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Encyclopedia > Disease

A disease is an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions.[citation needed] In human beings, "disease" is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, social problems, and/or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories.[citation needed] Disease is the first single from matchbox twentys third album, more than you think you are. ... Pain redirects here. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Look up Distress in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social issues are matters that can be explained only by factors outside an individual’s control and immediate environment. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), Death (band) or Deceased (band). ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ... Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Human variability, or human variation, refers to the range of possible values for any measurable characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings. ...


While many diseases are biological processes with observable alterations of organ function or structure, others primarily involve alterations of behavior. This article is about the biological unit. ...


Classifying a condition as a disease is a social act of valuation, and may change the social status of the person with the condition (the patient). Some conditions (known as culture-bound syndromes) are only recognized as diseases within a particular culture. Sometimes the categorizaton of a condition as a disease is controversial within the culture. A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-specific syndrome or culture-bound syndrome is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Causes of disease

Many different factors intrinsic or extrinsic to a person (or plant or animal) can cause disease. Examples of intrinsic factors are genetic defects or nutritional deficiencies. An environmental exposure, such as second-hand smoke is an example of an extrinsic factor. Many diseases result from a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. For many diseases no cause or set of causes has been identified. A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... For the article on tobacco smoking, see here; For the main health effects of tobacco smoking, see here: Second-hand Smoke redirects here, for the Sublime album, see Second-hand Smoke (album) Passive smoking (also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), involuntary smoking or secondhand smoke) occurs when the exhaled...


There are many different factors that can cause disease. These can be broadly categorized into the following categories like social, psychological, chemical and biological. Some factors may fall into more than one category. Biochemical causes of disease can be considered as a spectrum where at one extreme disease is caused entirely by genetic factors (e.g. CAG repeats in the Huntingtin gene that causes Huntington's Disease) and at the other extreme is caused entirely by environmental factors. Environmental factors include toxic chemicals (e.g. acetaldehyde in cigarette smoke and dioxins released from the breakdown of Agent Orange) and infectious agents (e.g. smallpox virus and poliovirus). In between these extremes genes (e.g. NOD2/CARD15) and environmental factors (e.g. Gut microbiota) interact to cause disease, as seen for example in the inflammatory bowel disease Crohn's Disease (Fig 1, right). Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). ... In most modern usages of the word spectrum, there is a unifying theme of between extremes at either end. ... Huntingtin is a protein, present in human cells. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Two unlit filtered cigarettes. ... Dioxins form a family of toxic chlorinated organic compounds that bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife due to their fat solubility. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... This article is about the virus. ... NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2) is a protein, also known as the caspase recruitment domain family, member 15 (CARD15), which plays an important role in the immune system. ... Schematic of NOD2 CARD15 gene, which is associated with certain disease patterns in Crohns disease Also known as the NOD2 gene. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ...

Figure 1. The biochemical basis of disease. Some diseases, not illustrated here, also have a social and psychological basis.
Figure 1. The biochemical basis of disease. Some diseases, not illustrated here, also have a social and psychological basis.

Absence of the genetic or environmental factors in this case results in disease not being manifest. Koch's postulates can be used to determine whether a disease is caused by an infectious agent. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1040 × 720 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This a second edition of causes of disease I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1040 × 720 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This a second edition of causes of disease I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or... Kochs postulates (or Henle-Koch postulates) are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. ...


