as a powerful weapon in social efforts to exclude certain groups and persons.
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