To determine whether a disease is caused by genetic factors, researchers study the pattern inheritance of the disease in families. This provides qualitative information about the disease (how it is inherited). A classic example of this method of research is inheritance of hemophilia in the British Royal Family. More recently this research has been used to identify the Apoliprotein E (ApoE) gene as a susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's Disease, though some forms of this gene - ApoE2 - are associated with a lower susceptibility. To determine to what extent a disease is caused by genetic factors (quantitative information), twin studies are used. Monozygotic twins are genetically identical and likely share a similar environment whereas dizygotic twins are genetically similar and likely share a similar environment. Thus by comparing the incidence of disease (termed concordance rate) in monozygotic twins with the incidence of disease in dizygotic twins, the extent to which genes contribute to disease can be determined. Candidate disease genes can be identified using a number of methods. One is to look for mutants of a model organism (e.g. the organisms Mus musculus,Drosophila melanogaster, Caenhorhabditis elegans,Brachydanio rerio and Xenopus tropicalis) that have a similar phenotype to the disease being studied. Another approach is to look for segregation of genes or genetic markers (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphism or expressed sequence tag) (Fig. 2). Qualitative is an important qualifier in the following subject titles: Qualitative identity Qualitative marketing research Qualitative method Qualitative research THE BIG J This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is shared between the Commonwealth Realms; this article focuses on the perspective of United Kingdom. ... A scale for measuring mass A quantitative property is one that exists in a range of magnitudes, and can therefore be measured. ... Twin study - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Twin. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Twin. ... In optics one considers angles of incidence. ... This article is concerns biological mutants; for fictional aspects see Mutant (fictional) A mutant is an individual, organism, or new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is a sudden structural change within the DNA of a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Segregation means separation. ... DNA strand 1 differs from DNA strand 2 at a single base-pair location (a C/T polymorphism). ... An expressed sequence tag or EST is a short sub-sequence of a transcribed spliced nucleotide sequence (either protein-coding or not). ...

Figure 2. Genetic markers help locate a disease gene

A large number of SNPs spaced throughout the genome have been identified recently in a large project called the HapMap project[1][2]). The usefulness of the HapMap project and SNP typing and their relevance to society was covered in the 27 October 2005 issue of the leading international science journal Nature (journal). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1040 × 720 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I generated this picture myself. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixel Image in higher resolution (1040 × 720 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I generated this picture myself. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, also referred to as the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. ... The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, also referred to as the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...


A large number of genes have been identified that contribute to human disease. These are available from the US National Library of Medicine, which has an impressive range of biological science resources available for free online. Amongst these resources is Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man - OMIM that provides a very, very comprehensive list of all known human gene mutations associated with, and likely contributing to, disease. Each article at OMIM is regularly updated to include the latest scientific research. Additionally, each article provides a detailed history of the research on a given disease gene, with links to the research articles. This resource is highly valuable and is used by the world's top science researchers. WHO defines heatlh as a, State of physically,mentally,socially,economically and spiritually well being not merely the absence of disease or infermity. The U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the U.S. federal government, is the worlds largest medical research library. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets relating to the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parent organisms to their children; it underlies much of genetics. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ...


Related concepts

The terms disease, disorder, medical condition are often used interchangeably. There is no agreed-upon universal distinction between these terms, though some people do make distinctions in particular contexts.


Medical usage sometimes distinguishes a disease, which has a known specific cause or causes (called its etiology), from a syndrome, which is a collection of signs or symptoms that occur together. However, many conditions have been identified, yet continue to be referred to as "syndromes." Furthermore, numerous conditions of unknown etiology are referred to as "diseases" in many contexts. Refractory diseases do not respond to therapy by overcoming the resistance to drugs. This article is about the medical term. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... Organisms are said to be drug-resistant when they are no longer affected by drugs that are meant to neutralize them. ...


Illness, although often used to mean disease, can also refer to a person's perception of their health, regardless of whether they in fact have a disease. A person without any disease may feel unhealthy and simply have the perception of having a disease. Another person may feel healthy with similar perceptions of perfectly good health. The individual's perception of good health may even persist with the medical diagnosis of having a disease; for example, such as dangerously high blood pressure, which may lead to a fatal heart attack or stroke. Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ...


Pathology is the study of diseases. The subject of systematic classification of diseases is referred to as nosology. Its cause is referred as its etiology. The broader body of knowledge about human diseases and their treatments is medicine. Many similar (and a few of the same) conditions or processes can affect non-human animals (wild or domestic). The study of diseases affecting animals is veterinary medicine. A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... ... This article is about the medical term. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...


Disease can be thought of as the presence of pathology, which can occur with or without subjective feelings of being unwell or social recognition of that state. Illness as the subjective state of "unwellness" can occur independently of, or in conjunction with, disease or sickness (with sickness the social classification of someone deemed diseased, which can also occur independently of the presence or absence of disease or illness (c.f. subjective medical conditions). Thus, someone with undetected high blood pressure who feels to be of good health would be diseased, but not ill or sick. Someone with a diagnosis of late-stage cancer would be diseased, probably feeling quite ill, and recognized by others as sick. A person incarcerated in a totalitarian psychiatric hospital for political purposes could arguably be then said to not be diseased, nor ill, but only classified as sick by the rulers of a society with which the person did not agree. Having had a bad day after a night of excess drinking, one might feel ill, but one would not be diseased, nor is it likely that a boss could be convinced of the sickness. A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...


Transmission of disease

Some diseases such as influenza are contagious or infectious. Infectious diseases can be transmitted by any of a variety of mechanisms, including aerosols produced by coughs and sneezes, by bites of insects or other carriers of the disease, and from contaminated water or food (possibly by faeces or urine in the sewage), etc. Also, there are sexually transmitted diseases. When micro-organisms that cannot be spread from person to person might play a role, some diseases can be prevented with proper nutrition. Other diseases such as cancer and heart disease are not considered to be caused by infection. The same is true of mental diseases. Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... http://visibleearth. ... For other uses, see Sneeze (disambiguation). ... Rabbit feces are usually 0. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Social significance of disease

Living with disease can be very difficult. The identification of a condition as a disease, rather than as simply a variation of human structure or function, can have significant social or economic implications. The controversial recognitions as diseases of post-traumatic stress disorder, also known as "Soldier's heart," "shell shock," and "combat fatigue;" repetitive motion injury or repetitive stress injury (RSI); and Gulf War syndrome has had a number of positive and negative effects on the financial and other responsibilities of governments, corporations and institutions towards individuals, as well as on the individuals themselves. The social implication of viewing aging as a disease could be profound, though this classification is not yet widespread. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ... Repetitive strain injury (RSI), also called repetitive stress injury, is a loose group of conditions from overuse of the computer, guitar, knife or similar motion or tool. ... Repetitive strain injury, also called repetitive stress injury or typing injury, is an occupational overuse syndrome affecting the tendons and nerves. ... Gulf War syndrome (GWS) or Gulf War illness (GWI) is the name given to an illness with symptoms including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by combat veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. ... In biology, senescence is the combination of processes of deterioration which follow the period of development of an organism. ...


A condition may be considered to be a disease in some cultures or eras but not in others. Oppositional-defiant disorder[citation needed], attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder[citation needed], and, increasingly, obesity[citation needed], are conditions considered to be diseases in the United States and Canada today, but were not so-considered decades ago and are not so-considered in some other countries[attribution needed]. Lepers were a group of afflicted individuals who were historically shunned and the term "leper" still evokes social stigma. Fear of disease can still be a widespread social phenomena, though not all diseases evoke extreme social stigma. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) previously known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), is generally considered to be a developmental disorder, largely neurological in nature, affecting about 5% of the worlds population. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... Look up stigma on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sickness confers the social legitimization of certain benefits, such as illness benefits, work avoidance, and being looked after by others. In return, there is an obligation on the sick person to seek treatment and work to become well once more. As a comparison, consider pregnancy, which is not a state interpreted as disease or sickness by the individual. On the other hand, it is considered by the medical community as a condition requiring medical care and by society at large as a condition requiring one's staying at home from work. This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ...


Global Disease Burden

This chart, compiled in 2002 from the World Health Organization's Global Burden of Disease shows an overview of the impact of various classifications of disease, segregated by regions with low and high mortality: WHO redirects here. ...


Image:GlobalBurdenOfDisease2002.PNG Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


References

  1. ^ McVean G, Spencer CC, Chaix R (2005). "Perspectives on human genetic variation from the hapmap project". PLoS Genet 1 (4): e54. PMID 16254603. This review is free of charge
  2. ^ Skelding K.A., Gerhard GS, Simari RD, Holmes DR Jr (2007). "The effect of HapMap on cardiovascular research and clinical practice". Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 4 (3): 136-142. PMID 17330125. 

External links

Look up disease in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Disease definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms (217 words)
Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.
Celiac Disease - Learn about Celiac disease and the immunological (allergic) reaction within the inner lining of the small intestine to proteins (gluten).
Crohn's Disease - Learn about Crohn’s Disease and the causes, symptoms (including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever, rectal bleeding, and more) and treatment of this chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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